Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 340

Search results for: space syntax

340 Multi-Scale Urban Spatial Evolution Analysis Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study in Modern Yangzhou, China

Authors: Dai Zhimei, Hua Chen

Abstract:

The exploration of urban spatial evolution is an important part of urban development research. Therefore, the evolutionary modern Yangzhou urban spatial texture was taken as the research object, and Spatial Syntax was used as the main research tool, this paper explored Yangzhou spatial evolution law and its driving factors from the urban street network scale, district scale and street scale. The study has concluded that at the urban scale, Yangzhou urban spatial evolution is the result of a variety of causes, including physical and geographical condition, policy and planning factors, and traffic conditions, and the evolution of space also has an impact on social, economic, environmental and cultural factors. At the district and street scales, changes in space will have a profound influence on the history of the city and the activities of people. At the end of the article, the matters needing attention during the evolution of urban space were summarized.

Keywords: Space Syntax, spatial texture, urban space, Yangzhou.

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339 Research on Spatial Morphology and Protection of Traditional Rural Settlements Based on Space Syntax: Taking Xiazhuang Village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as Example

Authors: Shenpu Liu

Abstract:

Space syntax, a paradigm of the urban research, which manifests people’s intuitive and abstract perception of a material space with a solid mathematical way, explores how space represents its social characteristics. Taking Xiazhuang village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as an example and focusing on inward structure and street space, this article recognizes the connotative significance of the settlement with the aid of space syntax theory and quantitative analysis method from the perspective of spatial configuration to present relevant suggestions for its future planning and provides references for traditional rural settlement protection.

Keywords: Shijia village, space configuration, space syntax, traditional rural settlement, Xiazhuang village.

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338 Comparative Spatial Analysis of a Re-arranged Hospital Building

Authors: Burak Köken, Hatice D. Arslan, Bilgehan Y. Çakmak

Abstract:

Analyzing the relation networks between the hospital buildings which have complex structure and distinctive spatial relationships is quite difficult. The hospital buildings which require specialty in spatial relationship solutions during design and selfinnovation through the developing technology should survive and keep giving service even after the disasters such as earthquakes. In this study, a hospital building where the load-bearing system was strengthened because of the insufficient earthquake performance and the construction of an additional building was required to meet the increasing need for space was discussed and a comparative spatial evaluation of the hospital building was made with regard to its status before the change and after the change. For this reason, spatial organizations of the building before change and after the change were analyzed by means of Space Syntax method and the effects of the change on space organization parameters were searched by applying an analytical procedure. Using Depthmap UCL software, Connectivity, Visual Mean Depth, Beta and Visual Integration analyses were conducted. Based on the data obtained after the analyses, it was seen that the relationships between spaces of the building increased after the change and the building has become more explicit and understandable for the occupants. Furthermore, it was determined according to findings of the analysis that the increase in depth causes difficulty in perceiving the spaces and the changes considering this problem generally ease spatial use.

Keywords: Architecture, hospital building, space syntax, strengthening.

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337 The Relations between Spatial Structure and Land Price

Authors: Jung-Hun Cho, Tae-Heon Moon, Jin-Hak Lee

Abstract:

Land price contains the comprehensive characteristics of urban space, representing the social and economic features of the city. Accordingly, land price can be utilized as an indicator, which can identify the changes of spatial structure and socioeconomic variations caused by urban development. This study attempted to explore the changes in land price by a new road construction. Methodologically, it adopted Space Syntax, which can interpret urban spatial structure comprehensively, to identify the relationship between the forms of road networks and land price. The result of the regression analysis showed the ‘integration index’ of Space Syntax is statistically significant and has a strong correlation with land price. If the integration value is high, land price increases proportionally. Subsequently, using regression equation, it tried to predict the land price changes of each of the lots surrounding the roads that are newly opened. The research methods or study results have the advantage of predicting the changes in land price in an easy way. In addition, it will contribute to planners and project managers to establish relevant polices and smoothing urban regeneration projects through enhancing residents’ understanding by providing possible results and advantages in their land price before the execution of urban regeneration and development projects.

Keywords: Space syntax, urban regeneration, spatial structure, official land price.

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336 Comparing and Combining the Axial with the Network Maps for Analyzing Urban Street Pattern

Authors: Nophaket Napong

Abstract:

Rooted in the study of social functioning of space in architecture, Space Syntax (SS) and the more recent Network Pattern (NP) researches demonstrate the 'spatial structures' of city, i.e. the hierarchical patterns of streets, junctions and alley ends. Applying SS and NP models, planners can conceptualize the real city-s patterns. Although, both models yield the optimal path of the city their underpinning displays of the city-s spatial configuration differ. The Axial Map analyzes the topological non-distance-based connectivity structure, whereas, the Central-Node Map and the Shortcut-Path Map, in contrast, analyze the metrical distance-based structures. This research contrasts and combines them to understand various forms of city-s structures. It concludes that, while they reveal different spatial structures, Space Syntax and Network Pattern urban models support each the other. Combining together they simulate the global access and the locally compact structures namely the central nodes and the shortcuts for the city.

Keywords: Street pattern, space syntax, syntactic and metrical models, network pattern models.

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335 Spatial Integration at the Room-Level of 'Sequina' Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Ali Essam El Shazly

Abstract:

The social logic of 'Sequina' slum area in Alexandria details the integral measure of space syntax at the room-level of twenty-building samples. The essence of spatial structure integrates the central 'visitor' domain with the 'living' frontage of the 'children' zone against the segregated privacy of the opposite 'parent' depth. Meanwhile, the multifunctioning of shallow rooms optimizes the integral 'visitor' structure through graph and visibility dimensions in contrast to the 'inhabitant' structure of graph-tails out of sight. Common theme of the layout integrity increases in compensation to the decrease of room visibility. Despite the 'pheno-type' of collective integration, the individual layouts observe 'geno-type' structure of spatial diversity per room adjoins. In this regard, the layout integrity alternates the cross-correlation of the 'kitchen & living' rooms with the 'inhabitant & visitor' domains of 'motherhood' dynamic structure. Moreover, the added 'grandparent' restructures the integral measure to become the deepest space, but opens to the 'living' of 'household' integrity. Some isomorphic layouts change the integral structure just through the 'balcony' extension of access, visual or ignored 'ringiness' of space syntax. However, the most integrated or segregated layouts invert the 'geno-type' into a shallow 'inhabitant' centrality versus the remote 'visitor' structure. Overview of the multivariate social logic of spatial integrity could never clarify without the micro-data analysis.

Keywords: Alexandria, Sequina slum, spatial integration, space syntax.

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334 Spatial Structure of First-Order Voronoi for the Future of Roundabout Cairo since 1867

Authors: Ali Essam El Shazly

Abstract:

The Haussmannization plan of Cairo in 1867 formed a regular network of roundabout spaces, though deteriorated at present. The method of identifying the spatial structure of roundabout Cairo for conservation matches the voronoi diagram with the space syntax through their geometrical property of spatial convexity. In this initiative, the primary convex hull of first-order voronoi adopts the integral and control measurements of space syntax on Cairo’s roundabout generators. The functional essence of royal palaces optimizes the roundabout structure in terms of spatial measurements and the symbolic voronoi projection of 'Tahrir Roundabout' over the Giza Nile and Pyramids. Some roundabouts of major public and commercial landmarks surround the pole of 'Ezbekia Garden' with a higher control than integral measurements, which filter the new spatial structure from the adjacent traditional town. Nevertheless, the least integral and control measures correspond to the voronoi contents of pollutant workshops and the plateau of old Cairo Citadel with the visual compensation of new royal landmarks on top. Meanwhile, the extended suburbs of infinite voronoi polygons arrange high control generators of chateaux housing in 'garden city' environs. The point pattern of roundabouts determines the geometrical characteristics of voronoi polygons. The measured lengths of voronoi edges alternate between the zoned short range at the new poles of Cairo and the distributed structure of longer range. Nevertheless, the shortest range of generator-vertex geometry concentrates at 'Ezbekia Garden' where the crossways of vast Cairo intersect, which maximizes the variety of choice at different spatial resolutions. However, the symbolic 'Hippodrome' which is the largest public landmark forms exclusive geometrical measurements, while structuring a most integrative roundabout to parallel the royal syntax. Overview of the symbolic convex hull of voronoi with space syntax interconnects Parisian Cairo with the spatial chronology of scattered monuments to conceive one universal Cairo structure. Accordingly, the approached methodology of 'voronoi-syntax' prospects the future conservation of roundabout Cairo at the inferred city-level concept.

Keywords: Roundabout Cairo, first-order Voronoi, space syntax, spatial structure.

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333 Street Network in Bandung City, Indonesia: Comparison between City Center and New Commercial Area

Authors: Siska Soesanti, Norihiro Nakai

Abstract:

Bandung city center can be deemed as economic, social and cultural center. However the city center suffers from deterioration. The retail activities tend to shift outward the city center. Numerous idyllic residences changed into business premises in two villages situated in the north part of the city during 1990s, especially after a new highway and flyover opened. According to space syntax theory, the pattern of spatial integration in the urban grid is a prime determinant of movement patterns in the system. The syntactic analysis results show the flyover has insignificant influence on street network in the city center. However the flyover has been generating a major difference in the new commercial area since it has become relatively as strategic as the city center. Besides street network, local government policy, rapid private motorization and particular condition of each site also played important roles in encouraging the current commercial areas to flourish.

Keywords: City center, commercial area, space syntax, street network.

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332 PIL Theory

Authors: A. Peveri

Abstract:

The curvature space-time by the presence of material, this deformation must present a pattern of deformation, not random. Space is uniform, elastic and any modification that occurs in one part, causes a change in another.

This deformation exists, must be a constant value and is independent of the observer, and relates the amount of matter, the force caused by the curvature of space and surface space. This unit of space is defined in this study as PIL and represents a constant area of space, deformable in the direction and sense of the center of mass of the body. The PIL is curved and connected to the center of mass of the Earth, to get to that point, through all matter, thus forming part of any place between particles at atomic and subatomic levels. At these levels the space between each particle is flat, unlike the macro where the space curves.

Keywords: Space flat, Space curved, Unit of space, Deformation.

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331 A Preliminary Study of the Reconstruction of Urban Residential Public Space in the Context of the “Top-down” Construction Model in China: Based on Research of TianZiFang District in Shanghai and Residential Space in Hangzhou

Authors: Wang Qiaowei, Gao Yujiang

Abstract:

With the economic growth and rapid urbanization after the reform and openness, some of China's fast-growing cities have demolished former dwellings and built modern residential quarters. The blind, incomplete reference to western modern cities and the one-off construction lacking feedback mechanism have intensified such phenomenon, causing the citizen gradually expanded their living scale with the popularization of car traffic, and the peer-to-peer lifestyle gradually settled. The construction of large-scale commercial centers has caused obstacles to small business around the residential areas, leading to space for residents' interaction has been compressed. At the same time, the advocated Central Business District (CBD) model even leads to the unsatisfactory reconstruction of many historical blocks such as the Hangzhou Southern Song Dynasty Imperial Street. However, the popularity of historical spaces such as Wuzhen and Hongcun also indicates the collective memory and needs of the street space for Chinese residents. The evolution of Shanghai TianZiFang also proves the importance of the motivation of space participants in space construction in the context of the “top-down” construction model in China. In fact, there are frequent occurrences of “reconstruction”, which may redefine the space, in various residential areas. If these activities can be selectively controlled and encouraged, it will be beneficial to activate the public space as well as the residents’ intercourse, so that the traditional Chinese street space can be reconstructed in the context of modern cities.

Keywords: Rapid urbanization, traditional street space, space re-construction, bottom-up design.

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330 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia

Abstract:

The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: International conventions, national legislation, space faring nation, space law.

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329 Space Telemetry Anomaly Detection Based on Statistical PCA Algorithm

Authors: B. Nassar, W. Hussein, M. Mokhtar

Abstract:

The critical concern of satellite operations is to ensure the health and safety of satellites. The worst case in this perspective is probably the loss of a mission, but the more common interruption of satellite functionality can result in compromised mission objectives. All the data acquiring from the spacecraft are known as Telemetry (TM), which contains the wealth information related to the health of all its subsystems. Each single item of information is contained in a telemetry parameter, which represents a time-variant property (i.e. a status or a measurement) to be checked. As a consequence, there is a continuous improvement of TM monitoring systems to reduce the time required to respond to changes in a satellite's state of health. A fast conception of the current state of the satellite is thus very important to respond to occurring failures. Statistical multivariate latent techniques are one of the vital learning tools that are used to tackle the problem above coherently. Information extraction from such rich data sources using advanced statistical methodologies is a challenging task due to the massive volume of data. To solve this problem, in this paper, we present a proposed unsupervised learning algorithm based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The algorithm is particularly applied on an actual remote sensing spacecraft. Data from the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) was acquired under two operation conditions: normal and faulty states. The models were built and tested under these conditions, and the results show that the algorithm could successfully differentiate between these operations conditions. Furthermore, the algorithm provides competent information in prediction as well as adding more insight and physical interpretation to the ADCS operation.

Keywords: Space telemetry monitoring, multivariate analysis, PCA algorithm, space operations.

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328 IFS on the Multi-Fuzzy Fractal Space

Authors: Nadia M. G. AL-Sa'idi, Muhammad Rushdan Md. Sd., Adil M. Ahmed

Abstract:

The IFS is a scheme for describing and manipulating complex fractal attractors using simple mathematical models. More precisely, the most popular “fractal –based" algorithms for both representation and compression of computer images have involved some implementation of the method of Iterated Function Systems (IFS) on complete metric spaces. In this paper a new generalized space called Multi-Fuzzy Fractal Space was constructed. On these spases a distance function is defined, and its completeness is proved. The completeness property of this space ensures the existence of a fixed-point theorem for the family of continuous mappings. This theorem is the fundamental result on which the IFS methods are based and the fractals are built. The defined mappings are proved to satisfy some generalizations of the contraction condition.

Keywords: Fuzzy metric space, Fuzzy fractal space, Multi fuzzy fractal space.

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327 Optimal Straight Line Trajectory Generation in 3D Space using Deviation Algorithm

Authors: T. C. Manjunath, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient method of obtaining a straight-line motion in the tool configuration space using an articulated robot between two specified points. The simulation results & the implementation results show the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: Bounded deviation algorithm, Straight line motion, Tool configuration space, Joint space, TCV.

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326 Localization for Indoor Service Robot Using Natural Landmark on the Ceiling

Authors: Seung-Hun Kim, Changwoo Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a localization of a mobile robot with localization modules which have two ceiling-view cameras in indoor environments. We propose two kinds of localization method. The one is the localization in the local space; we use the line feature and the corner feature between the ceiling and wall. The other is the localization in the large space; we use the natural features such as bulbs, structures on the ceiling. These methods are installed on the embedded module able to mount on the robot. The embedded module has two cameras to be able to localize in both the local space and the large spaces. The experiment is practiced in our indoor test-bed and a government office. The proposed method is proved by the experimental results.

Keywords: Robot, Localization, Indoor, Ceiling vision, Local space, Large space, Complex space.

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325 Reclaiming Pedestrian Space from Car Dominated Neighborhoods

Authors: Andreas L. Savvides

Abstract:

For a long time as a result of accommodating car traffic, planning ideologies in the past put a low priority on public space, pedestrianism and the role of city space as a meeting place for urban dwellers. In addition, according to authors such as Jan Gehl, market forces and changing architectural perceptions began to shift the focus of planning practice from the integration of public space in various pockets around the contemporary city to individual buildings. Eventually, these buildings have become increasingly more isolated and introverted and have turned their backs to the realm of the public space adjoining them. As a result of this practice, the traditional function of public space as a social forum for city dwellers has in many cases been reduced or even phased out. Author Jane Jacobs published her seminal book “The Death and Life of Great American Cities" more than fifty years ago, but her observations and predictions at the time still ring true today, where she pointed out how the dramatic increase in car traffic and its accommodation by the urban planning ideology that was brought about by the Modern movement has prompted a separation of the uses of the city. At the same time it emphasizes free standing buildings that threaten urban space and city life and result in underutilized and lifeless urban cores. In this discussion context, the aim of this paper is to showcase a reversal of just such a situation in the case of the Dasoupolis neighborhood in Strovolos, Cyprus, where enlightened urban design practice has see the reclamation of pedestrian space in a car dominated area.

Keywords: Urban Design, Public Space, Right to the City, Accessibility, Mobility

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324 A New Class F2 (M, 0, N)L„ p)F of The Double Difference Sequences of Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: N. Subramanian, C. Murugesan

Abstract:

The double difference sequence space I2 (M, of fuzzy numbers for both 1 < p < oo and 0 < p < 1, is introduced. Some general properties of this sequence space are studied. Some inclusion relations involving this sequence space are obtained.

Keywords: Orlicz function, solid space, metric space, completeness

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323 Three Phase Fault Analysis of DC-Link Rectifier using new Power Differential Protection Concept

Authors: A. Gamil, G. Herold

Abstract:

The concept of differential protection based on current quantities has been discussed in many paper and researches. For certificating and inverting of currents and voltages through converter systems, there is no conventional current differential relay, which can compare current quantities, because they are different in form and frequencies. An overview over a new concept of differential protection for converters based on instantaneous power quantities will be discussed in this paper. To drive the power quantities a mathematical background of the space vectors will be introduced. A simple DCLink is preceded in this paper and a power analysis description and simulation is derived using Matlab®/ SimulinkTM concerning a certain construction scheme of Power Differential Relay System. Finally a complete analysis of three phase fault in DC-Link Rectifier is discussed to ensure the ability of Power Differential Protection System to detect the fault in main and selectivity protection sections.

Keywords: Space Vectors, Power Differential Relay (PDR), Short Circuit Power, Diode Recovery Energy, Detected Power Differential Signal (DPDS), Power Space Vector (PSV), Power Space Vector Protection Area (PSVPA).

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322 Weighted Composition Operators Acting between Kind of Weighted Bergman-Type Spaces and the Bers-Type Space

Authors: Amnah E. Shammahy

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the boundedness and compactness of the weighted composition operator Wu,φ, which is induced by an holomorphic function u and holomorphic self-map φ, acting between the NK-space and the Bers-type space Hα on the unit disk.

Keywords: Weighted composition operators, NK-space, Bers-type space.

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321 Comics as Third Space: An Analysis of the Continuous Negotiation of Identities in Postcolonial Philippines

Authors: Anna Camille V. Flores

Abstract:

Comics in the Philippines has taken on many uses for the Filipino people. They have been sources of entertainment, education, and political and social commentaries. History has been witnessed to the rise and fall of Philippine comics but the 21st century is seeing a revival of the medium and the industry. It is within this context that an inquiry about Filipino identity is situated. Employing the analytical framework of postcolonialism, particularly Homi K. Bhabha’s concepts of Hybridity and the Third Space, this study analyzes three contemporary Philippine comics, Trese, Filipino Heroes League, and Dead Balagtas. The study was able to draw three themes that represent how Filipinos inhabit hybrid worlds and hybridized identities. First, the third space emerged through the use of hybrid worlds in the comics. Second, (re)imagined communities are established through the use of intertextual signifiers. Third, (re)negotiated identities are expressed through visual and narrative devices such as the use of Philippine mythology, historical and contemporary contexts, and language. In conclusion, comics can be considered as Third Space where these identities have the agency and opportunity to be expressed and represented.

Keywords: Comics, hybridity and third space, Philippine comics, postcolonialism.

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320 Analytical Solution of Time-Harmonic Torsional Vibration of a Cylindrical Cavity in a Half-Space

Authors: M.Eskandari-Ghadi, M.Mahmoodian

Abstract:

In this article an isotropic linear elastic half-space with a cylindrical cavity of finite length is considered to be under the effect of a ring shape time-harmonic torsion force applied at an arbitrary depth on the surface of the cavity. The equation of equilibrium has been written in a cylindrical coordinate system. By means of Fourier cosine integral transform, the non-zero displacement component is obtained in the transformed domain. With the aid of the inversion theorem of the Fourier cosine integral transform, the displacement is obtained in the real domain. With the aid of boundary conditions, the involved boundary value problem for the fundamental solution is reduced to a generalized Cauchy singular integral equation. Integral representation of the stress and displacement are obtained, and it is shown that their degenerated form to the static problem coincides with existing solutions in the literature.

Keywords: Cosine transform, Half space, Isotropic, Singular integral equation, Torsion

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319 Continuous Text Translation Using Text Modeling in the Thetos System

Authors: Nina Suszczanska, Przemyslaw Szmal, Slawomir Kulikow

Abstract:

In the paper a method of modeling text for Polish is discussed. The method is aimed at transforming continuous input text into a text consisting of sentences in so called canonical form, whose characteristic is, among others, a complete structure as well as no anaphora or ellipses. The transformation is lossless as to the content of text being transformed. The modeling method has been worked out for the needs of the Thetos system, which translates Polish written texts into the Polish sign language. We believe that the method can be also used in various applications that deal with the natural language, e.g. in a text summary generator for Polish.

Keywords: anaphora, machine translation, NLP, sign language, text syntax.

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318 Influence of IMV on Space Station

Authors: Fu Shiming, Pei Yifei

Abstract:

To study the impact of the inter-module ventilation (IMV) on the space station, the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model under the influence of IMV, the mathematical model, boundary conditions and calculation method are established and determined to analyze the influence of IMV on cabin air flow characteristics and velocity distribution firstly; and then an integrated overall thermal mathematical model of the space station is used to consider the impact of IMV on thermal management. The results show that: the IMV has a significant influence on the cabin air flow, the flowrate of IMV within a certain range can effectively improve the air velocity distribution in cabin, if too much may lead to its deterioration; IMV can affect the heat deployment of the different modules in space station, thus affecting its thermal management, the use of IMV can effectively maintain the temperature levels of the different modules and help the space station to dissipate the waste heat.

Keywords: CFD, Environment control and life support, Space station, Thermal management, Thermal mathematical model.

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317 Generative Syntaxes: Macro-Heterophony and the Form of ‘Synchrony’

Authors: Luminiţa Duţică, Gheorghe Duţică

Abstract:

One of the most powerful language innovation in the twentieth century music was the heterophony–hypostasis of the vertical syntax entered into the sphere of interest of many composers, such as George Enescu, Pierre Boulez, Mauricio Kagel, György Ligeti and others. The heterophonic syntax has a history of its growth, which means a succession of different concepts and writing techniques. The trajectory of settling this phenomenon does not necessarily take into account the chronology: there are highly complex primary stages and advanced stages of returning to the simple forms of writing. In folklore, the plurimelodic simultaneities are free or random and originate from the (unintentional) differences/‘deviations’ from the state of unison, through a variety of ornaments, melismas, imitations, elongations and abbreviations, all in a flexible rhythmic and non-periodic/immeasurable framework, proper to the parlando-rubato rhythmics. Within the general framework of the multivocal organization, the heterophonic syntax in elaborate (academic) version has imposed itself relatively late compared with polyphony and homophony. Of course, the explanation is simple, if we consider the causal relationship between the sound vocabulary elements – in this case, the modalism – and the typologies of vertical organization appropriate for it. Therefore, adding up the ‘classic’ pathway of the writing typologies (monody – polyphony – homophony), heterophony - applied equally to the structures of modal, serial or synthesis vocabulary – reclaims necessarily an own macrotemporal form, in the sense of the analogies enshrined by the evolution of the musical styles and languages: polyphony→fugue, homophony→sonata. Concerned about the prospect of edifying a new musical ontology, the composer Ştefan Niculescu experienced – along with the mathematical organization of heterophony according to his own original methods – the possibility of extrapolation of this phenomenon in macrostructural plan, reaching this way to the unique form of ‘synchrony’. Founded on coincidentia oppositorum principle (involving the ‘one-multiple’ binom), the sound architecture imagined by Ştefan Niculescu consists in one (temporal) model / algorithm of articulation of two sound states: 1. monovocality state (principle of identity) and 2. multivocality state (principle of difference). In this context, the heterophony becomes an (auto)generative mechanism, with macrotemporal amplitude, strategy that will be grown by the composer, practically throughout his creation (see the works: Ison I, Ison II, Unisonos I, Unisonos II, Duplum, Triplum, Psalmus, Héterophonies pour Montreux (Homages to Enescu and Bartók etc.). For the present demonstration, we selected one of the most edifying works of Ştefan Niculescu – Simphony II, Opus dacicum – where the form of (heterophony-)synchrony acquires monumental-symphonic features, representing an emblematic case for the complexity level achieved by this type of vertical syntax in the twentieth century music.

Keywords: Heterophony, modalism, serialism, synchrony, syntax.

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316 Development of Thermal Model by Performance Verification of Heat Pipe Subsystem for Electronic Cooling under Space Environment

Authors: MK Lee, JS Hong, SM Sin, HU Oh

Abstract:

Heat pipes are used to control the thermal problem for electronic cooling. It is especially difficult to dissipate heat to a heat sink in an environment in space compared to earth. For solving this problem, in this study, the Poiseuille (Po) number, which is the main measure of the performance of a heat pipe, is studied by CFD; then, the heat pipe performance is verified with experimental results. A heat pipe is then fabricated for a spatial environment, and an in-house code is developed. Further, a heat pipe subsystem, which consists of a heat pipe, MLI (Multi Layer Insulator), SSM (Second Surface Mirror), and radiator, is tested and correlated with the TMM (Thermal Mathematical Model) through a commercial code. The correlation results satisfy the 3K requirement, and the generated thermal model is verified for application to a spatial environment.

Keywords: CFD, Heat pipe, Radiator, Space.

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315 Positive Solutions of Second-order Singular Differential Equations in Banach Space

Authors: Li Xiguang

Abstract:

In this paper, by constructing a special set and utilizing fixed point index theory, we study the existence of solution for the boundary value problem of second-order singular differential equations in Banach space, which improved and generalize the result of related paper.

Keywords: Banach space, cone, fixed point index, singular equation.

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314 Localizing Acoustic Touch Impacts using Zip-stuffing in Complex k-space Domain

Authors: R. Bremananth, Andy W. H. Khong, A. Chitra

Abstract:

Visualizing sound and noise often help us to determine an appropriate control over the source localization. Near-field acoustic holography (NAH) is a powerful tool for the ill-posed problem. However, in practice, due to the small finite aperture size, the discrete Fourier transform, FFT based NAH couldn-t predict the activeregion- of-interest (AROI) over the edges of the plane. Theoretically few approaches were proposed for solving finite aperture problem. However most of these methods are not quite compatible for the practical implementation, especially near the edge of the source. In this paper, a zip-stuffing extrapolation approach has suggested with 2D Kaiser window. It is operated on wavenumber complex space to localize the predicted sources. We numerically form a practice environment with touch impact databases to test the localization of sound source. It is observed that zip-stuffing aperture extrapolation and 2D window with evanescent components provide more accuracy especially in the small aperture and its derivatives.

Keywords: Acoustic source localization, Near-field acoustic holography (NAH), FFT, Extrapolation, k-space wavenumber errors.

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313 Moving From Problem Space to Solution Space

Authors: Bilal Saeed Raja, M. Ali Iqbal, Imran Ihsan

Abstract:

Extracting and elaborating software requirements and transforming them into viable software architecture are still an intricate task. This paper defines a solution architecture which is based on the blurred amalgamation of problem space and solution space. The dependencies between domain constraints, requirements and architecture and their importance are described that are to be considered collectively while evolving from problem space to solution space. This paper proposes a revised version of Twin Peaks Model named Win Peaks Model that reconciles software requirements and architecture in more consistent and adaptable manner. Further the conflict between stakeholders- win-requirements is resolved by proposed Voting methodology that is simple adaptation of win-win requirements negotiation model and QARCC.

Keywords: Functional Requirements, Non Functional Requirements, Twin Peaks Model, QARCC.

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312 An Semantic Algorithm for Text Categoritation

Authors: Xu Zhao

Abstract:

Text categorization techniques are widely used to many Information Retrieval (IR) applications. In this paper, we proposed a simple but efficient method that can automatically find the relationship between any pair of terms and documents, also an indexing matrix is established for text categorization. We call this method Indexing Matrix Categorization Machine (IMCM). Several experiments are conducted to show the efficiency and robust of our algorithm.

Keywords: Text categorization, Sub-space learning, Latent Semantic Space

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311 An Automatic Tool for Checking Consistency between Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)

Authors: Rosziati Ibrahim, Siow Yen Yen

Abstract:

System development life cycle (SDLC) is a process uses during the development of any system. SDLC consists of four main phases: analysis, design, implement and testing. During analysis phase, context diagram and data flow diagrams are used to produce the process model of a system. A consistency of the context diagram to lower-level data flow diagrams is very important in smoothing up developing process of a system. However, manual consistency check from context diagram to lower-level data flow diagrams by using a checklist is time-consuming process. At the same time, the limitation of human ability to validate the errors is one of the factors that influence the correctness and balancing of the diagrams. This paper presents a tool that automates the consistency check between Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) based on the rules of DFDs. The tool serves two purposes: as an editor to draw the diagrams and as a checker to check the correctness of the diagrams drawn. The consistency check from context diagram to lower-level data flow diagrams is embedded inside the tool to overcome the manual checking problem.

Keywords: Data Flow Diagram, Context Diagram, ConsistencyCheck, Syntax and Semantic Rules

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