Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9325

Search results for: space syntax analysis

9325 Research on Spatial Morphology and Protection of Traditional Rural Settlements Based on Space Syntax: Taking Xiazhuang Village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as Example

Authors: Shenpu Liu

Abstract:

Space syntax, a paradigm of the urban research, which manifests people’s intuitive and abstract perception of a material space with a solid mathematical way, explores how space represents its social characteristics. Taking Xiazhuang village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as an example and focusing on inward structure and street space, this article recognizes the connotative significance of the settlement with the aid of space syntax theory and quantitative analysis method from the perspective of spatial configuration to present relevant suggestions for its future planning and provides references for traditional rural settlement protection.

Keywords: Shijia village, space configuration, space syntax, traditional rural settlement, Xiazhuang village.

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9324 Multi-Scale Urban Spatial Evolution Analysis Based on Space Syntax: A Case Study in Modern Yangzhou, China

Authors: Dai Zhimei, Hua Chen

Abstract:

The exploration of urban spatial evolution is an important part of urban development research. Therefore, the evolutionary modern Yangzhou urban spatial texture was taken as the research object, and Spatial Syntax was used as the main research tool, this paper explored Yangzhou spatial evolution law and its driving factors from the urban street network scale, district scale and street scale. The study has concluded that at the urban scale, Yangzhou urban spatial evolution is the result of a variety of causes, including physical and geographical condition, policy and planning factors, and traffic conditions, and the evolution of space also has an impact on social, economic, environmental and cultural factors. At the district and street scales, changes in space will have a profound influence on the history of the city and the activities of people. At the end of the article, the matters needing attention during the evolution of urban space were summarized.

Keywords: Space Syntax, spatial texture, urban space, Yangzhou.

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9323 The Relations between Spatial Structure and Land Price

Authors: Jung-Hun Cho, Tae-Heon Moon, Jin-Hak Lee

Abstract:

Land price contains the comprehensive characteristics of urban space, representing the social and economic features of the city. Accordingly, land price can be utilized as an indicator, which can identify the changes of spatial structure and socioeconomic variations caused by urban development. This study attempted to explore the changes in land price by a new road construction. Methodologically, it adopted Space Syntax, which can interpret urban spatial structure comprehensively, to identify the relationship between the forms of road networks and land price. The result of the regression analysis showed the ‘integration index’ of Space Syntax is statistically significant and has a strong correlation with land price. If the integration value is high, land price increases proportionally. Subsequently, using regression equation, it tried to predict the land price changes of each of the lots surrounding the roads that are newly opened. The research methods or study results have the advantage of predicting the changes in land price in an easy way. In addition, it will contribute to planners and project managers to establish relevant polices and smoothing urban regeneration projects through enhancing residents’ understanding by providing possible results and advantages in their land price before the execution of urban regeneration and development projects.

Keywords: Space syntax, urban regeneration, spatial structure, official land price.

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9322 Accessibility and Visibility through Space Syntax Analysis of the Linga Raj Temple in Odisha, India

Authors: S. Pramanik

Abstract:

Since the early ages, the Hindu temples have been interpreted through various Vedic philosophies. These temples are visited by pilgrims which demonstrate the rituals and religious belief of communities, reflecting a variety of actions and behaviors. Darsana a direct seeing, is a part of the pilgrimage activity. During the process of Darsana, a devotee is prepared for entry in the temple to realize the cognizing Truth culminating in visualizing the idol of God, placed at the Garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum). For this, the pilgrim must pass through a sequential arrangement of spaces. During the process of progress, the pilgrims visualize the spaces differently from various points of views. The viewpoints create a variety of spatial patterns in the minds of pilgrims coherent to the Hindu philosophies. The space organization and its order are perceived by various techniques of spatial analysis. A temple, as examples of Kalinga stylistic variations, has been chosen for the study. This paper intends to demonstrate some visual patterns generated during the process of Darsana (visibility) and its accessibility by Point Isovist Studies and Visibility Graph Analysis from the entrance (Simha Dwara) to The Sanctum sanctorum (Garbhagriha).

Keywords: Hindu Temple Architecture, Point Isovist, space syntax analysis, visibility graph analysis.

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9321 Comparing and Combining the Axial with the Network Maps for Analyzing Urban Street Pattern

Authors: Nophaket Napong

Abstract:

Rooted in the study of social functioning of space in architecture, Space Syntax (SS) and the more recent Network Pattern (NP) researches demonstrate the 'spatial structures' of city, i.e. the hierarchical patterns of streets, junctions and alley ends. Applying SS and NP models, planners can conceptualize the real city-s patterns. Although, both models yield the optimal path of the city their underpinning displays of the city-s spatial configuration differ. The Axial Map analyzes the topological non-distance-based connectivity structure, whereas, the Central-Node Map and the Shortcut-Path Map, in contrast, analyze the metrical distance-based structures. This research contrasts and combines them to understand various forms of city-s structures. It concludes that, while they reveal different spatial structures, Space Syntax and Network Pattern urban models support each the other. Combining together they simulate the global access and the locally compact structures namely the central nodes and the shortcuts for the city.

Keywords: Street pattern, space syntax, syntactic and metrical models, network pattern models.

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9320 Comparative Spatial Analysis of a Re-arranged Hospital Building

Authors: Burak Köken, Hatice D. Arslan, Bilgehan Y. Çakmak

Abstract:

Analyzing the relation networks between the hospital buildings which have complex structure and distinctive spatial relationships is quite difficult. The hospital buildings which require specialty in spatial relationship solutions during design and selfinnovation through the developing technology should survive and keep giving service even after the disasters such as earthquakes. In this study, a hospital building where the load-bearing system was strengthened because of the insufficient earthquake performance and the construction of an additional building was required to meet the increasing need for space was discussed and a comparative spatial evaluation of the hospital building was made with regard to its status before the change and after the change. For this reason, spatial organizations of the building before change and after the change were analyzed by means of Space Syntax method and the effects of the change on space organization parameters were searched by applying an analytical procedure. Using Depthmap UCL software, Connectivity, Visual Mean Depth, Beta and Visual Integration analyses were conducted. Based on the data obtained after the analyses, it was seen that the relationships between spaces of the building increased after the change and the building has become more explicit and understandable for the occupants. Furthermore, it was determined according to findings of the analysis that the increase in depth causes difficulty in perceiving the spaces and the changes considering this problem generally ease spatial use.

Keywords: Architecture, hospital building, space syntax, strengthening.

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9319 Spatial Integration at the Room-Level of 'Sequina' Slum Area in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Ali Essam El Shazly

Abstract:

The social logic of 'Sequina' slum area in Alexandria details the integral measure of space syntax at the room-level of twenty-building samples. The essence of spatial structure integrates the central 'visitor' domain with the 'living' frontage of the 'children' zone against the segregated privacy of the opposite 'parent' depth. Meanwhile, the multifunctioning of shallow rooms optimizes the integral 'visitor' structure through graph and visibility dimensions in contrast to the 'inhabitant' structure of graph-tails out of sight. Common theme of the layout integrity increases in compensation to the decrease of room visibility. Despite the 'pheno-type' of collective integration, the individual layouts observe 'geno-type' structure of spatial diversity per room adjoins. In this regard, the layout integrity alternates the cross-correlation of the 'kitchen & living' rooms with the 'inhabitant & visitor' domains of 'motherhood' dynamic structure. Moreover, the added 'grandparent' restructures the integral measure to become the deepest space, but opens to the 'living' of 'household' integrity. Some isomorphic layouts change the integral structure just through the 'balcony' extension of access, visual or ignored 'ringiness' of space syntax. However, the most integrated or segregated layouts invert the 'geno-type' into a shallow 'inhabitant' centrality versus the remote 'visitor' structure. Overview of the multivariate social logic of spatial integrity could never clarify without the micro-data analysis.

Keywords: Alexandria, Sequina slum, spatial integration, space syntax.

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9318 Street Network in Bandung City, Indonesia: Comparison between City Center and New Commercial Area

Authors: Siska Soesanti, Norihiro Nakai

Abstract:

Bandung city center can be deemed as economic, social and cultural center. However the city center suffers from deterioration. The retail activities tend to shift outward the city center. Numerous idyllic residences changed into business premises in two villages situated in the north part of the city during 1990s, especially after a new highway and flyover opened. According to space syntax theory, the pattern of spatial integration in the urban grid is a prime determinant of movement patterns in the system. The syntactic analysis results show the flyover has insignificant influence on street network in the city center. However the flyover has been generating a major difference in the new commercial area since it has become relatively as strategic as the city center. Besides street network, local government policy, rapid private motorization and particular condition of each site also played important roles in encouraging the current commercial areas to flourish.

Keywords: City center, commercial area, space syntax, street network.

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9317 Spatial Structure of First-Order Voronoi for the Future of Roundabout Cairo since 1867

Authors: Ali Essam El Shazly

Abstract:

The Haussmannization plan of Cairo in 1867 formed a regular network of roundabout spaces, though deteriorated at present. The method of identifying the spatial structure of roundabout Cairo for conservation matches the voronoi diagram with the space syntax through their geometrical property of spatial convexity. In this initiative, the primary convex hull of first-order voronoi adopts the integral and control measurements of space syntax on Cairo’s roundabout generators. The functional essence of royal palaces optimizes the roundabout structure in terms of spatial measurements and the symbolic voronoi projection of 'Tahrir Roundabout' over the Giza Nile and Pyramids. Some roundabouts of major public and commercial landmarks surround the pole of 'Ezbekia Garden' with a higher control than integral measurements, which filter the new spatial structure from the adjacent traditional town. Nevertheless, the least integral and control measures correspond to the voronoi contents of pollutant workshops and the plateau of old Cairo Citadel with the visual compensation of new royal landmarks on top. Meanwhile, the extended suburbs of infinite voronoi polygons arrange high control generators of chateaux housing in 'garden city' environs. The point pattern of roundabouts determines the geometrical characteristics of voronoi polygons. The measured lengths of voronoi edges alternate between the zoned short range at the new poles of Cairo and the distributed structure of longer range. Nevertheless, the shortest range of generator-vertex geometry concentrates at 'Ezbekia Garden' where the crossways of vast Cairo intersect, which maximizes the variety of choice at different spatial resolutions. However, the symbolic 'Hippodrome' which is the largest public landmark forms exclusive geometrical measurements, while structuring a most integrative roundabout to parallel the royal syntax. Overview of the symbolic convex hull of voronoi with space syntax interconnects Parisian Cairo with the spatial chronology of scattered monuments to conceive one universal Cairo structure. Accordingly, the approached methodology of 'voronoi-syntax' prospects the future conservation of roundabout Cairo at the inferred city-level concept.

Keywords: Roundabout Cairo, first-order Voronoi, space syntax, spatial structure.

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9316 Urban Life on the Go: Urban Transformation of Public Space

Authors: E. Zippelius

Abstract:

Urban design aims to provide a stage for public life that, when once brought to life, is right away subject to subtle but continuous transformation. This paper explores such transformations and searches for ways how public life can be reinforced in the case of a housing settlement for the displaced in Nicosia, Cyprus. First, a sound basis of theoretical knowledge is established through literature review, notably the theory of the Production of Space by Henri Lefebvre, exploring its potential and defining key criteria for the following empirical analysis. The analysis is pinpointing the differences between spatial practice, representation of space and spaces of representation as well as their interaction, alliance, or even conflict. In doing so uncertainties, chances and challenges are unraveled that will be consequently linked to practice and action and lead to the formulation of a design strategy. A strategy, though, that does not long for achieving an absolute, finite certainty but understands the three dimensions of space formulated by Lefebvre as equal and space as continuously produced, hence, unfinished.

Keywords: Production of space, public space, urban life, urban transformation.

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9315 Definition of a Computing Independent Model and Rules for Transformation Focused on the Model-View-Controller Architecture

Authors: Vanessa Matias Leite, Jandira Guenka Palma, Flávio Henrique de Oliveira

Abstract:

This paper presents a model-oriented development approach to software development in the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural standard. This approach aims to expose a process of extractions of information from the models, in which through rules and syntax defined in this work, assists in the design of the initial model and its future conversions. The proposed paper presents a syntax based on the natural language, according to the rules agreed in the classic grammar of the Portuguese language, added to the rules of conversions generating models that follow the norms of the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Meta-Object Facility MOF.

Keywords: Model driven architecture, model-view-controller, bnf syntax, model, transformation, UML.

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9314 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: Image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, Classification.

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9313 PIL Theory

Authors: A. Peveri

Abstract:

The curvature space-time by the presence of material, this deformation must present a pattern of deformation, not random. Space is uniform, elastic and any modification that occurs in one part, causes a change in another.

This deformation exists, must be a constant value and is independent of the observer, and relates the amount of matter, the force caused by the curvature of space and surface space. This unit of space is defined in this study as PIL and represents a constant area of space, deformable in the direction and sense of the center of mass of the body. The PIL is curved and connected to the center of mass of the Earth, to get to that point, through all matter, thus forming part of any place between particles at atomic and subatomic levels. At these levels the space between each particle is flat, unlike the macro where the space curves.

Keywords: Space flat, Space curved, Unit of space, Deformation.

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9312 A Proposal for U-City (Smart City) Service Method Using Real-Time Digital Map

Authors: SangWon Han, MuWook Pyeon, Sujung Moon, DaeKyo Seo

Abstract:

Recently, technologies based on three-dimensional (3D) space information are being developed and quality of life is improving as a result. Research on real-time digital map (RDM) is being conducted now to provide 3D space information. RDM is a service that creates and supplies 3D space information in real time based on location/shape detection. Research subjects on RDM include the construction of 3D space information with matching image data, complementing the weaknesses of image acquisition using multi-source data, and data collection methods using big data. Using RDM will be effective for space analysis using 3D space information in a U-City and for other space information utilization technologies.

Keywords: RDM, multi-source data, big data, U-City.

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9311 Digital Transformation as the Subject of the Knowledge Model of the Discursive Space

Authors: Rafal Maciag

Abstract:

Due to the development of the current civilization, one must create suitable models of its pervasive massive phenomena. Such a phenomenon is the digital transformation, which has a substantial number of disciplined, methodical interpretations forming the diversified reflection. This reflection could be understood pragmatically as the current temporal, a local differential state of knowledge. The model of the discursive space is proposed as a model for the analysis and description of this knowledge. Discursive space is understood as an autonomous multidimensional space where separate discourses traverse specific trajectories of what can be presented in multidimensional parallel coordinate system. Discursive space built on the world of facts preserves the complex character of that world. Digital transformation as a discursive space has a relativistic character that means that at the same time, it is created by the dynamic discourses and these discourses are molded by the shape of this space.

Keywords: Knowledge, digital transformation, discourse, discursive space, complexity.

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9310 Behavior Factor of Flat Double-Layer Space Structures

Authors: Behnam Shirkhanghah, Vahid Shahbaznejhad-Fard, Houshyar Eimani-Kalesar, Babak Pahlevan

Abstract:

Flat double-layer grid is from category of space structures that are formed from two flat layers connected together with diagonal members. Increased stiffness and better seismic resistance in relation to other space structures are advantages of flat double layer space structures. The objective of this study is assessment and calculation of Behavior factor of flat double layer space structures. With regarding that these structures are used widely but Behavior factor used to design these structures against seismic force is not determined and exact, the necessity of study is obvious. This study is theoretical. In this study we used structures with span length of 16m and 20 m. All connections are pivotal. ANSYS software is used to non-linear analysis of structures.

Keywords: Behavior factor, Double-layer, Intensified resistance, Non-linear analysis

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9309 Performance Analysis of Space-Time Trellis Coded OFDM System

Authors: Yi Hong, Zhao Yang Dong

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance analysis of space-time trellis codes in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems (STTC-OFDMs) over quasi-static frequency selective fading channels. In particular, the effect of channel delay distributions on the code performance is discussed. For a STTCOFDM over multiple-tap channels, two extreme conditions that produce the largest minimum determinant are highlighted. The analysis also proves that the corresponding coding gain increases with the maximum tap delay. The performance of STTC-OFDM, under various channel conditions, is evaluated by simulation. It is shown that the simulation results agree with the performance analysis.

Keywords: Space-time trellis code, OFDM, delay profile.

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9308 A Computational Model for Resolving Pronominal Anaphora in Turkish Using Hobbs- Naïve Algorithm

Authors: Pınar Tüfekçi, Yılmaz Kılıçaslan

Abstract:

In this paper we present a computational model for pronominal anaphora resolution in Turkish. The model is based on Hobbs’ Naїve Algorithm [4, 5, 6], which exploits only the surface syntax of sentences in a given text.

Keywords: Anaphora Resolution, Pronoun Resolution, Syntax based Algorithms, Naїve Algorithm.

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9307 The Frame Analysis and Testing for Student Formula

Authors: Tanawat Limwathanagura, Chartree Sithananun, Teekayu Limchamroon, Thanyarat Singhanart

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to study the analysis and testing for determining the torsional stiffness of the student formula-s space frame. From past study, the space frame for Chulalongkorn University Student Formula team used in 2011 TSAE Auto Challenge Student Formula in Thailand was designed by considering required mass and torsional stiffness based on the numerical method and experimental method. The numerical result was compared with the experimental results to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame. It can be seen from the large error of torsional stiffness of 2011 frame that the experimental result can not verify by the numerical analysis due to the different between the numerical model and experimental setting. In this paper, the numerical analysis and experiment of the same 2011 frame model is performed by improving the model setting. The improvement of both numerical analysis and experiment are discussed to confirm that the models from both methods are same. After the frame was analyzed and tested, the results are compared to verify the torsional stiffness of the frame. It can be concluded that the improved analysis and experiments can used to verify the torsional stiffness of the space frame.

Keywords: Space Frame, Student Formula, Torsional Stiffness, TSAE Auto Challenge

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9306 A New Class F2 (M, 0, N)L„ p)F of The Double Difference Sequences of Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: N. Subramanian, C. Murugesan

Abstract:

The double difference sequence space I2 (M, of fuzzy numbers for both 1 < p < oo and 0 < p < 1, is introduced. Some general properties of this sequence space are studied. Some inclusion relations involving this sequence space are obtained.

Keywords: Orlicz function, solid space, metric space, completeness

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9305 Effectiveness and Performance of Spatial Communication within Composite Interior Space: The Wayfinding System in the Saudi National Museum as a Case Study

Authors: Afnan T. Bagasi, Donia M. Bettaieb, Abeer Alsobahi

Abstract:

The wayfinding system affects the course of a museum journey for visitors, both directly and indirectly. The design aspects of this system play an important role, making it an effective communication system within the museum space. However, translating the concepts that pertain to its design, and which are based on integration and connectivity in museum space design, such as intelligibility, lacks customization in the form of specific design considerations with reference to the most important approaches. These approaches link the organizational and practical aspects to the semiotic and semantic aspects related to the space syntax by targeting the visual and perceived consistency of visitors. In this context, the present study aims to identify how to apply the concept of intelligibility by employing integration and connectivity to design a wayfinding system in museums as a kind of composite interior space. Using the available plans and images to extrapolate the considerations used to design the wayfinding system in the Saudi National Museum as a case study, a descriptive analytical method was used to understand the basic organizational and Morphological principles of the museum space through the main aspects of space design (the Morphological and the pragmatic). The study’s methodology is based on the description and analysis of the basic organizational and Morphological principles of the museum space at the level of the major Morphological and Pragmatic design layers (based on available pictures and diagrams) and inductive method about applied level of intelligibility in spatial layout in the Hall of Islam and Arabia at the National Museum Saudi Arabia within the framework of a case study through the levels of verification of the properties of the concepts of connectivity and integration. The results indicated that the application of the characteristics of intelligibility is weak on both Pragmatic and Morphological levels. Based on the concept of connective and integration, we conclude the following: (1) High level of reflection of the properties of connectivity on the pragmatic level, (2) Weak level of reflection of the properties of Connectivity at the morphological level (3) Weakness in the level of reflection of the properties of integration in the space sample as a result of a weakness in the application at the morphological and pragmatic level. The study’s findings will assist designers, professionals, and researchers in the field of museum design in understanding the significance of the wayfinding system by delving into it through museum spaces by highlighting the most essential aspects using a clear analytical method.

Keywords: wayfinding system, museum journey, intelligibility, integration, connectivity, interior design

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9304 UB-Tree Indexing for Semantic Query Optimization of Range Queries

Authors: S. Housseno, A. Simonet, M. Simonet

Abstract:

Semantic query optimization consists in restricting the search space in order to reduce the set of objects of interest for a query. This paper presents an indexing method based on UB-trees and a static analysis of the constraints associated to the views of the database and to any constraint expressed on attributes. The result of the static analysis is a partitioning of the object space into disjoint blocks. Through Space Filling Curve (SFC) techniques, each fragment (block) of the partition is assigned a unique identifier, enabling the efficient indexing of fragments by UB-trees. The search space corresponding to a range query is restricted to a subset of the blocks of the partition. This approach has been developed in the context of a KB-DBMS but it can be applied to any relational system.

Keywords: Index, Range query, UB-tree, Space Filling Curve, Query optimization, Views, Database, Integrity Constraint, Classification.

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9303 Analysis of Feature Space for a 2d/3d Vision based Emotion Recognition Method

Authors: Robert Niese, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

In modern human computer interaction systems (HCI), emotion recognition is becoming an imperative characteristic. The quest for effective and reliable emotion recognition in HCI has resulted in a need for better face detection, feature extraction and classification. In this paper we present results of feature space analysis after briefly explaining our fully automatic vision based emotion recognition method. We demonstrate the compactness of the feature space and show how the 2d/3d based method achieves superior features for the purpose of emotion classification. Also it is exposed that through feature normalization a widely person independent feature space is created. As a consequence, the classifier architecture has only a minor influence on the classification result. This is particularly elucidated with the help of confusion matrices. For this purpose advanced classification algorithms, such as Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Networks are employed, as well as the simple k- Nearest Neighbor classifier.

Keywords: Facial expression analysis, Feature extraction, Image processing, Pattern Recognition, Application.

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9302 Database Modelling Using WSML in the Specification of a Banking Application

Authors: Omid Sharifi, Member, ACM, Zeki Bayram, Member, ACM

Abstract:

We demonstrate through a sample application, Ebanking, that the Web Service Modelling Language Ontology component can be used as a very powerful object-oriented database design language with logic capabilities. Its conceptual syntax allows the definition of class hierarchies, and logic syntax allows the definition of constraints in the database. Relations, which are available for modelling relations of three or more concepts, can be connected to logical expressions, allowing the implicit specification of database content. Using a reasoning tool, logic queries can also be made against the database in simulation mode.

Keywords: Semantic web, ontology, E-banking, database, WSML, WSMO, E-R diagram.

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9301 Syntax Sensitive and Language Independent Detection of Code Clones

Authors: Kazuaki Maeda

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new technique to detect code clones from the lexical and syntactic point of view, which is based on PALEX source code representation. The PALEX code contains the recorded parsing actions and also lexical formatting information including white spaces and comments. We can record a list of parsing actions (shift, reduce, and reading a token) during a compiling process after a compiler finishes analyzing the source code. The proposed technique has advantages for syntax sensitive approach and language independency.

Keywords: Code Clones, Source Code Representation, XML, Parser, Parser Generator

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9300 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia

Abstract:

The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: International conventions, national legislation, space faring nation, space law.

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9299 Authentication Analysis of the 802.11i Protocol

Authors: Zeeshan Furqan, Shahabuddin Muhammad, Ratan Guha

Abstract:

IEEE has designed 802.11i protocol to address the security issues in wireless local area networks. Formal analysis is important to ensure that the protocols work properly without having to resort to tedious testing and debugging which can only show the presence of errors, never their absence. In this paper, we present the formal verification of an abstract protocol model of 802.11i. We translate the 802.11i protocol into the Strand Space Model and then prove the authentication property of the resulting model using the Strand Space formalism. The intruder in our model is imbued with powerful capabilities and repercussions to possible attacks are evaluated. Our analysis proves that the authentication of 802.11i is not compromised in the presented model. We further demonstrate how changes in our model will yield a successful man-in-the-middle attack.

Keywords: authentication, formal analysis, formal verification, security.

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9298 The Quality of Public Space in Mexico City: Current State and Trends

Authors: Mildred Moreno Villanueva

Abstract:

Public space is essential to strengthen the social and urban fabric and the social cohesion; there lies the importance of its study. Hence, the aim of this paper is to analyze the quality of public space in the XXI century in both quantitative and qualitative terms. In this article, the concept of public space includes open spaces such as parks, public squares and walking areas. To make this analysis, we take Mexico City as the case study. It has a population of nearly 9 million inhabitants and is composed of sixteen boroughs. For this analysis, we consider both existing public spaces and the government intervention for building and improving new and existent public spaces. Results show that on the one hand, quantitatively there is not an equitable distribution of public spaces due to both the growth of the city itself as well as due to the absence of political will to create public spaces. Another factor is the evolution of this city, which has been growing merely in a “patched pattern”, where public space has played no role at all with a total absence of urban design. On the other hand, qualitatively, even the boroughs with the most public spaces have not shown interest in making these spaces qualitatively inclusive and open to the general population aiming for integration. Therefore, urban projects that privatize public space seem to be the rule, rather than a rehabilitation effort of the existent public spaces. Hence, state intervention should reinforce its role as an agent of social change acting in benefit of the majority of the inhabitants with the promotion of more inclusive public spaces.

Keywords: Exclusion, inclusion, Mexico City, public space.

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9297 New Class of Chaotic Mappings in Symbol Space

Authors: Inese Bula

Abstract:

Symbolic dynamics studies dynamical systems on the basis of the symbol sequences obtained for a suitable partition of the state space. This approach exploits the property that system dynamics reduce to a shift operation in symbol space. This shift operator is a chaotic mapping. In this article we show that in the symbol space exist other chaotic mappings.

Keywords: Infinite symbol space, prefix metric, chaotic mapping, generator function, jump mapping.

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9296 Three Phase Fault Analysis of DC-Link Rectifier using new Power Differential Protection Concept

Authors: A. Gamil, G. Herold

Abstract:

The concept of differential protection based on current quantities has been discussed in many paper and researches. For certificating and inverting of currents and voltages through converter systems, there is no conventional current differential relay, which can compare current quantities, because they are different in form and frequencies. An overview over a new concept of differential protection for converters based on instantaneous power quantities will be discussed in this paper. To drive the power quantities a mathematical background of the space vectors will be introduced. A simple DCLink is preceded in this paper and a power analysis description and simulation is derived using Matlab®/ SimulinkTM concerning a certain construction scheme of Power Differential Relay System. Finally a complete analysis of three phase fault in DC-Link Rectifier is discussed to ensure the ability of Power Differential Protection System to detect the fault in main and selectivity protection sections.

Keywords: Space Vectors, Power Differential Relay (PDR), Short Circuit Power, Diode Recovery Energy, Detected Power Differential Signal (DPDS), Power Space Vector (PSV), Power Space Vector Protection Area (PSVPA).

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