Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Abdolhamid Habibi

21 Bronchospasm Analysis Following the Implementation of a Program of Maximum Aerobic Exercise in Active Men

Authors: Sajjad Shojaeidoust, Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh, Abdolhamid Habibi

Abstract:

Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a transitory condition of airflow obstruction that is associated with physical activities. It is noted that high ventilation can lead to an increase in the heat and reduce in the moisture in airways resistance of trachea. Also causes of pathophysiological mechanism are EIB. Accordingly, studying some parameters of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1) among active people seems quintessential. The aim of this study was to analyze bronchospasm following the implementation of a program of maximum aerobic exercise in active men at Chamran University of Ahwaz. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, the population consisted of all students at Chamran University. Among from 55 participants, of which, 15 were randomly selected as the experimental group. In this study, the size of the maximum oxygen consumption was initially measured, and then, based on the maximum oxygen consumed, the active individuals were identified. After five minutes’ warm-up, Strand treadmill exercise test was taken (one session) and pulmonary parameters were measured at both pre- and post-tests (spirometer). After data normalization using KS and non-normality of the data, the Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the data. The significance level for all statistical surveys was considered p≤0/05. Results: The results showed that the ventilation factors and bronchospasm (FVC, FEV1) in the pre-test and post-test resulted in no significant difference among the active people (p≥0/05). Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results observed in this study, it appears that pulmonary indices in active individuals increased after aerobic test. The increase in this indicator in active people is due to increased volume and elasticity of the lungs as well. In other words, pulmonary index is affected by rib muscles. It is considered that progress over respiratory muscle strength and endurance has raised FEV1 in the active cases.

Keywords: Bronchospasm, aerobic active maximum, pulmonary function, spirometer.

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20 Trustworthy in Virtual Organization

Authors: Abdolhamid Fetanat, Mehdi Naghian Feshaareki

Abstract:

In open settings, the participants in virtual organization are autonomous and there is no central authority to ensure the felicity of their interactions. When agents interact in such settings, each relies upon being able to model the trustworthiness of the agents with whom it interacts. Fundamentally, such models must consider the past behavior of the other parties in order to predict their future behavior. Further, it is sensible for the agents to share information via referrals to trustworthy agents. In this article, trust is a bet on the future contingent actions of others" and enumerates six major factors supporting it: (1) reputation, (2) performance, (3) appearance, (4) accountability, (5) precommitment, and (6) contextual facilitation.

Keywords: Trustworthy, trust, virtual organization.

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19 Computational Simulation of Imploding Current Sheath Trajectory at the Radial Phase of Plasma Focus Performance

Authors: R. Amrollahi, M. Habibi

Abstract:

When the shock front (SF) hits the central electrode axis of plasma focus device, a reflected shock wave moves radially outwards. The current sheath (CS) results from ionization of filled gas between two electrodes continues to compress inwards until it hits the out-going reflected shock front. In this paper the Lagrangian equations are solved for a parabolic shock trajectory yielding a first and second approximation for the CS path. To determine the accuracy of the approximation, the same problem is solved for a straight shock.

Keywords: Radial compression, Shock wave trajectory, Current sheath, Slog model.

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18 Robot Path Planning in 3D Space Using Binary Integer Programming

Authors: Ellips Masehian, Golnaz Habibi

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for path planning of mobile robots in known 3D environments using Binary Integer Programming (BIP). In this approach the problem of path planning is formulated as a BIP with variables taken from 3D Delaunay Triangulation of the Free Configuration Space and solved to obtain an optimal channel made of connected tetrahedrons. The 3D channel is then partitioned into convex fragments which are used to build safe and short paths within from Start to Goal. The algorithm is simple, complete, does not suffer from local minima, and is applicable to different workspaces with convex and concave polyhedral obstacles. The noticeable feature of this algorithm is that it is simply extendable to n-D Configuration spaces.

Keywords: 3D C-space, Binary Integer Programming (BIP), Delaunay Tessellation, Robot Motion Planning.

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17 Antioxidant Components of Fumaria Species(Papaveraceae)

Authors: F. Habibi Tirtash, M. Keshavarzi, F. Fazeli

Abstract:

The genus Fumaria L. (Papaveraceae) in Iran comprises 8 species with a vast medicinal use in Asian folk medicine. These herbs are considered to be useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal disease and skin disorders. Antioxidant activities of alkaloids and phenolic extracts of these species had been studied previously. These species are: F. officinalis, F. parviflora, F. asepala, F. densiflora, F. schleicheri, F. vaillantii and F. indica. More than 50 populations of Fumaria species were sampled from nature. In this study different fatty acids are extracted. Their picks were recorded by GC technique. This species contain some kind of fatty acids with antioxidant effects. A part of these lipids are phospholipids. As these are unsaturated fatty acids they may have industrial use as natural additive to cosmetics, dermal and oral medicines. The presences of different materials are discussed. Our studies for antioxidant effects of these substances are continued.

Keywords: Fumaria, Papaveraceae, fatty acid, antioxidant, Iran

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16 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi

Abstract:

Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: State of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation.

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15 Study and Evaluation of Added Stresses under Foundation due to Adjacent Structure

Authors: Alireza M. goltabar, Issa shooshpasha , Reza Shamstabar kami , Mostafa Habibi

Abstract:

Added stresses due to adjacent structure should be considered in foundation design and stress control in soil under the structure. This case is considered less than other cases in design and calculation whereas stresses in implementation are greater than analytical stress. Structure load are transmitted to earth by foundation and role of foundation is propagation of load on the continuous and half extreme soil. This act cause that, present stresses lessen to allowable strength of soil. Some researchers such as Boussinesq and westergaurd by using of some assumption studied on this issue, theorically. Target of this paper is study and evaluation of added stresses under structure due to adjacent structure. For this purpose, by using of assumption, theoric relation and numeral methods, effects of adjacent structure with 4 to 10 storeys on the main structure with 4 storeys are studied and effect of parameters and sensitivity of them are evaluated.

Keywords: stress, soil, adjacent structure, foundation, loading.

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14 Customers’ Priority to Implement SSTs Using AHP Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Jafariahangari, Marjan Habibi, Miresmaeil Mirnabibaboli, Mirza Hassan Hosseini

Abstract:

Self-service technologies (SSTs) make an important contribution to the daily life of people nowadays. However, the introduction of SST does not lead to its usage. Thereby, this paper was an attempt on discovery of the most preferred SST in the customers’ point of view. To fulfill this aim, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied based on Saaty’s questionnaire which was administered to the customers of e-banking services located in Golestan providence, northern Iran. This study used qualitative factors in association with the intention of consumers’ usage of SSTs to rank three SSTs: ATM, mobile banking and internet banking. The results showed that mobile banking get the highest weight in consumers’ point of view. This research can be useful both for managers and service providers and also for customers who intend to use e-banking.

Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process, Decision-making, Ebanking, Iran, Self-service technologies.

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13 Fabrication and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Dissolved in Concentrated Acetic Acid

Authors: Kooshina Koosha, Sima Habibi, Azam Talebian

Abstract:

Electrospinning is a simple, versatile and widely accepted technique to produce ultra-fine fibers ranging from nanometer to micron. Recently there has been great interest in developing this technique to produce nanofibers with novel properties and functionalities. The electrospinning field is extremely broad, and consequently there have been many useful reviews discussing various aspects from detailed fiber formation mechanism to the formation of nanofibers and to discussion on a wide range of applications. On the other hand, the focus of this study is quite narrow, highlighting electrospinning parameters. This work will briefly cover the solution and processing parameters (for instance; concentration, solvent type, voltage, flow rate, distance between the collector and the tip of the needle) impacting the morphological characteristics of nanofibers, such as diameter. In this paper, a comprehensive work would be presented on the research of producing nanofibers from natural polymer entitled Gelatin.

Keywords: Electro spinning, solution parameters, process parameters, natural fiber.

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12 Graphical Password Security Evaluation by Fuzzy AHP

Authors: Arash Habibi Lashkari, Azizah Abdul Manaf, Maslin Masrom

Abstract:

In today's day and age, one of the important topics in information security is authentication. There are several alternatives to text-based authentication of which includes Graphical Password (GP) or Graphical User Authentication (GUA). These methods stems from the fact that humans recognized and remembers images better than alphanumerical text characters. This paper will focus on the security aspect of GP algorithms and what most researchers have been working on trying to define these security features and attributes. The goal of this study is to develop a fuzzy decision model that allows automatic selection of available GP algorithms by taking into considerations the subjective judgments of the decision makers who are more than 50 postgraduate students of computer science. The approach that is being proposed is based on the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) which determines the criteria weight as a linear formula.

Keywords: Graphical Password, Authentication Security, Attack Patterns, Brute force attack, Dictionary attack, Guessing Attack, Spyware attack, Shoulder surfing attack, Social engineering Attack, Password Entropy, Password Space.

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11 Small Signal Stability Enhancement for Hybrid Power Systems by SVC

Authors: Ali Dehghani, Mojtaba Hakimzadeh, Amir Habibi, Navid Mehdizadeh Afroozi

Abstract:

In this paper an isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system has been considered for reactive power control study having an induction generator for wind power conversion and synchronous alternator with automatic voltage regulator (AVR) for diesel unit is presented. The dynamic voltage stability evaluation is dependent on small signal analysis considering a Static VAR Compensator (SVC) and IEEE type -I excitation system. It's shown that the variable reactive power source like SVC is crucial to meet the varying demand of reactive power by induction generator and load and to acquire an excellent voltage regulation of the system with minimum fluctuations. Integral square error (ISE) criterion can be used to evaluate the optimum setting of gain parameters. Finally the dynamic responses of the power systems considered with optimum gain setting will also be presented.

Keywords: SVC, Small Signal Stability, Reactive Power, Control, Hybrid System.

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10 LiDAR Based Real Time Multiple Vehicle Detection and Tracking

Authors: Zhongzhen Luo, Saeid Habibi, Martin v. Mohrenschildt

Abstract:

Self-driving vehicle require a high level of situational awareness in order to maneuver safely when driving in real world condition. This paper presents a LiDAR based real time perception system that is able to process sensor raw data for multiple target detection and tracking in dynamic environment. The proposed algorithm is nonparametric and deterministic that is no assumptions and priori knowledge are needed from the input data and no initializations are required. Additionally, the proposed method is working on the three-dimensional data directly generated by LiDAR while not scarifying the rich information contained in the domain of 3D. Moreover, a fast and efficient for real time clustering algorithm is applied based on a radially bounded nearest neighbor (RBNN). Hungarian algorithm procedure and adaptive Kalman filtering are used for data association and tracking algorithm. The proposed algorithm is able to run in real time with average run time of 70ms per frame.

Keywords: LiDAR, real-time system, clustering, tracking, data association.

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9 Coordination between SC and SVC for Voltage Stability Improvement

Authors: Ali Reza Rajabi, Shahab Rashnoei, Mojtaba Hakimzadeh, Amir Habibi

Abstract:

At any point of time, a power system operating condition should be stable, meeting various operational criteria and it should also be secure in the event of any credible contingency. Present day power systems are being operated closer to their stability limits due to economic and environmental constraints. Maintaining a stable and secure operation of a power system is therefore a very important and challenging issue. Voltage instability has been given much attention by power system researchers and planners in recent years, and is being regarded as one of the major sources of power system insecurity. Voltage instability phenomena are the ones in which the receiving end voltage decreases well below its normal value and does not come back even after setting restoring mechanisms such as VAR compensators, or continues to oscillate for lack of damping against the disturbances. Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. This paper investigates the effects of coordinated series capacitors (SC) with static VAR compensators (SVC) on steady-state voltage stability of a power system. Also, the influence of the presence of series capacitor on static VAR compensator controller parameters and ratings required to stabilize load voltages at certain values are highlighted.

Keywords: Static VAR Compensator (SVC), Series Capacitor (SC), voltage stability, reactive power.

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8 Effects of Distributed Generation on Voltage Profile for Reconfiguration of Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahdi Hayatdavudi, Ali Reza Rajabi, Mohammad Hassan Raouf, Mojtaba Saeedimoghadam, Amir Habibi

Abstract:

Generally, distributed generation units refer to small-scale electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to the customer or an electric distribution system (in parallel mode). From the customers’ point of view, a potentially lower cost, higher service reliability, high power quality, increased energy efficiency, and energy independence can be the key points of a proper DG unit. Moreover, the use of renewable types of distributed generations such as wind, photovoltaic, geothermal or hydroelectric power can also provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to study their impacts on the distribution networks. A marked increase in Distributed Generation (DG), associated with medium voltage distribution networks, may be expected. Nowadays, distribution networks are planned for unidirectional power flows that are peculiar to passive systems, and voltage control is carried out exclusively by varying the tap position of the HV/MV transformer. This paper will compare different DG control methods and possible network reconfiguration aimed at assessing their effect on voltage profiles.

Keywords: Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration (DFR), Distributed Generator (DG), Voltage Profile, Control.

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7 An Intelligent Approach for Management of Hybrid DG System

Authors: Ali Vaseghi Ardekani, Hamid Reza Forutan, Amir Habibi, Ali Reza Rajabi, Hasan Adloo

Abstract:

Distributed generation units (DGs) are grid-connected or stand-alone electric generation units located within the electric distribution system at or near the end user. It is generally accepted that centralized electric power plants will remain the major source of the electric power supply for the near future. DGs, however, can complement central power by providing incremental capacity to the utility grid or to an end user. This paper presents an efficient power dispatching model for hybrid wind-Solar power generation system, to satisfy some essential requirements, such as dispersed electric power demand, electric power quality and reducing generation cost and so on. In this paper, presented some elements of the main parts in the hybrid system; and then made fundamental dispatching strategies according to different situations; then pointed out four improving measures to improve genetic algorithm, such as: modify the producing way of selection probability, improve the way of crossover, protect excellent chromosomes, and change mutation range and so on. Finally, propose a technique for solving the unit's commitment for dispatching problem based on an improved genetic algorithm.

Keywords: Power Quality, Wind-Solar System, Genetic Algorithm, Hybrid System.

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6 Analysis of Residual Stresses and Angular Distortion in Stiffened Cylindrical Shell Fillet Welds Using Finite Element Method

Authors: M. R. Daneshgar, S. E. Habibi, E. Daneshgar, A. Daneshgar

Abstract:

In this paper, a two-dimensional method is developed to simulate the fillet welds in a stiffened cylindrical shell, using finite element method. The stiffener material is aluminum 2519. The thermo-elasto-plastic analysis is used to analyze the thermo-mechanical behavior. Due to the high heat flux rate of the welding process, two uncouple thermal and mechanical analysis are carried out instead of performing a single couple thermo-mechanical simulation. In order to investigate the effects of the welding procedures, two different welding techniques are examined. The resulted residual stresses and distortions due to different welding procedures are obtained. Furthermore, this study employed the technique of element birth and death to simulate the weld filler variation with time in fillet welds. The obtained results are in good agreement with the published experimental and three-dimensional numerical simulation results. Therefore, the proposed 2D modeling technique can effectively give the corresponding results of 3D models. Furthermore, by inspection of the obtained residual hoop and transverse stresses and angular distortions, proper welding procedure is suggested.

Keywords: Stiffened cylindrical shell, fillet welds, residual stress, angular distortion, finite element method.

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5 Effect of Drought Stress and Selenium Spraying on Superoxide Dismotase Activity of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars

Authors: A.R. Pazoki, A. H. Shirani Rad, D. Habibi, F. Paknejad, S. Kobraee, N. Hadayat

Abstract:

In the other to Study of drought stress and Selenium spraying effect on superoxide dismotase (SOD) activity of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in Shahr-e-Rey region, an experiment carried out in Split factorial design in the basis of randomized complete blocks with 4 replications in 2006. Irrigation in two levels: Normal irrigation and irrigation with drought stress when the soil electrical conductivity reached to 60 as main factor and rapeseed cultivars in 3 levels Zarfam, Okapi, Opera and selenium spraying at the beginning of flowering stage in 3 levels: 0, 16 and 21 g/ha as sub factor. The results showed that the simple and interaction effect of irrigation, selenium and cultivars on SOD activity had significant difference. In this case Zarfam cultivar with 2010 u.mg-1 protein and Opera with 1454 u.mg-1 protein produced maximum and minimum amounts of SOD activitiy. Interaction effect of irrigation and variety showed that, normal irrigation in Opera with 1115 u.mg-1 protein and drought stress in Zarfam with 2784 u.mg-1 protein conducted to and minimum and maximum amounts of SOD activity. Interaction effect of irrigation, cultivar and selenium on SOD indicated that drought stress condition and 21 gr/ha selenium spraying in Zarfam variety with 3146 u.mg-1 protein gained to highest activities of SOD.

Keywords: Drought stress, Rapeseed, Selenium, Superoxide dismutase.

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4 Proposing of an Adaptable Land Readjustment Model for Developing of the Informal Settlements in Kabul City

Authors: Habibi Said Mustafa, Hiroko Ono

Abstract:

Since 2006, Afghanistan is dealing with one of the most dramatic trend of urban movement in its history, cities and towns are expanding in size and number. Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan and as well as the fast-growing city in the Asia. The influx of the returnees from neighbor countries and other provinces of Afghanistan caused high rate of artificial growth which slums increased. As an unwanted consequence of this growth, today informal settlements have covered a vast portion of the city. Land Readjustment (LR) has proved to be an important tool for developing informal settlements and reorganizing urban areas but its implementation always varies from country to country and region to region within the countries. Consequently, to successfully develop the informal settlements in Kabul, we need to define an Afghan model of LR specifically for Afghanistan which needs to incorporate all those factors related to the socio-economic condition of the country. For this purpose, a part of the old city of Kabul has selected as a study area which is located near the Central Business District (CBD). After the further analysis and incorporating all needed factors, the result shows a positive potential for the implementation of an adaptable Land Readjustment model for Kabul city which is more sustainable and socio-economically friendly. It will enhance quality of life and provide better urban services for the residents. Moreover, it will set a vision and criteria by which sustainable developments shall proceed in other similar informal settlements of Kabul.

Keywords: Adaptation, informal settlements, Kabul, land readjustment, preservation.

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3 Influence of Drought on Yield and Yield Components in White Bean

Authors: Gholamreza Habibi

Abstract:

In order to study seed yield and seed yield components in bean under reduced irrigation condition and assessment drought tolerance of genotypes, 15 lines of White beans were evaluated in two separate RCB design with 3 replications under stress and non stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among varieties in terms of traits under study, indicating the existence of genetic variation among varieties. The results indicate that drought stress reduced seed yield, number of seed per plant, biological yield and number of pod in White been. In non stress condition, yield was highly correlated with the biological yield, whereas in stress condition it was highly correlated with harvest index. Results of stepwise regression showed that, selection can we done based on, biological yield, harvest index, number of seed per pod, seed length, 100 seed weight. Result of path analysis showed that the highest direct effect, being positive, was related to biological yield in non stress and to harvest index in stress conditions. Factor analysis were accomplished in stress and nonstress condition a, there were 4 factors that explained more than 76 percent of total variations. We used several selection indices such as Stress Susceptibility Index ( SSI ), Geometric Mean Productivity ( GMP ), Mean Productivity ( MP ), Stress Tolerance Index ( STI ) and Tolerance Index ( TOL ) to study drought tolerance of genotypes, we found that the best Stress Index for selection tolerance genotypes were STI, GMP and MP were the greatest correlations between these Indices and seed yield under stress and non stress conditions. In classification of genotypes base on phenotypic characteristics, using cluster analysis ( UPGMA ), all allels classified in 5 separate groups in stress and non stress conditions.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, selection index, White bean

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2 Combination of Different Classifiers for Cardiac Arrhythmia Recognition

Authors: M. R. Homaeinezhad, E. Tavakkoli, M. Habibi, S. A. Atyabi, A. Ghaffari

Abstract:

This paper describes a new supervised fusion (hybrid) electrocardiogram (ECG) classification solution consisting of a new QRS complex geometrical feature extraction as well as a new version of the learning vector quantization (LVQ) classification algorithm aimed for overcoming the stability-plasticity dilemma. Toward this objective, after detection and delineation of the major events of ECG signal via an appropriate algorithm, each QRS region and also its corresponding discrete wavelet transform (DWT) are supposed as virtual images and each of them is divided into eight polar sectors. Then, the curve length of each excerpted segment is calculated and is used as the element of the feature space. To increase the robustness of the proposed classification algorithm versus noise, artifacts and arrhythmic outliers, a fusion structure consisting of five different classifiers namely as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Modified Learning Vector Quantization (MLVQ) and three Multi Layer Perceptron-Back Propagation (MLP–BP) neural networks with different topologies were designed and implemented. The new proposed algorithm was applied to all 48 MIT–BIH Arrhythmia Database records (within–record analysis) and the discrimination power of the classifier in isolation of different beat types of each record was assessed and as the result, the average accuracy value Acc=98.51% was obtained. Also, the proposed method was applied to 6 number of arrhythmias (Normal, LBBB, RBBB, PVC, APB, PB) belonging to 20 different records of the aforementioned database (between– record analysis) and the average value of Acc=95.6% was achieved. To evaluate performance quality of the new proposed hybrid learning machine, the obtained results were compared with similar peer– reviewed studies in this area.

Keywords: Feature Extraction, Curve Length Method, SupportVector Machine, Learning Vector Quantization, Multi Layer Perceptron, Fusion (Hybrid) Classification, Arrhythmia Classification, Supervised Learning Machine.

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1 Offline Parameter Identification and State-of-Charge Estimation for Healthy and Aged Electric Vehicle Batteries Based on the Combined Model

Authors: Xiaowei Zhang, Min Xu, Saeid Habibi, Fengjun Yan, Ryan Ahmed

Abstract:

Recently, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have received extensive consideration since they offer a more sustainable and greener transportation alternative compared to fossil-fuel propelled vehicles. Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries are increasingly being deployed in EVs because of their high energy density, high cell-level voltage, and low rate of self-discharge. Since Li-ion batteries represent the most expensive component in the EV powertrain, accurate monitoring and control strategies must be executed to ensure their prolonged lifespan. The Battery Management System (BMS) has to accurately estimate parameters such as the battery State-of-Charge (SOC), State-of-Health (SOH), and Remaining Useful Life (RUL). In order for the BMS to estimate these parameters, an accurate and control-oriented battery model has to work collaboratively with a robust state and parameter estimation strategy. Since battery physical parameters, such as the internal resistance and diffusion coefficient change depending on the battery state-of-life (SOL), the BMS has to be adaptive to accommodate for this change. In this paper, an extensive battery aging study has been conducted over 12-months period on 5.4 Ah, 3.7 V Lithium polymer cells. Instead of using fixed charging/discharging aging cycles at fixed C-rate, a set of real-world driving scenarios have been used to age the cells. The test has been interrupted every 5% capacity degradation by a set of reference performance tests to assess the battery degradation and track model parameters. As battery ages, the combined model parameters are optimized and tracked in an offline mode over the entire batteries lifespan. Based on the optimized model, a state and parameter estimation strategy based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the relatively new Smooth Variable Structure Filter (SVSF) have been applied to estimate the SOC at various states of life.

Keywords: Lithium-Ion batteries, genetic algorithm optimization, battery aging test, and parameter identification.

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