Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 180

Search results for: Ammonia slip

180 Evaluation of NH3-Slip from Diesel Vehicles Equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems by Neural Networks Approach

Authors: Mona Lisa M. Oliveira, Nara A. Policarpo, Ana Luiza B. P. Barros, Carla A. Silva

Abstract:

Selective catalytic reduction systems for nitrogen oxides reduction by ammonia has been the chosen technology by most of diesel vehicle (i.e. bus and truck) manufacturers in Brazil, as also in Europe. Furthermore, at some conditions, over-stoichiometric ammonia availability is also needed that increases the NH3 slips even more. Ammonia (NH3) by this vehicle exhaust aftertreatment system provides a maximum efficiency of NOx removal if a significant amount of NH3 is stored on its catalyst surface. In the other words, the practice shows that slightly less than 100% of the NOx conversion is usually targeted, so that the aqueous urea solution hydrolyzes to NH3 via other species formation, under relatively low temperatures. This paper presents a model based on neural networks integrated with a road vehicle simulator that allows to estimate NH3-slip emission factors for different driving conditions and patterns. The proposed model generates high NH3slips which are not also limited in Brazil, but more efforts needed to be made to elucidate the contribution of vehicle-emitted NH3 to the urban atmosphere.

Keywords: Ammonia slip, neural-network, vehicles emissions, SCR-NOx.

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179 Wastewater Treatment with Ammonia Recovery System

Authors: M. Örvös, T. Balázs, K. F. Both

Abstract:

From environmental aspect purification of ammonia containing wastewater is expected. High efficiency ammonia desorption can be done from the water by air on proper temperature. After the desorption process, ammonia can be recovered and used in another technology. The calculation method described below give some methods to find either the minimum column height or ammonia rich solution of the effluent.

Keywords: Absorber, desorber, packed column.

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178 Effect of Influent COD on Biological Ammonia Removal Efficiency

Authors: S. H. Mirhossaini, H. Godini, A. Jafari

Abstract:

Biological Ammonia removal (nitrification), the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate catalyzed by bacteria, is a key part of global nitrogen cycling. In the first step of nitrification, chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer transform ammonia to nitrite, this subsequently oxidized to nitrate by nitrite oxidizing bacteria. This process can be affected by several factors. In this study the effect of influent COD on biological ammonia removal in a bench-scale biological reactor was investigated. Experiments were carried out using synthetic wastewater. The initial ammonium concentration was 25mgNH4 +-N L-1. The effect of COD between 247.55±1.8 and 601.08±3.24mgL-1 on biological ammonia removal was investigated by varying the COD loading supplied to reactor. From the results obtained in this study it could be concluded in the range of 247.55±1.8 to 351.35±2.05mgL-1, there is a direct relationship between amount of COD and ammonia removal. However more than 351.35±2.05 up to 601.08±3.24mgL-1 were found an indirect relationship between them.

Keywords: Ammonia biological removal, Nitrification, InfluentCOD.

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177 A Novel Slip Correction Factor for Spherical Aerosol Particles

Authors: Abouzar Moshfegh, Mehrzad Shams, Goodarz Ahmadi, Reza Ebrahimi

Abstract:

A 3D simulation study for an incompressible slip flow around a spherical aerosol particle was performed. The full Navier-Stokes equations were solved and the velocity jump at the gas-particle interface was treated numerically by imposition of the slip boundary condition. Analytical solution to the Stokesian slip flow past a spherical particle was used as a benchmark for code verification, and excellent agreement was achieved. The Simulation results showed that in addition to the Knudsen number, the Reynolds number affects the slip correction factor. Thus, the Cunningham-based slip corrections must be augmented by the inclusion of the effect of Reynolds number for application to Lagrangian tracking of fine particles. A new expression for the slip correction factor as a function of both Knudsen number and Reynolds number was developed.

Keywords: CFD, Cunningham correction, Slip correction factor, Spherical aerosol.

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176 Glutamate Dehydrogenase and the Changing Pattern of Excretory Ammonia and Urea in Heteropneustes fossilis

Authors: Shuvasish Roy Choudhury, Rita Mahanta, Aparajita Borkotoki

Abstract:

Fishes, in general, follow ammonotelic mode of excretion. However, certain stress factors may provoke them to excrete urea. In the present study, the possible role of ureogenesis to avoid accumulation of toxic ammonia under water-restricted condition was tested in Heteropneustes fossilis. A total of hundred fishes were collected and sacrificed. Excretory urea and ammonia were estimated in the water of the aquarium and glutamate dehydrogenase acitivity was measured in the hepatic tissue. During the experimental period, excretory ammonia in Heteropneustes fossilis was found between 931% to 16% above the baseline ammonia and excretory urea was found between 112% to 898% above the baseline urea. A high degree of correlation with r (coefficient of correlation) above 0.9 is observed between excretory ammonia and urea in Heteropneustes fossilis. However, only a moderate degree of correlation is observed between the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase and excretory ammonia and urea.

Keywords: Ammonia, aquarium, glutamate dehydrogenase, urea, ureogenesis.

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175 Degradation of EE2 by Different Consortium of Enriched Nitrifying Activated Sludge

Authors: Pantip Kayee

Abstract:

17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a recalcitrant micropollutant which is found in small amounts in municipal wastewater. But these small amounts still adversely affect for the reproductive function of aquatic organisms. Evidence in the past suggested that full-scale WWTPs equipped with nitrification process enhanced the removal of EE2 in the municipal wastewater. EE2 has been proven to be able to be transformed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) via co-metabolism. This research aims to clarify the EE2 degradation pattern by different consortium of ammonia oxidizing microorganism (AOM) including AOA (ammonia oxidizing archaea) and investigate contribution between the existing ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and new synthesized AOM. The result showed that AOA or AOB of N. oligotropha cluster in enriched nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) from 2mM and 5mM, commonly found in municipal WWTPs, could degrade EE2 in wastewater via co-metabolism. Moreover, the investigation of the contribution between the existing ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and new synthesized AOM demonstrated that the new synthesized AMO enzyme may perform ammonia oxidation rather than the existing AMO enzyme or the existing AMO enzyme may has a small amount to oxidize ammonia.

Keywords: 17α-ethinylestradiol, nitrification, ammonia oxidizing bacteria, ammonia oxidizing archaea.

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174 Thermodynamic Analysis of Ammonia-Water Based Regenerative Rankine Cycle with Partial Evaporation

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

A thermodynamic analysis of a partial evaporating Rankine cycle with regeneration using zeotropic ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid is presented in this paper. The thermodynamic laws were applied to evaluate the system performance. Based on the thermodynamic model, the effects of the vapor quality and the ammonia mass fraction on the system performance were extensively investigated. The results showed that thermal efficiency has a peak value with respect to the vapor quality as well as the ammonia mass fraction. The partial evaporating ammonia based Rankine cycle has a potential to improve recovery of low-grade finite heat source.

Keywords: Ammonia-water, Rankine cycle, partial evaporating, thermodynamic performance.

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173 Slip Effect Study of 4:1 Contraction Flow for Oldroyd-B Model

Authors: N. Thongjub, B. Puangkird, V. Ngamaramvaranggul

Abstract:

The numerical simulation of the slip effect via vicoelastic fluid for 4:1 contraction problem is investigated with regard to kinematic behaviors of streamlines and stress tensor by models of the Navier-Stokes and Oldroyd-B equations. Twodimensional spatial reference system of incompressible creeping flow with and without slip velocity is determined and the finite element method of a semi-implicit Taylor-Galerkin pressure-correction is applied to compute the problem of this Cartesian coordinate system including the schemes of velocity gradient recovery method and the streamline-Upwind / Petrov-Galerkin procedure. The slip effect at channel wall is added to calculate after each time step in order to intend the alteration of flow path. The result of stress values and the vortices are reduced by the optimum slip coefficient of 0.1 with near the outcome of analytical solution.

Keywords: Slip effect, Oldroyd-B fluid, slip coefficient, time stepping method.

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172 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method

Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana

Abstract:

The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. Expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points, and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on magnitude velocity, shear stress, and pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases magnitude velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation, and reattachment points are strongly affected by Reynolds number.

Keywords: Approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number.

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171 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isothermal Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng, Chien-Hung Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip and jump on forced convection through a long isothermally heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of thermal flow fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and Smoluchowski jump boundary conditions. Results reveal that the second-order term in the Karniadakis slip boundary condition is found to contribute a negative velocity slip and then to lead to a higher pressure drop as well as a higher fluid temperature for the heated-wall case or to a lower fluid temperature for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Deissler model. In addition, the role of second-order slip becomes more significant when the Knudsen number increases.

Keywords: Microfluidics, forced convection, gas rarefaction, second-order boundary conditions.

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170 Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles using Model Predictive PID Controller

Authors: Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

In this paper, a new model predictive PID controller design method for the slip suppression control of EVs (electric vehicles) is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the maneuverability and the stability of EVs by controlling the wheel slip ratio. The optimal control gains of PID framework are derived by the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: Model Predictive Control, PID controller, Electric Vehicle, Slip suppression

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169 Ammonia Release during Photocopying Operations

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua

Abstract:

The paper represents the dependence of ammonia concentration on microclimate parameters and photocopying shop circulation. The concentration of ammonia was determined during 8-hours working time over five days including three sampling points of a photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The obtained results pointed out that the room temperature possesses the highest impact on ammonia release. The obtained ammonia concentration was in the range of 1.53 to 0.42ppm and decreased with the temperature decreasing from 24.6 to 20.7oC. As the detected concentrations were within the permissible levels of The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and The Health and Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, in the range of 35 to 200ppm, there was no danger to the employee’s health in the photocopying shop.

Keywords: Ammonia, emission, indoor environment, photocopying procedure.

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168 Ammonia Gas Removal from Gas Stream by Biofiltration using Agricultural Residue Biofilter Medias in Laboratory-scale Biofilter

Authors: Thaniya Kaosol, Nuttawut Pongpat

Abstract:

In this research, a biofiltration process to remove ammonia gas from gas stream using agricultural residue biofilter medias is studied. The experiments were conducted in laboratoryscale biofilter. The biofilter medias were a mixture of manure fertilizer and bagasse at various ratios i.e., 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7. The experiments were performed for a period of 40 days. The empty bed retention time (EBRT) is 78s. The moisture content of biofilter media was maintained at 45-60% using water. The results showed that the agricultural residues (manure fertilizer and bagasse) are suitable as biofilter media for ammonia gas removal in biofiltration process. The maximum efficiency of ammonia gas removal is observed from the 1:5 of manure fertilizer: bagasse ratio at 89.93%. The biofiltration is more effective at low ammonia gas concentration. In addition, the mixture ratio of biofilter media is not a significant factor in biofiltration operation while the most significant factor for biofiltration operation is the inlet ammonia gas concentration.

Keywords: ammonia gas, biofiltration, biofilter media, removal efficiency, elimination capacity

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167 Analysis of Slip Flow Heat Transfer between Asymmetrically Heated Parallel Plates

Authors: Hari Mohan Kushwaha, Santosh K. Sahu

Abstract:

In the present study, analysis of heat transfer is carried out in the slip flow region for the fluid flowing between two parallel plates by employing the asymmetric heat fluxes at surface of the plates. The flow is assumed to be hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed for the analysis. The second order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered for the analysis. Closed form expressions are obtained for the Nusselt number as a function of Knudsen number and modified Brinkman number. The limiting condition of the present prediction for Kn = 0, Kn2 = 0, and Brq1 = 0 is considered and found to agree well with other analytical results.

Keywords: Knudsen Number, Modified Brinkman Number, Slip Flow, Velocity Slip.

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166 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isoflux Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip on forced convection through a long isoflux heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of flow and thermal fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and local heat flux boundary conditions. Results reveal that when the average flow velocity increases or the wall heat flux amount decreases, the role of thermal creep becomes more insignificant, while the effect of second-order slip becomes larger. The second-order term in the Deissler slip boundary condition is found to contribute a positive velocity slip and then to lead to a lower pressure drop as well as a lower temperature rise for the heated-wall case or to a higher temperature rise for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Karniadakis slip model.

Keywords: Microfluidics, forced convection, thermal creep, second-order boundary conditions.

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165 Homotopy Analysis Method for Hydromagnetic Plane and Axisymmetric Stagnation-point Flow with Velocity Slip

Authors: Jing Zhu, Liancun Zheng, Xinxin Zhang

Abstract:

This work is focused on the steady boundary layer flow near the forward stagnation point of plane and axisymmetric bodies towards a stretching sheet. The no slip condition on the solid boundary is replaced by the partial slip condition. The analytical solutions for the velocity distributions are obtained for the various values of the ratio of free stream velocity and stretching velocity, slip parameter, the suction and injection velocity parameter, magnetic parameter and dimensionality index parameter in the series forms with the help of homotopy analysis method (HAM). Convergence of the series is explicitly discussed. Results show that the flow and the skin friction coefficient depend heavily on the velocity slip factor. In addition, the effects of all the parameters mentioned above were more pronounced for plane flows than for axisymmetric flows.

Keywords: slip flow, axisymmetric flow, homotopy analysismethod, stagnation-point.

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164 A Robust Wheel Slip Controller for a Hybrid Braking System

Authors: Martin Ringdorfer, Martin Horn

Abstract:

A robust wheel slip controller for electric vehicles is introduced. The proposed wheel slip controller exploits the dynamics of electric traction drives and conventional hydraulic brakes for achieving maximum energy efficiency and driving safety. Due to the control of single wheel traction motors in combination with a hydraulic braking system, it can be shown, that energy recuperation and vehicle stability control can be realized simultaneously. The derivation of a sliding mode wheel slip controller accessing two drivetrain actuators is outlined and a comparison to a conventionally braked vehicle is shown by means of simulation.

Keywords: Wheel slip control, sliding mode control, vehicle dynamics.

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163 Communities of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in Enriched Nitrifying Activated Sludge

Authors: Puntipar Sonthiphand, Tawan Limpiyakorn

Abstract:

In this study, communities of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) prepared by enriching sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in three continuous-flow reactors receiving an inorganic medium containing different ammonium concentrations of 2, 10, and 30 mM NH4 +-N (NAS2, NAS10, and NAS30, respectively) were investigated using molecular analysis. Results suggested that almost all AOA clones from NAS2, NAS10, and NAS30 fell into the same AOA cluster and AOA communities in NAS2 and NAS10 were more diverse than those of NAS30. In contrast to AOA, AOB communities obviously shifted from the seed sludge to enriched NASs and in each enriched NAS, communities of AOB varied particularly. The seed sludge contained members of N. communis cluster and N. oligotropha cluster. After it was enriched under various ammonium loads, members of N. communis cluster disappeared from all enriched NASs. AOB with high affinity to ammonia presented in NAS 2, AOB with low affinity to ammonia presented in NAS 30, and both types of AOB survived in NAS 10. These demonstrated that ammonium load significantly influenced AOB communities, but not AOA communities in enriched NASs.

Keywords: ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizingarchaea, nitrifying activated sludge.

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162 Model Predictive 2DOF PID Slip Suppression Control of Electric Vehicle under Braking

Authors: Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

In this paper, a 2DOF (two degrees of freedom) PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller based on MPC (Model predictive control) algorithm fo slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed. The proposed method aims to improve the safety and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip ration. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: Model predictive control, PID controller, Two degrees of freedom, Electric Vehicle, Slip suppression.

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161 Slip Suppression Sliding Mode Control with Various Chattering Functions

Authors: Shun Horikoshi, Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

This study presents performance analysis results of SMC (Sliding mode control) with changing the chattering functions applied to slip suppression problem of electric vehicles (EVs). In SMC, chattering phenomenon always occurs through high frequency switching of the control inputs. It is undesirable phenomenon and degrade the control performance, since it causes the oscillations of the control inputs. Several studies have been conducted on this problem by introducing some general saturation function. However, study about whether saturation function was really best and the performance analysis when using the other functions, weren’t being done so much. Therefore, in this paper, several candidate functions for SMC are selected and control performance of candidate functions is analyzed. In the analysis, evaluation function based on the trade-off between slip suppression performance and chattering reduction performance is proposed. The analyses are conducted in several numerical simulations of slip suppression problem of EVs. Then, we can see that there is no difference of employed candidate functions in chattering reduction performance. On the other hand, in slip suppression performance, the saturation function is excellent overall. So, we conclude the saturation function is most suitable for slip suppression sliding mode control.

Keywords: Sliding mode control, chattering function, electric vehicle, slip suppression, performance analysis.

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160 Analysis of Evaporation of Liquid Ammonia in a Vertical Cylindrical Storage Tank

Authors: S. Chikh, S. Boulifa

Abstract:

The present study addresses the problem of ammonia evaporation during filling of a vertical cylindrical tank and the influence of various external factors on the stability of storage by determining the conditions for minimum evaporation. Numerical simulation is carried out by solving the governing equations namely, continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion of species. The effect of temperature of surrounding air, the filling speed of the reservoir and the temperature of the filling liquid ammonia on the evaporation rate is investigated. Results show that the temperature of the filling liquid has little effect on the liquid ammonia for a short period, which, in fact, is function of the filling speed. The evaporation rate along the free surface of the liquid is non-uniform. The inlet temperature affects the vapor ammonia temperature because of pressure increase. The temperature of the surrounding air affects the temperature of the vapor phase rather than the liquid phase. The maximum of evaporation is reached at the final step of filling. In order to minimize loss of ammonia vapors automatically causing losses in quantity of the liquid stored, it is suggested to ensure the proper insulation for the walls and roof of the reservoir and to increase the filling speed.

Keywords: Evaporation, liquid ammonia, storage tank, numerical simulation.

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159 Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

Authors: Chul Ho Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

Keywords: Entropy, exergy, ammonia-water mixture, heat exchanger.

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158 Comparative Exergy Analysis of Ammonia-Water Rankine Cycles and Kalina Cycle

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative exergy analysis of ammonia-water Rankine cycles with and without regeneration and Kalina cycle for recovery of low-temperature heat source. Special attention is paid to the effect of system parameters such as ammonia mass fraction and turbine inlet pressure on the exergetical performance of the systems. Results show that maximum exergy efficiency can be obtained in the regenerative Rankine cycle for high turbine inlet pressures. However, Kalina cycle shows better exergy efficiency for low turbine inlet pressures, and the optimum ammonia mass fractions of Kalina cycle are lower than Rankine cycles.

Keywords: Ammonia-water, Rankine cycle, Kalina cycle, exergy, exergy destruction, low-temperature heat source.

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157 MP-SMC-I Method for Slip Suppression of Electric Vehicles under Braking

Authors: Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

In this paper, a new SMC (Sliding Mode Control) method with MP (Model Predictive Control) integral action for the slip suppression of EV (Electric Vehicle) under braking is proposed. The proposed method introduce the integral term with standard SMC gain , where the integral gain is optimized for each control period by the MPC algorithms. The aim of this method is to improve the safety and the stability of EVs under braking by controlling the wheel slip ratio. There also include numerical simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: Sliding Mode Control, Model Predictive Control, Integral Action, Electric Vehicle, Slip suppression.

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156 Ammonia Removal from Nitrogenous Industrial Waste Water Using Iranian Natural Zeolite of Clinoptilolite Type

Authors: M.M. Jafarpour, Ar. Foolad, M.K. Mansouri, Z. Nikbakhsh, H. Saeedizade

Abstract:

Ammonia nitrogen is one of the most hazardous water pollutants, discharging into water receptors through industrial effluents. Negative environmental impacts of such chemical species in hydrosphere include accelerated eutrophication, water toxicity and harming the aquatics. Natural zeolite clinoptilolite has very high selectivity & capacity for ammonium cation sorption. It occurs in high abundances and rich mines of this zeolite exist in different parts of Iran and thus are available more cheaply and with different sizing. The aim of this study is to investigate ammonia nitrogen removal over this natural sorbent from real samples of high polluted wastewater discharging from a fertilizer producing plant. The experimental results showed that this natural sorbent without even any pre treatment system & with the same particle size available in Iranian markets has still high capability & selectivity in ammonia nitrogen removal both in batch and continuous tests.

Keywords: Ammonia nitrogen removal, Clinoptilolite, Naturalzeolite, Waste water.

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155 Development and Evaluation of a Portable Ammonia Gas Detector

Authors: Jaheon Gu, Wooyong Chung, Mijung Koo, Seonbok Lee, Gyoutae Park, Sangguk Ahn, Hiesik Kim, Jungil Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a portable ammonia gas detector for performing the gas safety management efficiently. The display of the detector is separated from its body. The display module is received the data measured from the detector using ZigBee. The detector has a rechargeable li-ion battery which can be use for 11~12 hours, and a Bluetooth module for sending the data to the PC or the smart devices. The data are sent to the server and can access using the web browser or mobile application. The range of the detection concentration is 0~100ppm.

Keywords: Ammonia, detector, gas safety, portable.

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154 Performance Analysis of Absorption Power Cycle under Different Source Temperatures

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The absorption power generation cycle based on the ammonia-water mixture has attracted much attention for efficient recovery of low-grade energy sources. In this paper a thermodynamic performance analysis is carried out for a Kalina cycle using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid for efficient conversion of low-temperature heat source in the form of sensible energy. The effects of the source temperature on the system performance are extensively investigated by using the thermodynamic models. The results show that the source temperature as well as the ammonia mass fraction affects greatly on the thermodynamic performance of the cycle.

Keywords: Ammonia-water mixture, Kalina cycle, low-grade heat source, source temperature.

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153 A Study of the Garbage Enzyme's Effects in Domestic Wastewater

Authors: Fu E. Tang, Chung W. Tong

Abstract:

“Garbage enzyme", a fermentation product of kitchen waste, water and brown sugar, is claimed in the media as a multipurpose solution for household and agricultural uses. This study assesses the effects of dilutions (5% to 75%) of garbage enzyme in reducing pollutants in domestic wastewater. The pH of the garbage enzyme was found to be 3.5, BOD concentration about 150 mg/L. Test results showed that the garbage enzyme raised the wastewater-s BOD in proportion to its dilution due to its high organic content. For mixtures with more than 10% garbage enzyme, its pH remained acidic after the 5-day digestion period. However, it seems that ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed by the addition of the garbage enzyme. The most economic solution for removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus was found to be 9%. Further tests are required to understand the removal mechanisms of the ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus.

Keywords: Wastewater treatment, garbage enzyme, wastewater additives, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus.

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152 Using Non-Linear Programming Techniques in Determination of the Most Probable Slip Surface in 3D Slopes

Authors: M. M. Toufigh, A. R. Ahangarasr, A. Ouria

Abstract:

Among many different methods that are used for optimizing different engineering problems mathematical (numerical) optimization techniques are very important because they can easily be used and are consistent with most of engineering problems. Many studies and researches are done on stability analysis of three dimensional (3D) slopes and the relating probable slip surfaces and determination of factors of safety, but in most of them force equilibrium equations, as in simplified 2D methods, are considered only in two directions. In other words for decreasing mathematical calculations and also for simplifying purposes the force equilibrium equation in 3rd direction is omitted. This point is considered in just a few numbers of previous studies and most of them have only given a factor of safety and they haven-t made enough effort to find the most probable slip surface. In this study shapes of the slip surfaces are modeled, and safety factors are calculated considering the force equilibrium equations in all three directions, and also the moment equilibrium equation is satisfied in the slip direction, and using nonlinear programming techniques the shape of the most probable slip surface is determined. The model which is used in this study is a 3D model that is composed of three upper surfaces which can cover all defined and probable slip surfaces. In this research the meshing process is done in a way that all elements are prismatic with quadrilateral cross sections, and the safety factor is defined on this quadrilateral surface in the base of the element which is a part of the whole slip surface. The method that is used in this study to find the most probable slip surface is the non-linear programming method in which the objective function that must get optimized is the factor of safety that is a function of the soil properties and the coordinates of the nodes on the probable slip surface. The main reason for using non-linear programming method in this research is its quick convergence to the desired responses. The final results show a good compatibility with the previously used classical and 2D methods and also show a reasonable convergence speed.

Keywords: Non-linear programming, numerical optimization, slope stability, 3D analysis.

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151 An Energy Integration Approach on UHDE Ammonia Process

Authors: Alnouss M. Ahmed, Al-Nuaimi A. Ibrahim

Abstract:

In this paper, the energy performance of a selected UHDE Ammonia plant is optimized by conducting heat integration through waste heat recovery and the synthesis of a heat exchange network (HEN). Minimum hot and cold utility requirements were estimated through IChemE spreadsheet. Supporting simulation was carried out using HYSYS software. The results showed that there is no need for heating utility while the required cold utility was found to be around 268,714 kW. Hence a threshold pinch case was faced. Then, the hot and cold streams were matched appropriately. Also, waste heat recovered resulted with savings in HP and LP steams of approximately 51.0% and 99.6%, respectively. An economic analysis on proposed HEN showed very attractive overall payback period not exceeding 3 years. In general, a net saving approaching 35% was achieved in implementing heat optimization of current studied UHDE Ammonia process.

Keywords: Ammonia, Energy Optimization, Heat Exchange Network and Techno-Economic Analysis.

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