Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Sajjad Shojaeidoust

29 Bronchospasm Analysis Following the Implementation of a Program of Maximum Aerobic Exercise in Active Men

Authors: Sajjad Shojaeidoust, Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh, Abdolhamid Habibi

Abstract:

Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a transitory condition of airflow obstruction that is associated with physical activities. It is noted that high ventilation can lead to an increase in the heat and reduce in the moisture in airways resistance of trachea. Also causes of pathophysiological mechanism are EIB. Accordingly, studying some parameters of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1) among active people seems quintessential. The aim of this study was to analyze bronchospasm following the implementation of a program of maximum aerobic exercise in active men at Chamran University of Ahwaz. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, the population consisted of all students at Chamran University. Among from 55 participants, of which, 15 were randomly selected as the experimental group. In this study, the size of the maximum oxygen consumption was initially measured, and then, based on the maximum oxygen consumed, the active individuals were identified. After five minutes’ warm-up, Strand treadmill exercise test was taken (one session) and pulmonary parameters were measured at both pre- and post-tests (spirometer). After data normalization using KS and non-normality of the data, the Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the data. The significance level for all statistical surveys was considered p≤0/05. Results: The results showed that the ventilation factors and bronchospasm (FVC, FEV1) in the pre-test and post-test resulted in no significant difference among the active people (p≥0/05). Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results observed in this study, it appears that pulmonary indices in active individuals increased after aerobic test. The increase in this indicator in active people is due to increased volume and elasticity of the lungs as well. In other words, pulmonary index is affected by rib muscles. It is considered that progress over respiratory muscle strength and endurance has raised FEV1 in the active cases.

Keywords: Bronchospasm, aerobic active maximum, pulmonary function, spirometer.

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28 Computing SAGB-Gröbner Basis of Ideals of Invariant Rings by Using Gaussian Elimination

Authors: Sajjad Rahmany, Abdolali Basiri

Abstract:

The link between Gröbner basis and linear algebra was described by Lazard [4,5] where he realized the Gr┬¿obner basis computation could be archived by applying Gaussian elimination over Macaulay-s matrix . In this paper, we indicate how same technique may be used to SAGBI- Gröbner basis computations in invariant rings.

Keywords: Gröbner basis, SAGBI- Gröbner basis, reduction, Invariant ring, permutation groups.

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27 Some Applications of Gröbner bases

Authors: Hassan Noori, Abdolali Basiri, Sajjad Rahmany

Abstract:

In this paper we will introduce a brief introduction to theory of Gr¨obner bases and some applications of Gr¨obner bases to graph coloring problem, automatic geometric theorem proving and cryptography.

Keywords: Gr¨obner bases, Application of Gr¨obner bases, Automatic Geometric Theorem Proving, Graph Coloring, Cryptography.

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26 Distribution Centers Reliability Cost in Capacitated Facility Location Problem

Authors: Mehdi Seifbarghy, Sajjad Jalali, Seyed Habib A. Rahmati

Abstract:

Recently studies in area of supply chain network (SCN) have focused on the disruption issues in distribution systems. Also this paper extends the previous literature by providing a new biobjective model for cost minimization of designing a three echelon SCN across normal and failure scenarios with considering multi capacity option for manufacturers and distribution centers. Moreover, in order to solve the problem by means of LINGO software, novel model will be reformulated through a branch of LP-Metric method called Min-Max approach.

Keywords: Scenario programming, Distribution, Multi-echelon supply chain design, Reliable facility

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25 Using Cloud Computing for E-Government: Challenges and Benefits

Authors: Sajjad Hashemi, Khalil Monfaredi, Mohammad Masdari

Abstract:

Cloud computing is a style of computing which is formed from the aggregation and development of technologies such as grid computing distributed computing, parallel computing and service-oriented architecture. And its aim is to provide computing, communication and storage resources in a safe environment based on service, as fast as possible, which is virtually provided via Internet platform. Considering that the provided Services in e-government are available via the Internet, thus cloud computing can be used in the implementation of e-government architecture and provide better service with the lowest economic cost using its benefits. In this paper, the Methods of using cloud computing in e-government has been studied and it's been attempted to identify the challenges and benefits of the cloud to get used in the e-government and proposals have been offered to overcome its shortcomings, encourage and partnership of governments and people to use this economical and new technology.

Keywords: Benefits, Cloud computing, Committee, Challenges, E-Government, Participation.

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24 Molecular Dynamics Analysis onI mpact Behaviour of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Sheets

Authors: Sajjad Seifoori

Abstract:

Impact behavior of striker on graphene sheet and carbon nanotube is investigated based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A MD simulation is conducted to obtain the maximum dynamic deflections of a square and rectangular single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) with various values of side-length and striker parameter. Effect of (i) chirality, (ii) graphene side-length and nanotube length, (iii) striker mass on the maximum dynamic deflections of graphene and nanotube are investigated. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (Length/Diameter).

Keywords: Impact, molecular dynamic, graphene, nanotube.

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23 Study on the Mechanical Behavior of the Varactor of a Micro-Phase Shifter

Authors: Mehrdad Nouri Khajavi, Sajjad Ahoui Ghazvin, Ghader Rezazadeh, Mohammad Fathalilou

Abstract:

In this paper static and dynamic response of a varactor of a micro-phase shifter to DC, step DC and AC voltages have been studied. By presenting a mathematical modeling Galerkin-based step by step linearization method (SSLM) and Galerkin-based reduced order model have been used to solve the governing static and dynamic equations, respectively. The calculated static and dynamic pull-in voltages have been validated by previous experimental and theoretical results and a good agreement has been achieved. Then the frequency response and phase diagram of the system has been studied. It has been shown that applying the DC voltage shifts down the phase diagram and frequency response. Also increasing the damping ratio shifts up the phase diagram.

Keywords: MEMS, Phase Shifter, Pull-in Voltage, PhaseDiagram

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22 Reliable Capacitated Facility Location Problem Considering Maximal Covering

Authors: Mehdi Seifbarghy, Sajjad Jalali, Seyed Habib A. Rahmati

Abstract:

This paper provides a framework in order to incorporate reliability issue as a sign of disruption in distribution systems and partial covering theory as a response to limitation in coverage radios and economical preferences, simultaneously into the traditional literatures of capacitated facility location problems. As a result we develop a bi-objective model based on the discrete scenarios for expected cost minimization and demands coverage maximization through a three echelon supply chain network by facilitating multi-capacity levels for provider side layers and imposing gradual coverage function for distribution centers (DCs). Additionally, in spite of objectives aggregation for solving the model through LINGO software, a branch of LP-Metric method called Min- Max approach is proposed and different aspects of corresponds model will be explored.

Keywords: Reliability Cost, Partial Covering, LP-Metric

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21 Information Extraction from Unstructured and Ungrammatical Data Sources for Semantic Annotation

Authors: Quratulain N. Rajput, Sajjad Haider, Nasir Touheed

Abstract:

The internet has become an attractive avenue for global e-business, e-learning, knowledge sharing, etc. Due to continuous increase in the volume of web content, it is not practically possible for a user to extract information by browsing and integrating data from a huge amount of web sources retrieved by the existing search engines. The semantic web technology enables advancement in information extraction by providing a suite of tools to integrate data from different sources. To take full advantage of semantic web, it is necessary to annotate existing web pages into semantic web pages. This research develops a tool, named OWIE (Ontology-based Web Information Extraction), for semantic web annotation using domain specific ontologies. The tool automatically extracts information from html pages with the help of pre-defined ontologies and gives them semantic representation. Two case studies have been conducted to analyze the accuracy of OWIE.

Keywords: Ontology, Semantic Annotation, Wrapper, Information Extraction.

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20 Development of Intelligent Time/Frequency Based Signal Detection Algorithm for Intrusion Detection System

Authors: Waqas Ahmed, S Sajjad Haider Zaidi

Abstract:

For the past couple of decades Weak signal detection is of crucial importance in various engineering and scientific applications. It finds its application in areas like Wireless communication, Radars, Aerospace engineering, Control systems and many of those. Usually weak signal detection requires phase sensitive detector and demodulation module to detect and analyze the signal. This article gives you a preamble to intrusion detection system which can effectively detect a weak signal from a multiplexed signal. By carefully inspecting and analyzing the respective signal, this system can successfully indicate any peripheral intrusion. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a comprehensive and easy approach towards detecting and analyzing any signal that is weakened and garbled due to low signal to noise ratio (SNR). This approach finds significant importance in applications like peripheral security systems.

Keywords: Data Acquisition, fast frequency transforms, Lab VIEW software, weak signal detection.

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19 Control Configuration System as a Key Element in Distributed Control System

Authors: Goodarz Sabetian, Sajjad Moshfe

Abstract:

Control system for hi-tech industries could be realized generally and deeply by a special document. Vast heavy industries such as power plants with a large number of I/O signals are controlled by a distributed control system (DCS). This system comprises of so many parts from field level to high control level, and junior instrument engineers may be confused by this enormous information. The key document which can solve this problem is “control configuration system diagram” for each type of DCS. This is a road map that covers all of activities respect to control system in each industrial plant and inevitable to be studied by whom corresponded. It plays an important role from designing control system start point until the end; deliver the system to operate. This should be inserted in bid documents, contracts, purchasing specification and used in different periods of project EPC (engineering, procurement, and construction). Separate parts of DCS are categorized here in order of importance and a brief description and some practical plan is offered. This article could be useful for all instrument and control engineers who worked is EPC projects.

Keywords: Control, configuration, DCS, power plant, bus.

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18 An Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Method for Action Potential Detection in Neural Raw Data

Authors: Sajjad Farashi, Mohammadjavad Abolhassani, Mostafa Taghavi Kani

Abstract:

Information in the nervous system is coded as firing patterns of electrical signals called action potential or spike so an essential step in analysis of neural mechanism is detection of action potentials embedded in the neural data. There are several methods proposed in the literature for such a purpose. In this paper a novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been developed. EMD is a decomposition method that extracts oscillations with different frequency range in a waveform. The method is adaptive and no a-priori knowledge about data or parameter adjusting is needed in it. The results for simulated data indicate that proposed method is comparable with wavelet based methods for spike detection. For neural signals with signal-to-noise ratio near 3 proposed methods is capable to detect more than 95% of action potentials accurately.

Keywords: EMD, neural data processing, spike detection, wavelet decomposition.

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17 Evaluating the Impact of Replacement Policies on the Cache Performance and Energy Consumption in Different Multicore Embedded Systems

Authors: Sajjad Rostami-Sani, Mojtaba Valinataj, Amir-Hossein Khojir-Angasi

Abstract:

The cache has an important role in the reduction of access delay between a processor and memory in high-performance embedded systems. In these systems, the energy consumption is one of the most important concerns, and it will become more important with smaller processor feature sizes and higher frequencies. Meanwhile, the cache system dissipates a significant portion of energy compared to the other components of a processor. There are some elements that can affect the energy consumption of the cache such as replacement policy and degree of associativity. Due to these points, it can be inferred that selecting an appropriate configuration for the cache is a crucial part of designing a system. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different cache replacement policies on both cache’s performance and energy consumption. Furthermore, the impact of different Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs) on cache’s performance and energy consumption has been investigated.

Keywords: L1-cache, energy consumption, replacement policy, Instruction set architecture, multicore processor.

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16 Efficient Copy-Move Forgery Detection for Digital Images

Authors: Somayeh Sadeghi, Hamid A. Jalab, Sajjad Dadkhah

Abstract:

Due to availability of powerful image processing software and improvement of human computer knowledge, it becomes easy to tamper images. Manipulation of digital images in different fields like court of law and medical imaging create a serious problem nowadays. Copy-move forgery is one of the most common types of forgery which copies some part of the image and pastes it to another part of the same image to cover an important scene. In this paper, a copy-move forgery detection method proposed based on Fourier transform to detect forgeries. Firstly, image is divided to same size blocks and Fourier transform is performed on each block. Similarity in the Fourier transform between different blocks provides an indication of the copy-move operation. The experimental results prove that the proposed method works on reasonable time and works well for gray scale and colour images. Computational complexity reduced by using Fourier transform in this method.

Keywords: Copy-Move forgery, Digital Forensics, Image Forgery.

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15 Use of Bayesian Network in Information Extraction from Unstructured Data Sources

Authors: Quratulain N. Rajput, Sajjad Haider

Abstract:

This paper applies Bayesian Networks to support information extraction from unstructured, ungrammatical, and incoherent data sources for semantic annotation. A tool has been developed that combines ontologies, machine learning, and information extraction and probabilistic reasoning techniques to support the extraction process. Data acquisition is performed with the aid of knowledge specified in the form of ontology. Due to the variable size of information available on different data sources, it is often the case that the extracted data contains missing values for certain variables of interest. It is desirable in such situations to predict the missing values. The methodology, presented in this paper, first learns a Bayesian network from the training data and then uses it to predict missing data and to resolve conflicts. Experiments have been conducted to analyze the performance of the presented methodology. The results look promising as the methodology achieves high degree of precision and recall for information extraction and reasonably good accuracy for predicting missing values.

Keywords: Information Extraction, Bayesian Network, ontology, Machine Learning

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14 Lateral Crushing of Square and Rectangular Metallic Tubes under Different Quasi-Static Conditions

Authors: Sajjad Dehghanpour, Ali Yousefi

Abstract:

Impact is one of very important subjects which always have been considered in mechanical science. Nature of impact is such that which makes its control a hard task. Therefore it is required to present the transfer of impact to other vulnerable part of a structure, when it is necessary, one of the best method of absorbing energy of impact, is by using Thin-walled tubes these tubes collapses under impact and with absorption of energy, it prevents the damage to other parts.Purpose of recent study is to survey the deformation and energy absorption of tubes with different type of cross section (rectangular or square) and with similar volumes, height, mean cross section thickness, and material under loading with different speeds. Lateral loading of tubes are quasi-static type and beside as numerical analysis, also experimental experiences has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of the results. Results from the surveys is indicates that in a same conditions which mentioned above, samples with square cross section ,absorb more energy compare to rectangular cross section, and also by increscent in speed of loading, energy absorption would be more.

Keywords: absorbed energy, lateral loading, quasi-static.

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13 Radiation Workers’ Occupational Doses: Are We Really Careful or Overconscious

Authors: Sajjad A. Memon, Sadaf T. Qureshi, Naeem A. Laghari, Noor M. Khuhro

Abstract:

The present study represents the occupational radiation doses received by selected workers of Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA) Jamshoro Pakistan and conducted to discuss about how we be careful and try to avoid make ourselves overconscious. Film badges with unique identification number were issued to radiation worker to detect occupational radiation doses. In this study, only 08 workers with high radiation doses were assessed amongst 35 radiation workers during the period of January 2012 to December 2012. The selected radiation workers’ occupational doses were according to designated work areas and in the range of 1.21 to 7.78 mSv (mili Sieveret) out of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. By the comparison of different studies and earth’s HNBR (High Natural Background Radiation) locations’ doses, it is concluded that the worker’s high doses are of magnitude of HNBR Regions and were in the acceptable range of National and International regulatory bodies so we must not to show any type of overconsciousness but be careful in handling the radioactive sources.

Keywords: Natural background radiation, Occupational dose, Overconscious, Personal monitoring.

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12 Development of Fake News Model Using Machine Learning through Natural Language Processing

Authors: Sajjad Ahmed, Knut Hinkelmann, Flavio Corradini

Abstract:

Fake news detection research is still in the early stage as this is a relatively new phenomenon in the interest raised by society. Machine learning helps to solve complex problems and to build AI systems nowadays and especially in those cases where we have tacit knowledge or the knowledge that is not known. We used machine learning algorithms and for identification of fake news; we applied three classifiers; Passive Aggressive, Naïve Bayes, and Support Vector Machine. Simple classification is not completely correct in fake news detection because classification methods are not specialized for fake news. With the integration of machine learning and text-based processing, we can detect fake news and build classifiers that can classify the news data. Text classification mainly focuses on extracting various features of text and after that incorporating those features into classification. The big challenge in this area is the lack of an efficient way to differentiate between fake and non-fake due to the unavailability of corpora. We applied three different machine learning classifiers on two publicly available datasets. Experimental analysis based on the existing dataset indicates a very encouraging and improved performance.

Keywords: Fake news detection, types of fake news, machine learning, natural language processing, classification techniques.

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11 Cloud Computing for E-Learning with More Emphasis on Security Issues

Authors: Sajjad Hashemi, Seyyed Yasser Hashemi

Abstract:

In today's world, success of most systems depend on the use of new technologies and information technology (IT) which aimed to increase efficiency and satisfaction of users. One of the most important systems that use information technology to deliver services is the education system. But for educational services in the form of E-learning systems, hardware and software equipment should be containing high quality, which requires substantial investment. Because the vast majority of educational establishments can not invest in this area so the best way for them is reducing the costs and providing the E-learning services by using cloud computing. But according to the novelty of the cloud technology, it can create challenges and concerns that the most noted among them are security issues. Security concerns about cloud-based E-learning products are critical and security measures essential to protect valuable data of users from security vulnerabilities in products. Thus, the success of these products happened if customers meet security requirements then can overcome security threats. In this paper tried to explore cloud computing and its positive impact on E- learning and put main focus to identify security issues that related to cloud-based E-learning efforts which have been improve security and provide solutions in management challenges.

Keywords: Cloud computing, E-Learning, Security.

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10 Examination of the Reasons for the Formation of Red Oil in Spent Caustic from Olefin Plant

Authors: Mehdi Seifollahi, Ashkan Forootan, Sajjad Bahrami Reyhan

Abstract:

Due to the complexity of olefinic plants, various environmental pollutants exist such as NOx, CO2, Tar Water, and most importantly Spent Caustic. In this paper, instead of investigating ways of treating this pollutant, we evaluated the production in relation to plant’s variable items. We primarily discussed the factors affecting the quality of the output spent caustic such as impurities in the feed of olefin plant, the amount of injected dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) in furnaces, variation in feed composition, differences among gas temperatures and the concentration of caustic solution at the bottom of the tower. The results of the laboratory proved that in the formation of Red Oil, 1,3butadiene and acetaldehyde followed free radical and aldol condensation mechanism respectively. By increasing the injection rate of DMDS, Mercaptide amount increases in the effluent. In addition, pyrolysis gasoline accumulation is directly related to caustic concentration in the tower. Increasing naphtenes in the liquid feed augments the amount of 1,3butadiene, as one of the sources of Red Oil formation. By increasing the oxygenated compound in the feed, the rate of acetaldehyde formation, as the main source of Red Oil formation, increases.

Keywords: Olefin, spent caustic, red oil, caustic wash tower.

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9 Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Flexural Behavior of Macro-Synthetic FRC

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Ahamd Fahimifar, Sajjad V. Maghvan

Abstract:

Promotion of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) as a construction material for civil engineering projects has invoked numerous researchers to investigate their mechanical behavior. Even though there is satisfactory information about the effects of fiber type and length, concrete mixture, casting type and other variables on the strength and deformability parameters of FRC, the numerical modeling of such materials still needs research attention. The focus of this study is to investigate the feasibility of Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model in prediction of Macro-synthetic FRC structures behavior. CDP model requires the tensile behavior of concrete to be well characterized. For this purpose, a series of uniaxial direct tension and four point bending tests were conducted on the notched specimens to define bilinear tension softening (post-peak tension stress-strain) behavior. With these parameters obtained, the flexural behavior of macro-synthetic FRC beams were modeled and the results showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Keywords: Concrete damaged plasticity, fiber reinforced concrete, finite element modeling, macro-synthetic fibers, direct tensile test.

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8 Spike Sorting Method Using Exponential Autoregressive Modeling of Action Potentials

Authors: Sajjad Farashi

Abstract:

Neurons in the nervous system communicate with each other by producing electrical signals called spikes. To investigate the physiological function of nervous system it is essential to study the activity of neurons by detecting and sorting spikes in the recorded signal. In this paper a method is proposed for considering the spike sorting problem which is based on the nonlinear modeling of spikes using exponential autoregressive model. The genetic algorithm is utilized for model parameter estimation. In this regard some selected model coefficients are used as features for sorting purposes. For optimal selection of model coefficients, self-organizing feature map is used. The results show that modeling of spikes with nonlinear autoregressive model outperforms its linear counterpart. Also the extracted features based on the coefficients of exponential autoregressive model are better than wavelet based extracted features and get more compact and well-separated clusters. In the case of spikes different in small-scale structures where principal component analysis fails to get separated clouds in the feature space, the proposed method can obtain well-separated cluster which removes the necessity of applying complex classifiers.

Keywords: Exponential autoregressive model, Neural data, spike sorting, time series modeling.

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7 A Case Study on Management of Coal Seam Gas By-Product Water

Authors: Mojibul Sajjad, Mohammad G. Rasul, Md. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir

Abstract:

The rate of natural gas dissociation from the Coal Matrix depends on depressurization of reservoir through removing of the cleat water from the coal seam. These waters are similar to brine and aged of very long years. For improving the connectivity through fracking /fracturing, high pressure liquids are pumped off inside the coal body. A significant quantity of accumulated water, a combined mixture of cleat water and fracking fluids (back flow water) is pumped out through gas well. In Queensland, Australia Coal Seam Gas (CSG) industry is in booming state and estimated of 30,000 wells would be active for CSG production forecasting life span of 30 years. Integrated water management along with water softening programs is practiced for subsequent treatment and later on discharge to nearby surface water catchment. Water treatment is an important part of the CSG industry. A case study on a CSG site and review on the test results are discussed for assessing the Standards & Practices for management of CSG by-product water and their subsequent disposal activities. This study was directed toward (i) water management and softening process in Spring Gully CSG field, (ii) Comparative analysis on experimental study and standards and (iii) Disposal of the treated water. This study also aimed for alternative usages and their impact on vegetation, living species as well as long term effects.

Keywords: Coal Seam Gas (CSG), Cleat Water, Hydro-Fracking, Desalination, Reverse Osmosis.

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6 Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Geocell Reinforcement above Buried Pipes on Surface Settlement and Vertical Pressure

Authors: Waqed H. Almohammed, Mohammed Y. Fattah, Sajjad E. Rasheed

Abstract:

Dynamic traffic loads cause deformation of underground pipes, resulting in vehicle discomfort. This makes it necessary to reinforce the layers of soil above underground pipes. In this study, the subbase layer was reinforced. Finite element software (PLAXIS 3D) was used to in the simulation, which includes geocell reinforcement, vehicle loading, soil layers and Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipe. Geocell reinforcement was modeled using a geogrid element, which was defined as a slender structure element that has the ability to withstand axial stresses but not to resist bending. Geogrids cannot withstand compression but they can withstand tensile forces. Comparisons have been made between the numerical models and experimental works, and a good agreement was obtained. Using the mathematical model, the performance of three different pipes of diameter 600 mm, 800 mm, and 1000 mm, and three different vehicular speeds of 20 km/h, 40 km/h, and 60 km/h, was examined to determine their impact on surface settlement and vertical pressure at the pipe crown for two cases: with and without geocell reinforcement. The results showed that, for a pipe diameter of 600 mm under geocell reinforcement, surface settlement decreases by 94 % when the speed of the vehicle is 20 km/h and by 98% when the speed of the vehicle is 60 km/h. Vertical pressure decreases by 81 % when the diameter of the pipe is 600 mm, while the value decreases to 58 % for a pipe with diameter 1000 mm. The results show that geocell reinforcement causes a significant and positive reduction in surface settlement and vertical stress above the pipe crown, leading to an increase in pipe safety.

Keywords: Dynamic loading, geocell reinforcement, GRP pipe, PLAXIS 3D, surface settlement.

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5 Image Magnification Using Adaptive Interpolationby Pixel Level Data-Dependent Geometrical Shapes

Authors: Muhammad Sajjad, Naveed Khattak, Noman Jafri

Abstract:

World has entered in 21st century. The technology of computer graphics and digital cameras is prevalent. High resolution display and printer are available. Therefore high resolution images are needed in order to produce high quality display images and high quality prints. However, since high resolution images are not usually provided, there is a need to magnify the original images. One common difficulty in the previous magnification techniques is that of preserving details, i.e. edges and at the same time smoothing the data for not introducing the spurious artefacts. A definitive solution to this is still an open issue. In this paper an image magnification using adaptive interpolation by pixel level data-dependent geometrical shapes is proposed that tries to take into account information about the edges (sharp luminance variations) and smoothness of the image. It calculate threshold, classify interpolation region in the form of geometrical shapes and then assign suitable values inside interpolation region to the undefined pixels while preserving the sharp luminance variations and smoothness at the same time. The results of proposed technique has been compared qualitatively and quantitatively with five other techniques. In which the qualitative results show that the proposed method beats completely the Nearest Neighbouring (NN), bilinear(BL) and bicubic(BC) interpolation. The quantitative results are competitive and consistent with NN, BL, BC and others.

Keywords: Adaptive, digital image processing, imagemagnification, interpolation, geometrical shapes, qualitative &quantitative analysis.

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4 Reducing CO2 Emission Using EDA and Weighted Sum Model in Smart Parking System

Authors: Rahman Ali, Muhammad Sajjad, Farkhund Iqbal, Muhammad Sadiq Hassan Zada, Mohammed Hussain

Abstract:

Emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) has adversely affected the environment. One of the major sources of CO2 emission is transportation. In the last few decades, the increase in mobility of people using vehicles has enormously increased the emission of CO2 in the environment. To reduce CO2 emission, sustainable transportation system is required in which smart parking is one of the important measures that need to be established. To contribute to the issue of reducing the amount of CO2 emission, this research proposes a smart parking system. A cloud-based solution is provided to the drivers which automatically searches and recommends the most preferred parking slots. To determine preferences of the parking areas, this methodology exploits a number of unique parking features which ultimately results in the selection of a parking that leads to minimum level of CO2 emission from the current position of the vehicle. To realize the methodology, a scenario-based implementation is considered. During the implementation, a mobile application with GPS signals, vehicles with a number of vehicle features and a list of parking areas with parking features are used by sorting, multi-level filtering, exploratory data analysis (EDA, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)) and weighted sum model (WSM) to rank the parking areas and recommend the drivers with top-k most preferred parking areas. In the EDA process, “2020testcar-2020-03-03”, a freely available dataset is used to estimate CO2 emission of a particular vehicle. To evaluate the system, results of the proposed system are compared with the conventional approach, which reveal that the proposed methodology supersedes the conventional one in reducing the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere.

Keywords: CO2 emission, IoT, EDA, Weighted Sum Model, WSM, regression, smart parking system.

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3 Synthesis of PVA/γ-Fe2O3 Used in Cancer Treatment by Hyperthermia

Authors: Sajjad Seifi Mofarah, S. K. Sadrnezhaad, Shokooh Moghadam, Javad Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent years a new method of combination treatment for cancer has been developed and studied that has led to significant advancements in the field of cancer therapy. Hyperthermia is a traditional therapy that, along with a creation of a medically approved level of heat with the help of an alternating magnetic AC current, results in the destruction of cancer cells by heat. This paper gives details regarding the production of the spherical nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in order to be used for medical purposes such as tumor treatment by hyperthermia. To reach a suitable and evenly distributed temperature, the nanocomposite with core-shell morphology and spherical form within a 100 to 200 nanometer size was created using phase separation emulsion, in which the magnetic nano-particles γ- Fe2O3 with an average particle size of 20 nano-meters and with different percentages of 0.2, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 were covered by polyvinyl alcohol. The main concern in hyperthermia and heat treatment is achieving desirable specific absorption rate (SAR) and one of the most critical factors in SAR is particle size. In this project all attempts has been done to reach minimal size and consequently maximum SAR. The morphological analysis of the spherical structure of the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 was achieved by SEM analyses and the study of the chemical bonds created was made possible by FTIR analysis. To investigate the manner of magnetic nanocomposite particle size distribution a DLS experiment was conducted. Moreover, to determine the magnetic behavior of the γ- Fe2O3 particle and the nanocomposite PVA/γ-Fe2O3 in different concentrations a VSM test was conducted. To sum up, creating magnetic nanocomposites with a spherical morphology that would be employed for drug loading opens doors to new approaches in developing nanocomposites that provide efficient heat and a controlled release of drug simultaneously inside the magnetic field, which are among their positive characteristics that could significantly improve the recovery process in patients.

Keywords: Nanocomposite, hyperthermia, cancer therapy, drug release.

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2 Evaluation of Water Quality of the Beshar River

Authors: Fardin Boustani, Mohammah Hosein Hojati, Masoud Hashemi

Abstract:

The Beshar River is one aquatic ecosystem, which is located next to the city of Yasuj in southern Iran. The Beshar river has been contaminated by industrial factories such as effluent of sugar factory, agricultural and other activities in this region such as, Imam Sajjad hospital, drainage from agricultural farms, Yasuj urban surface runoff and effluent of wastewater treatment plants ,specially Yasuj waste water treatment plant. In order to evaluate the effects of these pollutants on the quality of the Beshar river, five monitoring stations were selected along its course. The first station is located upstream of Yasuj near the Dehnow village; stations 2 to 4 are located east, south and west of city; and the 5th station is located downstream of Yasuj. Several water quality parameters were sampled. These include pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), temperature, conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids and discharge or flow measurements. Water samples from the five stations were collected and analyzed to determine the following physicochemical parameters: EC, pH, T.D.S, T.H, No2, DO, BOD5, COD during 2008 to 2010. The study shows that the BOD5 value of station 1 is at a minimum (1.7 ppm) and increases downstream from stations 2 to 4 to a maximum (11.6 ppm), and then decreases at station 5. The DO values of station 1 is a maximum (8.45 ppm), decreases downstream to stations 2 - 4 which are at a minimum (3.1 ppm), before increasing at station 5. The amount of BOD and TDS are highest at the 4th station and the amount of DO is lowest at this station, marking the 4th station as more highly polluted than the other stations .This study shows average amount of the water quality parameters in first year of sampling (2008) have had a better quality relation to third year in 2010 because of recent drought in this region and pollutant increasing .As the Beshar river path after 5th station goes through the mountain area with more slope and flow velocity ,so the physicochemical parameters improve at the 5th station due to pollutant degradation and dilution. Finally the point and nonpoint pollutant sources of Beshar river were determined and compared to the monitoring results.

Keywords: Beshar river, physicochemical parameter, waterpollution, water quality, Yasuj

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1 Investigation of Physical Properties of Asphalt Binder Modified by Recycled Polyethylene and Ground Tire Rubber

Authors: Sajjad H. Kasanagh, Perviz Ahmedzade, Alexander Fainleib, Taylan Gunay

Abstract:

Modification of asphalt is a fundamental method around the world mainly on the purpose of providing more durable pavements which lead to diminish repairing cost during the lifetime of highways. Various polymers such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) make up the greater parts of the all-over asphalt modifiers generally providing better physical properties of asphalt by decreasing temperature dependency which eventually diminishes permanent deformation on highways such as rutting. However, some waste and low-cost materials such as recycled plastics and ground rubber tire have been attempted to utilize in asphalt as modifier instead of manufactured polymer modifiers due to decreasing the eventual highway cost. On the other hand, the usage of recycled plastics has become a worldwide requirement and awareness in order to decrease the pollution made by waste plastics. Hence, finding an area in which recycling plastics could be utilized has been targeted by many research teams so as to reduce polymer manufacturing and plastic pollution. To this end, in this paper, thermoplastic dynamic vulcanizate (TDV) obtained from recycled post-consumer polyethylene and ground tire rubber (GTR) were used to provide an efficient modifier for asphalt which decreases the production cost as well and finally might provide an ecological solution by decreasing polymer disposal problems. TDV was synthesized by the chemists in the research group by means of the abovementioned components that are considered as compatible physical characteristic of asphalt materials. TDV modified asphalt samples having different rate of proportions of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 wt.% TDV modifier were prepared. Conventional tests, such as penetration, softening point and roll thin film oven (RTFO) tests were performed to obtain fundamental physical and aging properties of the base and modified binders. The high temperature performance grade (PG) of binders was determined by Superpave tests conducted on original and aged binders. The multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) test which is relatively up-to-date method for classifying asphalts taking account of their elasticity abilities was carried out to evaluate PG plus grades of binders. The results obtained from performance grading, and MSCR tests were also evaluated together so as to make a comparison between the methods both aiming to determine rheological parameters of asphalt. The test results revealed that TDV modification leads to a decrease in penetration, an increase in softening point, which proves an increasing stiffness of asphalt. DSR results indicate an improvement in PG for modified binders compared to base asphalt. On the other hand, MSCR results that are compatible with DSR results also indicate an enhancement on rheological properties of asphalt. However, according to the results, the improvement is not as distinct as observed in DSR results since elastic properties are fundamental in MSCR. At the end of the testing program, it can be concluded that TDV can be used as modifier which provides better rheological properties for asphalt and might diminish plastic waste pollution since the material is 100% recycled.

Keywords: Asphalt, ground tire rubber, recycled polymer, thermoplastic dynamic vulcanized.

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