Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Asthma

16 The IVAIRE Study: Relative Performance of Energy and Heat Recovery Ventilators in Cold Climates

Authors: D. Aubin, D. Won, H. Schleibinger, P. Lajoie, D. Gauvin, J.-M. Leclerc

Abstract:

This paper describes the results obtained in a two-year randomized intervention field study investigating the impact of ventilation rates on indoor air quality (IAQ) and the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Québec City, Canada. The focus of this article is on the comparative effectiveness of heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) and energy recovery ventilators (ERVs) at increasing ventilation rates, improving IAQ, and maintaining an acceptable indoor relative humidity (RH). In 14% of the homes, the RH was found to be too low in winter. Providing more cold and dry outside air to under-ventilated homes in winter further reduces indoor RH. Thus, low-RH homes in the intervention group were chosen to receive ERVs (instead of HRVs) to increase the ventilation rate. The installation of HRVs or ERVs led to a near doubling of the ventilation rates in the intervention group homes which led to a significant reduction in the concentration of several key of pollutants. The ERVs were also effective in maintaining an acceptable indoor RH since they avoided excessive dehumidification of the home by recovering moisture from the exhaust airstream through the enthalpy core, otherwise associated with increased cold supply air rates.

Keywords: Asthma, field study, indoor air quality, ventilation.

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15 HelpMeBreathe: A Web-Based System for Asthma Management

Authors: Alia Al Rayssi, Mahra Al Marar, Alyazia Alkhaili, Reem Al Dhaheri, Shayma Alkobaisi, Hoda Amer

Abstract:

We present in this paper a web-based system called “HelpMeBreathe” for managing asthma. The proposed system provides analytical tools, which allow better understanding of environmental triggers of asthma, hence better support of data-driven decision making. The developed system provides warning messages to a specific asthma patient if the weather in his/her area might cause any difficulty in breathing or could trigger an asthma attack. HelpMeBreathe collects, stores, and analyzes individuals’ moving trajectories and health conditions as well as environmental data. It then processes and displays the patients’ data through an analytical tool that leads to an effective decision making by physicians and other decision makers.

Keywords: Asthma, environmental triggers, map interface, peak flow, web-based system.

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14 Nebulized Magnesium Sulfate in Acute Moderate to Severe Asthma in Pediatric Patients

Authors: Lubna M. Zakaryia Mahmoud, Mohammed A. Dawood, Doaa A. Heiba

Abstract:

A prospective double-blind placebo controlled trial carried out on 60 children known to be asthmatic who presented to the emergency department at Alexandria University of Children’s Hospital at El-Shatby with acute asthma exacerbations to assess the efficacy of adding inhaled magnesium sulfate to β-agonist, compared with β-agonist in saline, in the management of acute asthma exacerbations in children. The participants in the study were divided in two groups; Group A (study group) received inhaled salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) plus isotonic magnesium sulfate 2 ml in a nebulizer chamber. Group B (control group): received nebulized salbutamol solution (0.15 ml/kg) diluted with placebo (2 ml normal saline). Both groups received inhaled solution every 20 minutes that was repeated for three doses. They were evaluated using the Pediatric Asthma Severity Score (PASS), oxygen saturation using portable pulse oximetry and peak expiratory flow rate using a portable peak expiratory flow meter at initially recorded as zero-minute assessment and every 20 minutes from the end of each nebulization (nebulization lasts 5-10 minutes) recorded as 20, 40 and 60-minute assessments. Regarding PASS, comparison showed non-significant difference with p-value 0.463, 0.472, 0.0766 at 20, 40 and 60 minutes. Regarding oxygen saturation, improvement was more significant towards group A starting from 40 min with significant p-value=0.000. At 60 min p-value=0.000. Although mean PEFR significantly improved from zero-min in both groups; however, improvement was more significant in group A with significant p-value = 0.015, 0.001, 0.001 at 20 min, 40 min and 60 min, respectively. The conclusion this study suggests is that inhaled magnesium sulfate is an efficient add on drug to standard β- agonist inhalation used in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma exacerbations.

Keywords: Nebulized, magnesium sulfate, acute asthma, pediatric.

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13 Health Assessment and Disorders of External Respiration Function among Physicians

Authors: A. G. Margaryan

Abstract:

Aims and Objectives: Assessment of health status and detection disorders of external respiration functions (ERF) during preventative medical examination among physicians of Armenia. Subjects and Methods: Overall, fifty-nine physicians (17 men and 42 women) were examined and spirometry was carried out. The average age of the physicians was 50 years old. The studies were conducted on the Micromedical MicroLab 3500 Spirometer. Results: 25.4% among 59 examined physicians are overweight; 22.0% of them suffer from obesity. Two physicians are currently smokers. About half of the examined physicians (50.8%) at the time of examination were diagnosed with some diseases and had different health-related problems (excluding the problems related to vision and hearing). FVC was 2.94±0.1, FEV1 – 2.64±0.1, PEF – 329.7±19.9, and FEV1%/FVC – 89.7±1.3. Pathological changes of ERF are identified in 23 (39.0%) cases. 28.8% of physicians had first degree of restrictive disorders, 3.4% – first degree of combined obstructive/ restrictive disorders, 6.8% – second degree of combined obstructive/ restrictive disorders. Only three physicians with disorders of the ERF were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. There were no statistically significant changes in ERF depending on the severity of obesity (P> 0.05). Conclusion: The study showed the prevalence of ERF among physicians, observing mainly mild and moderate changes in ERF parameters.

Keywords: Armenia, external respiration function, health status, physicians.

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12 The Use of Substances and Sports Performance among Youth: Implications for Lagos State Sports

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Adesanya Adebisi Joseph, Omolade Akinmade Olatunde

Abstract:

The focus of this study was to determine the factors associated with the use of substances for sport performance of youth in Lagos state sport. Questionnaire was the instrument used for the study. Descriptive research method was used. The estimated population for the study was 2000 sport men and women. The sample size was 200 respondents for purposive sampling techniques were used. The instrument was validated in it content and constructs value. The instrument was administered with the assistance of the coaches. Same 200 copies administered were returned. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage and chi-square (x2) for stated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The finding reveal that sport injuries exercise induced and anaphylaxis and asthma and feeling of loss of efficacy associated with alcohol used on sport performance among the users of substances. Alcohol users are recommended to partake in sport like swimming, basketball and volleyball because they have space of time for resting while at play. Government should be fully in charge of the health of sport men and women.

Keywords: Implications, Lagos state, substances, sports performance, youths.

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11 Fiber Optic Sensors for Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Measurement

Authors: H. Akbari Khorami, P. Wild, N. Djilali

Abstract:

This paper reports on the response of a fiber-optic sensing probe to small concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapor at room temperature. H2O2 has extensive applications in industrial and medical environments. Conversely, H2O2 can be a health hazard by itself. For example, H2O2 induces cellular damage in human cells and its presence can be used to diagnose illnesses such as asthma and human breast cancer. Hence, development of reliable H2O2 sensor is of vital importance to detect and measure this species. Ferric ferrocyanide, referred to as Prussian Blue (PB), was deposited on the tip of a multimode optical fiber through the single source precursor technique and served as an indicator of H2O2 in a spectroscopic manner. Sensing tests were performed in H2O2-H2O vapor mixtures with different concentrations of H2O2. The results of sensing tests show the sensor is able to detect H2O2 concentrations in the range of 50.6 ppm to 229.5 ppm. Furthermore, the sensor response to H2O2 concentrations is linear in a log-log scale with the adjacent R-square of 0.93. This sensing behavior allows us to detect and quantify the concentration of H2O2 in the vapor phase.

Keywords: Chemical deposition, fiber-optic sensors, hydrogen peroxide vapor, prussian blue.

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10 T Cell Immunity Profile in Pediatric Obesity and Asthma

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Erkut Karasu, Burcu Ozdilek, Burhan Turgut, Birol Topcu, Burcin Nalbantoglu, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

The mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma may be related to a decreased immunological tolerance induced by a defective function of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The aim of this study is to establish the potential link between these diseases and CD4+, CD25+ FoxP3+ Tregs as well as T helper cells (Ths) in children. This is a prospective case control study. Obese (n:40), asthmatic (n:40), asthmatic obese (n:40) and healthy children (n:40), who don't have any acute or chronic diseases, were included in this study. Obese children were evaluated according to WHO criteria. Asthmatic patients were chosen based on GINA criteria. Parents were asked to fill up the questionnaire. Informed consent forms were taken. Blood samples were marked with CD4+, CD25+ and FoxP3+ in order to determine Tregs and Ths by flow cytometric method. Statistical analyses were performed. p≤0.05 was chosen as meaningful threshold. Tregs exhibiting anti-inflammatory nature were significantly lower in obese (0,16%; p≤0,001), asthmatic (0,25%; p≤0,01) and asthmatic obese (0,29%; p≤0,05) groups than the control group (0,38%). Ths were counted higher in asthma group than the control (p≤0,01) and obese (p≤0,001) groups. T cell immunity plays important roles in obesity and asthma pathogeneses. Decreased numbers of Tregs found in obese, asthmatic and asthmatic obese children may help to elucidate some questions in pathophysiology of these diseases. For HOMA-IR levels, any significant difference was not noted between control and obese groups, but statistically higher values were found for obese asthmatics. The values obtained in all groups were found to be below the critical cut off points. This finding has made the statistically significant difference observed between Tregs of obese, asthmatic, obese asthmatic and control groups much more valuable. These findings will be useful in diagnosis and treatment of these disorders and future studies are needed. The production and propagation of Tregs may be promising in alternative asthma and obesity treatments.

Keywords: Asthma, flow cytometry, pediatric obesity, T cells.

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9 Successful Management of a Boy with Mild Persistent Asthma (A Longitudinal Case)

Authors: Lubis A., Setiawati L., Setyoningrum A. R., Suryawan A., Irwanto

Abstract:

Asthma is a condition that causing chronic health problems in children. In addition to basic therapy against disease, we must try to reduce the impact of chronic health problems and also optimize their medical aspect of growth and development. A boy with mild asthma attack frequent episode did not showed any improvement with medical treatment and his asthma control test was 11. From radiologic examination he got hyperaerated lung and billateral sinusitis maxillaris; skin test results were house dust, food and pet allergy; an overweight body; bad school grades; psychological and environmental problem. We followed and evaluated this boy in 6 months, treated holistically. Even we could not do much on environmental but no more psychological and school problems, his on a good bodyweight and his asthma control test was 22. A case of a child with mild asthma attack frequent episode was reported. Asthma clinical course show no significant improvement when other predisposing factor is not well-controlled and a child’s growth and development may be affected. Improving condition of the patient can be created with the help of loving and caring way of nurturing from the parents and supportive peer group. Therefore, continuous and consistent monitoring is required because prognosis of asthma is generally good when regularly and properly controlled.

Keywords: Asthma, chronic health problems, growth and development.

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8 Perceptions of Health Status and Lifestyle Health Behaviors of Poor People in Mauritius

Authors: Smita S. D. Goorah, Melisha Panchoo

Abstract:

In Mauritius, much emphasis is put on measures to combat the high prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Health promotion campaigns for the adoption of healthy behaviors and screening programs are done regularly by local authorities and NCD surveys are carried out at intervals. However, the health behaviors of the poor have not been investigated so far. This study aims to give an insight on the perceptions of health status and lifestyle health behaviors of poor people in Mauritius. A crosssectional study among 83 persons benefiting from social aid in a selected urban district was carried out. Results showed that 51.8% of respondents perceived that they had good health status. 57.8% had no known NCD whilst 25.3% had hypertension, followed by diabetes (16.9%), asthma (9.6%) and heart disease (7.2%).They had low smoking (10.8%) and alcohol consumption (6.0%) as well as high physical activity prevalence (54.2%). These results were significantly different from the NCD survey carried out in the general population. Consumption of vegetables in the study was high. Overweight and obesity trends were however similar to the NCD survey report 2009. These findings contrast with other international studies showing poor people having poor perceptions of health status and unhealthy behavioral choices. Whether these positive health behaviors of poor people in Mauritius arise out of choice or whether it is because the alternative behavior is too costly remains to be investigated further.

Keywords: Health behavior, non-communicable diseases, poor people.

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7 Drug Combinations with Steroid Dispensing in Drugstores: A Study in the Center Area of Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: P. Thongmuang

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were 1) to survey the number of drugstores that unlawful dispense of asthma prescription drugs, in form of drug combinations in the Phaya Thai district of Bangkok, 2) to find the steroids contained in that drug combinations, 3) to find a means for informing general public about the dangers of drugs and for a campaign to stop dispensing them. Researcher collected drug combinations from 69 drugstores in Phaya Thai district from Feb 15, 2012 to Mar 15, 2012. The survey found 30.43%, 21, drug stores, sold asthma drug combinations to customers without a prescription. These collected samples were tested for steroid contamination by using Immunochromatography kits. Eleven samples, 52.38%, were found contaminated with steroids. In short, there should be control and inspection of drugstores in the distribution of steroid medications. To improve the knowledge of self health maintenance and drug usage among public, Thai Government and Department of Public Health should educate people about the side effects of using drug combinations and steroids.

Keywords: Dispensing, Drug Combinations, Steroids

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6 Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Young Asthmatic Children Ages 6-10 Years Old

Authors: Yen-Ting Wang, Kenny Wen-Chyuan Chen, I-Tsun Chiang, Lung-Ching Liang, Alex J.Y. Lee

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility of a minute incremental exercise testing protocol in young asthma children. Twenty-two children with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate asthma volunteered to participate. The maximum incremental exercise test was performed using a cycle ergometer with an electromagnetic braking. A warm-up unloaded for 2 minutes then the workload was started at 40 watts for 2 minutes, and then stepwise increments of 8 watts per 2 minutes were applied. The pedaling frequency was set at 50 rpm. Ventilation and gas exchange were measured with a breath-by-breath automatic metabolic measurement system. Results showed that this test was well tolerated by all asthmatic children. Most of the children reached the VO2 plateau and satisfied the criteria for maximal respiratory exchange ratio of ≥ 1. This Study demonstrated that this testing protocol was suitable for young asthmatic children.

Keywords: Asthma, Child, Exercise, Pediatrics.

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5 Polyphenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activities of Nigella Sativa Seed Extracts In Vitro and In Vivo

Authors: Asma Meziti, Hicham Meziti, Kaouthar Boudiaf, Benboubetra Mustapha, Hemama Bouriche.

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. is an aromatic plant belonging to the family Ranunculaceae. It has been used traditionally, especially in the middle East and India, for the treatment of asthma, cough, bronchitis, headache, rheumatism, fever, influenza and eczema. Several biological activities have been reported in Nigella sativa seeds, including antioxidant. In this context we tried to estimate the antioxidant activity of various extracts prepared from Nigella sativa seeds, methanolic extract (ME), chloroformic extract (CE), hexanic extract (HE : fixed oil), ethyl acetate extract (EAE) water extract (WE). The Folin-Ciocalteu assay showed that CE and EAE contained high level of phenolic compounds 81.31 and 72.43μg GAE/mg of extract respectively. Similarly, the CE and EAE exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 106.56μg/ml and 121.62μg/ml respectively. In addition, CE and HE showed the most scavenging activity against superoxide radical generated in the PMS-NADH-NBT system with respective IC50 values of 361.86 μg/ml and 371.80 μg/ml, which is comparable to the activity of the standard antioxidant BHT (344.59 μg/ml). Ferrous ion chelating capacity assay showed that WE, EAE and ME are the most active with 40.57, 39.70 and 22.02 mg EDTA-E/g of extract. The inhibition of linoleic acid/ß-carotene coupled oxidation was estimated by ßcarotene bleaching assay, this showed a highest relative antioxidant activity with CE and EAE (69.82% of inhibition). The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract and the fixed oil are confirmed by an in vivo assay in mice, the daily oral administration of methanolic extract (500 and 800 mg/kg/day) and fixed oil (2 and 4 ml/kg/day) during 21 days, resulted in a significant enhancement of the blood total antioxidant capacity (measured by KRL test) and the plasmatic antioxidant capacity towards DPPH radical.

Keywords: Antioxidant Capacity, Chelating, Phenolic Compounds, Nigella Sativa, Scavenger

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4 The Acaricidal and Repellent Effect of Cinnamon Essential Oil against House Dust Mite

Authors: Je-Hoon Michael Oh

Abstract:

The major source of allergy in home is the house dust mite (Dematophagoides farina, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) causing allergic symptom include atopic dermatitis, asthma, perennial rhinitis and even infant death syndrome. Control of this mite species is dependent on the use of chemical methods such as fumigation treatments with methylene bromide, spraying with organophosphates such as pirimiphos-methyl, or treatments with repellents such as DEET and benzyl benzoate. Although effective, their repeated use for decades has sometimes resulted in development of resistance and fostered environmental and human health concerns. Both decomposing animal parts and the protein that surrounds mite fecal pellets cause mite allergy. So it is more effective to repel than to kill them because allergen is not living house dust mite but dead body or fecal particles of house dust mite. It is important to find out natural repellent material against house dust mite to control them and reduce the allergic reactions. Plants may be an alternative source for dust mite control because they contain a range of bioactive chemicals. The research objectives of this paper were to verify the acaricidal and repellent effects of cinnamon essential oil and to find out it-s most effective concentrations. We could find that cinnamon bark essential oil was very effective material to control the house dust mite. Furthermore, it could reduce chemical resistance and danger for human health.

Keywords: house dust mite, cinnamon, repellent effect

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3 Incidence of Chronic Disease and Lipid Profile in Veteran Rugby Athletes

Authors: Mike Climstein, Joe Walsh, John Best, Ian Timothy Heazlewood, Stephen Burke, Jyrki Kettunen, Kent Adams, Mark DeBeliso

Abstract:

Recently, the health of retired National Football League players, particularly lineman has been investigated. A number of studies have reported increased cardiometabolic risk, premature cardiovascular disease and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Rugby union players have somatotypes very similar to National Football League players which suggests that rugby players may have similar health risks. The International Golden Oldies World Rugby Festival (GORF) provided a unique opportunity to investigate the demographics of veteran rugby players. METHODOLOGIES: A cross-sectional, observational study was completed using an online web-based questionnaire that consisted of medical history and physiological measures. Data analysis was completed using a one sample t-test (<50yrs versus >50yrs) and Chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 216 veteran rugby competitors (response rate = 6.8%) representing 10 countries, aged 35-72 yrs (mean 51.2, S.D. ±8.0), participated in the online survey. As a group, the incidence of current smokers was low at 8.8% (avg 72.4 cigs/wk) whilst the percentage consuming alcohol was high (93.1% (avg 11.2 drinks/wk). Competitors reported the following top six chronic diseases/disorders; hypertension (18.6%), arthritis (OA/RA, 11.5%), asthma (9.3%), hyperlipidemia (8.2%), diabetes (all types, 7.5%) and gout (6%), there were significant differences between groups with regard to cancer (all types) and migraines. When compared to the Australian general population (Australian Bureau of Statistics data, n=18,000), GORF competitors had a significantly lower incidence of anxiety (p<0.01), arthritis (p<0.06), depression (p<.01) however, a significantly higher incidence of diabetes (p<0.03) and hypertension (p<0.01). The GORF competitors also reported taking the following prescribed medications; antihypertensive (13%), hypolipidemics (8%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (6%), and anticoagulants (4%). Significant differences between groups were observed in antihypertensives, anticoagulants and hypolipidemics. There were significant (p<0.05) differences between groups (<50yrs versus >50yrs) with regard to height (180 vs 177cm), weight (97.6 vs 93.1Kg-s), BMI (30 vs 29.7kg/m2) and waist circumference (85.7 vs 93.1cm) however, there were no differences in subsequent parameters of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides-C or fasting plasma glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This represents the first collection of demographics on this cohort. GORF participants demonstrated increased cardiometabolic risk with regard to the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Preventative strategies should be developed to reduce this risk with education of these risks for future participants.

Keywords: Masters athlete, rugby union, risk factors, chronic disease

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2 Physiological and Pathology Demographics of Veteran Rugby Athletes: Golden Oldies Rugby Festival

Authors: Climstein Mike, Walsh Joe, John Best, Heazlewood Ian Timothy, Burke Stephen, Kettunen Jyrki, Adams Kent, DeBeliso Mark

Abstract:

Recently, the health of retired National Football League players, particularly lineman has been investigated. A number of studies have reported increased cardiometabolic risk, premature ardiovascular disease and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Rugby union players have somatotypes very similar to National Football league players which suggest that rugby players may have similar health risks. The International Golden Oldies World Rugby Festival (GORF) provided a unique opportunity to investigate the demographics of veteran rugby players. METHODOLOGIES: A cross-sectional, observational study was completed using an online web-based questionnaire that consisted of medical history and physiological measures. Data analysis was completed using a one sample t-test (<50yrs versus >50yrs) and Chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 216 veteran rugby competitors (response rate = 6.8%) representing 10 countries, aged 35-72 yrs (mean 51.2, S.D. ±8.0), participated in the online survey. As a group, the incidence of current smokers was low at 8.8% (avg 72.4 cigs/wk) whilst the percentage consuming alcohol was high (93.1% (avg 11.2 drinks/wk). Competitors reported the following top six chronic diseases/disorders; hypertension (18.6%), arthritis (OA/RA, 11.5%), asthma (9.3%), hyperlipidemia (8.2%), diabetes (all types, 7.5%) and gout (6%), there were significant differences between groups with regard to cancer (all types) and migraines. When compared to the Australian general population (Australian Bureau of Statistics data, n=18,000), GORF competitors had a Climstein Mike, Walsh Joe (corresponding author) and Burke Stephen School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, 25A Barker Road, Strathfield, Sydney, NSW, 2016, Australia (e-mail: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]). John Best is with Orthosports, 160 Belmore Rd., Randwick, Sydney,NSW 2031, Australia (e-mail: [email protected]). Heazlewood, Ian Timothy is with School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty Education, Health and Science, Charles Darwin University, Precinct Yellow Building 2, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909, Australia (e-mail: [email protected]). Kettunen Jyrki Arcada University of Applied Sciences, Jan-Magnus Janssonin aukio 1, FI-00550, Helsinki, Finland (e-mail: [email protected]). Adams Kent is with California State University Monterey Bay, Kinesiology Department, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA., 93955, USA (email: [email protected]). DeBeliso Mark is with Department of Physical Education and Human Performance, Southern Utah University, 351 West University Blvd, Cedar City, Utah, USA (e-mail: [email protected]). significantly lower incidence of anxiety (p<0.01), arthritis (p<0.06), depression (p<.01) however, a significantly higher incidence of diabetes (p<0.03) and hypertension (p<0.01). The GORF competitors also reported taking the following prescribed medications; antihypertensive (13%), hypolipidemics (8%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (6%), and anticoagulants (4%). Significant differences between groups were observed in antihypertensives, anticoagulants and hypolipidemics. There were significant (p<0.05) differences between groups (<50yrs versus >50yrs) with regard to height (180 vs 177cm), weight (97.6 vs 93.1Kg-s), BMI (30 vs 29.7kg/m2) and waist circumference (85.7 vs 93.1cm) however, there were no differences in subsequent parameters of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides-C or fasting plasma glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This represents the first collection of demographics on this cohort. GORF participants demonstrated increased cardiometabolic risk with regard to the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Preventative strategies should be developed to reduce this risk with education of these risks for future participants.

Keywords: Masters athlete, rugby union, risk factors, chronic disease.

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1 A Perspective Study of Asthma and its Control in Assam (India)

Authors: S. Vijayakumar, M. Sasikala, T. S. Mohammed Saleem, Gurusharan, K. Gauthaman

Abstract:

The main objective of our study is to collect data about the profile of the asthmatic patients in Assam and thereby have a comprehensive knowledge of the factors influencing the asthmatic patients of the state and their medication pattern. We developed a search strategy to find any publication about the community based survey asthma related and used. These to search the MEDLINE (1996 to current literature) CINAHL DOAJ pubmed databases using the key phrases, Asthma, Respiratory disorders, Drug therapy of Asthma, database decision support system and asthma. The appropriate literature was printed out from the online source and library (Journal) source. The study was conducted through a set of structured and non-structured questionnaires targeted on the asthmatic patients belonging to the rural and urban areas of Assam, during the month of Dec 2006 to July 2007, 138 cases were studied in Gauwathi Medical College & Hospital located in Bhangagarh, Assam in India. The demographic characteristics a factor in 138 patients with asthma with allergic rhinitis (cases) gives the detail profile of asthmatic patient-s distribution of Assam as classified on the basis of age and sex. It is evident from the study that male populations (66%) are more prone to asthma as compared to the females (34%).Another striking features that emerged from this survey is the maximum prevalence of asthma in the age group of 20- 30 years followed by infants belonging to the age group of 7 (0.05%) 0-10years among both male and female populations of Assam. The high incidence of asthma in the age group of 20-30 years may probably be due to the allergy arising out of sudden exposure to dust and pollen which the children face while playing and going to the school. The rural females in the age group of 30-40 years are more prone to asthma than urban females in the same age group may be due to sex differentiation among the tribal population of the state. Pharmacists should educate the asthmatics how to use inhalers considering growing menace of asthma in the state. Safer drugs should be produced in the form of aerosol so that easy administration by the asthmatic patients and physicians of the state is possible for curing asthma. The health centers should be more equipped with the medicines to cure asthma in the state like Assam.

Keywords: Asthma, Respiratory disease, Smoker.

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