Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 639

Search results for: qualitative and quantitative methods

639 A Critical Approach to Modern Conception in the Context of Objectivity and Quantitative Method

Authors: Sergun Kurtoglu

Abstract:

The struggle between modern and postmodern understanding is also displayed in terms of the superiorities of quantitative and qualitative methods to each other which are evaluated within the scope of these understandings. By way of assuming that the quantitative researches (modern) are able to account for structure while the qualitative researches (postmodern) explain the process, these methods are turned into a means for worldviews specific to a period. In fact, process is not a functioning independent of structure. In addition to this issue, the ability of quantitative methods to provide scientific knowledge is also controversial so long as they exclude the dialectical method. For this reason, the critiques charged against modernism in terms of quantitative methods are, in a sense, legitimate. Nevertheless, the main issue is in which parameters postmodernist critique tries to legitimize its critiques and whether these parameters represent a point of view enabling democratic solutions. In this respect, the scientific knowledge covered in Turkish media as a means through which ordinary people have access to scientific knowledge will be evaluated by means of content analysis within a new objectivity conception.

Keywords: knowledge and objectivity, dialectic method, qualitative and quantitative methods, modernism/postmodernism.

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638 Qualitative and Quantitative Case Study Research Method on Social Science: Accounting Perspective

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to set the parameters within which the study is to be conducted, specifically justifying the use of qualitative research, informed by theory. This paper argues that the social world is subjective in nature and may be accessed through the interpretive approach provided by the people involved in the context of the study. The paper defines and distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, explores Burrell and Morgan's framework for social research, and presents the study's adopted methodology and methods, with the rationale for these choices.

Keywords: Accounting, methodologies, qualitative, quantitative research.

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637 Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Metric for Pixel Factor Mapping and Extended Pixel Mapping Method

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach is presented to investigate the performance of Pixel Factor Mapping (PFM) and Extended PMM (Pixel Mapping Method) through the qualitative and quantitative approach. These methods are tested against a number of well-known image similarity metrics and statistical distribution techniques. The PFM has been performed in spatial domain as well as frequency domain and the Extended PMM has also been performed in spatial domain through large set of images available in the internet.

Keywords: Qualitative, quantitative, PFM, EXTENDED PMM.

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636 Effective Methodology for Security Risk Assessment of Computer Systems

Authors: Daniel F. García, Adrián Fernández

Abstract:

Today, computer systems are more and more complex and support growing security risks. The security managers need to find effective security risk assessment methodologies that allow modeling well the increasing complexity of current computer systems but also maintaining low the complexity of the assessment procedure. This paper provides a brief analysis of common security risk assessment methodologies leading to the selection of a proper methodology to fulfill these requirements. Then, a detailed analysis of the most effective methodology is accomplished, presenting numerical examples to demonstrate how easy it is to use.

Keywords: Computer security, qualitative and quantitative methods, risk assessment methodologies, security risk assessment.

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635 The Effects of Weather Anomalies on the Quantitative and Qualitative Parameters of Maize Hybrids of Different Genetic Traits in Hungary

Authors: Zs. J. Becze, Á. Krivián, M. Sárvári

Abstract:

Hybrid selection and the application of hybrid specific production technologies are important in terms of the increase of the yield and crop safety of maize. The main explanation for this is climate change, since weather extremes are going on and seem to accelerate in Hungary too.

The biological bases, the selection of appropriate hybrids will be of greater importance in the future. The issue of the adaptability of hybrids will be considerably appreciated. Its good agronomical traits and stress bearing against climatic factors and agrotechnical elements (e.g. different types of herbicides) will be important. There have been examples of 3-4 consecutive droughty years in the past decades, e.g. 1992-1993-1994 or 2009-2011-2012, which made the results of crop production critical. Irrigation cannot be the solution for the problem since currently only the 2% of the arable land is irrigated. Temperatures exceeding the multi-year average are characteristic mainly to the July and August in Hungary, which significantly increase the soil surface evaporation, thus further enhance water shortage. In terms of the yield and crop safety of maize, the weather of these two months is crucial, since the extreme high temperature in July decreases the viability of the pollen and the pistil of maize, decreases the extent of fertilization and makes grain-filling tardy. Consequently, yield and crop safety decrease.

Keywords: Abiotic factors, drought, nutrition content, yield.

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634 A Recommendation to Oncologists for Cancer Treatment by Immunotherapy: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Mandana Kariminejad, Ali Ghaffari

Abstract:

Today, the treatment of cancer, in a relatively short period, with minimum adverse effects is a great concern for oncologists. In this paper, based on a recently used mathematical model for cancer, a guideline has been proposed for the amount and duration of drug doses for cancer treatment by immunotherapy. Dynamically speaking, the mathematical ordinary differential equation (ODE) model of cancer has different equilibrium points; one of them is unstable, which is called the no tumor equilibrium point. In this paper, based on the number of tumor cells an intelligent soft computing controller (a combination of fuzzy logic controller and genetic algorithm), decides regarding the amount and duration of drug doses, to eliminate the tumor cells and stabilize the unstable point in a relatively short time. Two different immunotherapy approaches; active and adoptive, have been studied and presented. It is shown that the rate of decay of tumor cells is faster and the doses of drug are lower in comparison with the result of some other literatures. It is also shown that the period of treatment and the doses of drug in adoptive immunotherapy are significantly less than the active method. A recommendation to oncologists has also been presented.

Keywords: Tumor, immunotherapy, fuzzy controller, Genetic algorithm, mathematical model.

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633 Effects of Drought Stress on Qualitative and Quantitative Traits of Mungbean

Authors: Amir Mirzaei, Rahim Naseri, Parvaneh Vafa, Meysam Moradi

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In order to investigate the effect of drought stress and row spacing on grain yield and associated traits of Mungbean, an experiment was conducted as a factorial in based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Ilam station, Iran during 2008-2009 growing season. This experiment was conducted in four stages on one kind of Mungbean named Gohar. The experimental factors including (80, 110 and 140mm cumulative evaporation from class A pan) and row spacing (25, 50, and 75cm) were selected. The results of the experiment showed that the varieties affected by the treatment showed significant differences. The highest total yield was obtained in the condition in which evaporation of water was 80mm. Of course some traits such as grain yield did not show a significant difference between the conditions in which evaporation of the irrigation water was 80 and 110mm. The traits under study also showed a significant difference to different raw spacing. Row spacing of 50cm had a higher total yield compared to other raw spaces. It was due to the higher number of pods per plant and grain weight. The interaction of drought stress and row spacing showed that in the condition in which the row space is 50 cm and the evaporation of the irrigation water is 80mm, the highest number of grain is achieved.

Keywords: Stress, Grain yield, Mungbean, Row spacing.

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632 Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Generated Waste in Nouri Petrochemical Complex, Assaluyeh, Iran

Authors: L. Heidari, M. Jalili Ghazizade

Abstract:

In recent years, different petrochemical complexes have been established to produce aromatic compounds. Among them, Nouri Petrochemical Complex (NPC) is the largest producer of aromatic raw materials in the world, and is located in south of Iran. Environmental concerns have been raised in this region due to generation of different types of solid waste generated in the process of aromatics production, and subsequently, industrial waste characterization has been thoroughly considered. The aim of this study is qualitative and quantitative characterization of industrial waste generated in the aromatics production process and determination of the best method for industrial waste management. For this purpose, all generated industrial waste during the production process was determined using a checklist. Four main industrial wastes were identified as follows: spent industrial soil, spent catalyst, spent molecular sieves and spent N-formyl morpholine (NFM) solvent. The amount of heavy metals and organic compounds in these wastes were further measured in order to identify the nature and toxicity of such a dangerous compound. Then industrial wastes were classified based on lab analysis results as well as using different international lists of hazardous waste identification such as EPA, UNEP and Basel Convention. Finally, the best method of waste disposal is selected based on environmental, economic and technical aspects. 

Keywords: Spent industrial soil, spent molecular sieve, spent normal ¬formyl -morpholine solvent.

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631 The Effect of Complementary Irrigation in Different Growth Stages on Yield, Qualitative and Quantitative Indices of the Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars in Mazandaran

Authors: Abbas Ghanbari-Malidarreh

Abstract:

In most wheat growing moderate regions and especially in the north of Iran climate, is affected grain filling by several physical and abiotic stresses. In this region, grain filling often occurs when temperatures are increasing and moisture supply is decreasing. The experiment was designed in RCBD with split plot arrangements with four replications. Four irrigation treatments included (I0) no irrigation (check); (I1) one irrigation (50 mm) at heading stage; (I2) two irrigation (100 mm) at heading and anthesis stage; and (I3) three irrigation (150 mm) at heading, anthesis and early grain filling growth stage, two wheat cultivars (Milan and Shanghai) were cultured in the experiment. Totally raining was 453 mm during the growth season. The result indicated that biological yield, grain yield and harvest index were significantly affected by irrigation levels. I3 treatment produced more tillers number in m2, fertile tillers number in m2, harvest index and biological yield. Milan produced more tillers number in m2, fertile tillers in m2, while Shanghai produced heavier tillers and grain 1000 weight. Plant height was significant in wheat varieties while were not statistically significant in irrigation levels. Milan produced more grain yield, harvest index and biological yield. Grain yield shown that I1, I2, and I3 produced increasing of 5228 (21%), 5460 (27%) and 5670 (29%) kg ha-1, respectively. There was an interaction of irrigation and cultivar on grain yields. In the absence of the irrigation reduced grain 1000 weight from 45 to 40 g. No irrigation reduced soil moisture extraction during the grain filling stage. Current assimilation as a source of carbon for grain filling depends on the light intercepting viable green surfaces of the plant after anthesis that due to natural senescence and the effect of various stresses. At the same time the demand by the growing grain is increasing. It is concluded from research work that wheat crop irrigated Milan cultivar could increase the grain yield in comparison with Shanghai cultivar. Although, the grain yield of Shanghai under irrigation was slightly lower than Milan. This grain yield also was related to weather condition, sowing date, plant density and location conditions and management of fertilizers, because there was not significant difference in biological and straw yield. The best result was produced by I1 treatment. I2 and I3 treatments were not significantly difference with I1 treatment. Grain yield of I1 indicated that wheat is under soil moisture deficiency. Therefore, I1 irrigation was better than I0.

Keywords: anthesis, grain yield, irrigation, supplementary, Wheat.

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630 Bridging Quantitative and Qualitative of Glaucoma Detection

Authors: Noor Elaiza Abdul Khalid, Noorhayati Mohamed Noor, Zamalia Mahmud, Saadiah Yahya, and Norharyati Md Ariff

Abstract:

Glaucoma diagnosis involves extracting three features of the fundus image; optic cup, optic disc and vernacular. Present manual diagnosis is expensive, tedious and time consuming. A number of researches have been conducted to automate this process. However, the variability between the diagnostic capability of an automated system and ophthalmologist has yet to be established. This paper discusses the efficiency and variability between ophthalmologist opinion and digital technique; threshold. The efficiency and variability measures are based on image quality grading; poor, satisfactory or good. The images are separated into four channels; gray, red, green and blue. A scientific investigation was conducted on three ophthalmologists who graded the images based on the image quality. The images are threshold using multithresholding and graded as done by the ophthalmologist. A comparison of grade from the ophthalmologist and threshold is made. The results show there is a small variability between result of ophthalmologists and digital threshold.

Keywords: Digital Fundus Image, Glaucoma Detection, Multithresholding, Segmentation.

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629 Generating Qualitative Causal Graph using Modeling Constructs of Qualitative Process Theory for Explaining Organic Chemistry Reactions

Authors: Alicia Y. C. Tang, Rukaini Abdullah, Sharifuddin M. Zain, Noorsaadah A. Rahman

Abstract:

This paper discusses the causal explanation capability of QRIOM, a tool aimed at supporting learning of organic chemistry reactions. The development of the tool is based on the hybrid use of Qualitative Reasoning (QR) technique and Qualitative Process Theory (QPT) ontology. Our simulation combines symbolic, qualitative description of relations with quantity analysis to generate causal graphs. The pedagogy embedded in the simulator is to both simulate and explain organic reactions. Qualitative reasoning through a causal chain will be presented to explain the overall changes made on the substrate; from initial substrate until the production of final outputs. Several uses of the QPT modeling constructs in supporting behavioral and causal explanation during run-time will also be demonstrated. Explaining organic reactions through causal graph trace can help improve the reasoning ability of learners in that their conceptual understanding of the subject is nurtured.

Keywords: Qualitative reasoning, causal graph, organicreactions, explanation, QPT, modeling constructs.

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628 Effect of Strain and Storage Period on Some Qualitative and Quantitative Traits of Table Eggs

Authors: Hani N. Hermiz, Sukar H. Ali

Abstract:

This study include the effect of strain and storage period and their interaction on some quantitative and qualitative traits and percentages of the egg components in the eggs collected at the start of production (at age 24 weeks). Eggs were divided into three storage periods (1, 7 and 14) days under refrigerator temperature (5- 7)0C. Fifty seven eggs obtained randomly from each strain including Isa Brown and Lohman White. General Linear Model within SAS programme was used to analyze the collected data and correlations between the studied traits were calculated for each strain.Average egg weight (EW), Haugh Unit (HU), yolk index (YI), yolk % (HP), albumin % (AP) and yolk to albumin ratio (YAR) was 56.629 gm, 87.968 %, 0.493, 22.13%, 67.74% and 32.76 respectively. Egg produced from ISA Brown surpassed those produced by Lohman White significantly (P<0.01) in EW (59.337 vs. 53.921 g) and AP (68.46 vs. 67.02 %), while Lohman White surpassed ISA Brown significantly (P<0.01) in HU (91.998 against 83.939 %), YI (0.498 against 0.487), YP (22.83 against 21.44%) and YAR (34.12 against 31.40). Storage period did not have any significant effect on EW and YI. Increasing the storage period caused a significant (P<0.01) decrease in HU. A non-significant increasing in YP and significant decreasing in AP % due to increasing storage period caused a significant increasing in YAR. The interaction between strain and storage period affect EW, HU and YI significantly (P <0.01), while its effect on YP, AP and YAR was not significant. Highest and significant (P<0.01) correlation was recorded between YP with YAR (0.99) in both strains, while the lowest values were between AP with YAR and being -0.97 and -0.95 in ISA Brown and Lohman White, respectively. The conclusion: increasing storage period caused a few decreasing in egg weight and this enabling the consumer to store eggs without any damage. Because of using the albumin in many food industries, so it is very important to focus on its weight. The correlations between some of the studied traits were significant, which means that selection for any trait will improve other traits.

Keywords: Quality, Quantity, Storage period, Strain, Table egg

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627 Image Magnification Using Adaptive Interpolationby Pixel Level Data-Dependent Geometrical Shapes

Authors: Muhammad Sajjad, Naveed Khattak, Noman Jafri

Abstract:

World has entered in 21st century. The technology of computer graphics and digital cameras is prevalent. High resolution display and printer are available. Therefore high resolution images are needed in order to produce high quality display images and high quality prints. However, since high resolution images are not usually provided, there is a need to magnify the original images. One common difficulty in the previous magnification techniques is that of preserving details, i.e. edges and at the same time smoothing the data for not introducing the spurious artefacts. A definitive solution to this is still an open issue. In this paper an image magnification using adaptive interpolation by pixel level data-dependent geometrical shapes is proposed that tries to take into account information about the edges (sharp luminance variations) and smoothness of the image. It calculate threshold, classify interpolation region in the form of geometrical shapes and then assign suitable values inside interpolation region to the undefined pixels while preserving the sharp luminance variations and smoothness at the same time. The results of proposed technique has been compared qualitatively and quantitatively with five other techniques. In which the qualitative results show that the proposed method beats completely the Nearest Neighbouring (NN), bilinear(BL) and bicubic(BC) interpolation. The quantitative results are competitive and consistent with NN, BL, BC and others.

Keywords: Adaptive, digital image processing, imagemagnification, interpolation, geometrical shapes, qualitative &quantitative analysis.

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626 Qualitative Possibilistic Influence Diagrams

Authors: Wided GuezGuez, Nahla Ben Amor, Khaled Mellouli

Abstract:

Influence diagrams (IDs) are one of the most commonly used graphical decision models for reasoning under uncertainty. The quantification of IDs which consists in defining conditional probabilities for chance nodes and utility functions for value nodes is not always obvious. In fact, decision makers cannot always provide exact numerical values and in some cases, it is more easier for them to specify qualitative preference orders. This work proposes an adaptation of standard IDs to the qualitative framework based on possibility theory.

Keywords: decision making, influence diagrams, qualitative utility, possibility theory.

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625 Deriving Causal Explanation from Qualitative Model Reasoning

Authors: Alicia Y. C. Tang, Sharifuddin M. Zain, Noorsaadah A. Rahman, Rukaini Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper discusses a qualitative simulator QRiOM that uses Qualitative Reasoning (QR) technique, and a process-based ontology to model, simulate and explain the behaviour of selected organic reactions. Learning organic reactions requires the application of domain knowledge at intuitive level, which is difficult to be programmed using traditional approach. The main objective of QRiOM is to help learners gain a better understanding of the fundamental organic reaction concepts, and to improve their conceptual comprehension on the subject by analyzing the multiple forms of explanation generated by the software. This paper focuses on the generation of explanation based on causal theories to explicate various phenomena in the chemistry subject. QRiOM has been tested with three classes problems related to organic chemistry, with encouraging results. This paper also presents the results of preliminary evaluation of QRiOM that reveal its explanation capability and usefulness.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, explanation, ontology, organicreactions, qualitative reasoning, QPT.

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624 Development of a Simulator for Explaining Organic Chemical Reactions Based on Qualitative Process Theory

Authors: Alicia Y. C. Tang, Rukaini Hj. Abdullah, Sharifuddin M. Zain

Abstract:

This paper discusses the development of a qualitative simulator (abbreviated QRiOM) for predicting the behaviour of organic chemical reactions. The simulation technique is based on the qualitative process theory (QPT) ontology. The modelling constructs of QPT embody notions of causality which can be used to explain the behaviour of a chemical system. The major theme of this work is that, in a qualitative simulation environment, students are able to articulate his/her knowledge through the inspection of explanations generated by software. The implementation languages are Java and Prolog. The software produces explanation in various forms that stresses on the causal theories in the chemical system which can be effectively used to support learning.

Keywords: Chemical reactions, explanation, qualitative processtheory, simulation

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623 Quantitative Precipitation Forecast using MM5 and WRF models for Kelantan River Basin

Authors: Wardah, T., Kamil, A.A., Sahol Hamid, A.B., Maisarah, W.W.I

Abstract:

Quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) from atmospheric model as input to hydrological model in an integrated hydro-meteorological flood forecasting system has been operational in many countries worldwide. High-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) models with grid cell sizes between 2 and 14 km have great potential in contributing towards reasonably accurate QPF. In this study the potential of two NWP models to forecast precipitation for a flood-prone area in a tropical region is examined. The precipitation forecasts produced from the Fifth Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale (MM5) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models are statistically verified with the observed rain in Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia. The statistical verification indicates that the models have performed quite satisfactorily for low and moderate rainfall but not very satisfactory for heavy rainfall.

Keywords: MM5, Numerical weather prediction (NWP), quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), WRF

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622 The Application of Non-quantitative Modelling in the Analysis of a Network Warfare Environment

Authors: N. Veerasamy, JPH Eloff

Abstract:

Network warfare is an emerging concept that focuses on the network and computer based forms through which information is attacked and defended. Various computer and network security concepts thus play a role in network warfare. Due the intricacy of the various interacting components, a model to better understand the complexity in a network warfare environment would be beneficial. Non-quantitative modeling is a useful method to better characterize the field due to the rich ideas that can be generated based on the use of secular associations, chronological origins, linked concepts, categorizations and context specifications. This paper proposes the use of non-quantitative methods through a morphological analysis to better explore and define the influential conditions in a network warfare environment.

Keywords: Morphological, non-quantitative, network warfare.

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621 A Qualitative Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring the Influence of Factors Affecting Use of Business-to-Employee (B2E) Portals

Authors: Md. Mahbubur Rahim

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B2E portals represent a new class of web-based information technologies which many organisations are introducing in recent years to stay in touch with their distributed workforces and enable them to perform value added activities for organisations. However, actual usage of these emerging systems (measured using suitable instruments) has not been reported in the contemporary scholarly literature. We argue that many of the instruments to measure usage of various types of IT-enabled information systems are not directly applicable for B2E portals because they were developed for the context of traditional mainframe and PC-based information systems. It is therefore important to develop a new instrument for web-based portal technologies aimed at employees. In this article, we report on the development and initial qualitative evaluation of an instrument that seeks to operationaise a set of independent factors affecting the usage of portals by employees. The proposed instrument is useful to IT/e-commerce researchers and practitioners alike as it enhances their confidence in predicting employee usage of portals in organisations.

Keywords: Portal, business-to-employees, instrument, evaluation, qualitative research.

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620 Assessment of the Situation and the Cause of Junk Food Consumption in Iranians: A Qualitative Study

Authors: A. Rezazadeh, B Damari, S. Riazi-Esfahani, M. Hajian

Abstract:

The consumption of junk food in Iran is alarmingly increasing. This study aimed to investigate the influencing factors of junk food consumption and amendable interventions that are criticized and approved by stakeholders, in order to presented to health policy makers. The articles and documents related to the content of study were collected by using the appropriate key words such as junk food, carbonated beverage, chocolate, candy, sweets, industrial fruit juices, potato chips, French fries, puffed corn, cakes, biscuits, sandwiches, prepared foods and popsicles, ice cream, bar, chewing gum, pastilles and snack, in scholar.google.com, pubmed.com, eric.ed.gov, cochrane.org, magiran.com, medlib.ir, irandoc.ac.ir, who.int, iranmedex.com, sid.ir, pubmed.org and sciencedirect.com databases. The main key points were extracted and included in a checklist and qualitatively analyzed. Then a summarized abstract was prepared in a format of a questionnaire to be presented to stakeholders. The design of this was qualitative (Delphi). According to this method, a questionnaire was prepared based on reviewing the articles and documents and it was emailed to stakeholders, who were asked to prioritize and choose the main problems and effective interventions. After three rounds, consensus was obtained.            Studies revealed high consumption of junk foods in the Iranian population, especially in children and adolescents. The most important affecting factors include availability, low price, media advertisements, preference of fast foods taste, the variety of the packages and their attractiveness, low awareness and changing in lifestyle. Main interventions recommended by stakeholders include developing a protective environment, educational interventions, increasing healthy food access and controlling media advertisements and putting pressure from the Industry and Mining Ministry on producers to produce healthy snacks. According to the findings, the results of this study may be proposed to public health policymakers as an advocacy paper and to be integrated in the interventional programs of Health and Education ministries and the media. Also, implementation of supportive meetings with the producers of alternative healthy products is suggested.

Keywords: Junk foods, situation, qualitative study, Iran.

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619 On-Line Consumer Comments (E-Wom): A Case Qualitative Analysis on Resort Hotel Consumers

Authors: Yasin Bilim, Alaaddin Başoda

Abstract:

The recent growth of internet applications on hospitality and tourism provokes on-line consumer comments and reviews. Many researchers and practitioners have named this enormous potential as “e-WOM (electronic word of mouth)”. Travel comments are important experiential information for the potential travellers. Many researches have been conducted to analyse the effects of e-WOM on hotel consumers. Broadly quantitative methods have been used for analysing online comments. But, a few studies have mentioned about the positive practical aspects of the comments for hotel marketers. The study aims to show different usage and effects of hotel consumers’ comments. As qualitative analysis method, grounded theory, content and discourse analysis, were used. The data based on the 10 resort hotel consumers’ on-line comments. Results show that consumers tend to write comments about service person, rooms, food services and pool in their online space. These indicators can be used by hotel marketers as a marketing information tool.

Keywords: Comments, E-WOM, hotel consumer, qualitative.

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618 Report of Happiness in the Iranian Educational System: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Babak Shamshiri, Najme Dastouri

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand the current situation of happiness in the Iranian educational system from the perspective of students, teachers and educational administrators. This research is done in qualitative paradigm. Data collection is done by in-depth interview method. Research participants were selected purposively according to sampling rules, with maximum variation and reaching the saturation point. According to most participants in this study, schools in Iran are not usually happy. This lack of happiness is associated with and related to the educational system, curriculum, teaching method, physical environment of schools and their facilities.

Keywords: Happiness, Iran, educational system, qualitative study.

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617 Finite Element Prediction and Experimental Verification of the Failure Pattern of Proximal Femur using Quantitative Computed Tomography Images

Authors: Majid Mirzaei, Saeid Samiezadeh , Abbas Khodadadi, Mohammad R. Ghazavi

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel method for prediction of the mechanical behavior of proximal femur using the general framework of the quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element Analysis (FEA). A systematic imaging and modeling procedure was developed for reliable correspondence between the QCT-based FEA and the in-vitro mechanical testing. A speciallydesigned holding frame was used to define and maintain a unique geometrical reference system during the analysis and testing. The QCT images were directly converted into voxel-based 3D finite element models for linear and nonlinear analyses. The equivalent plastic strain and the strain energy density measures were used to identify the critical elements and predict the failure patterns. The samples were destructively tested using a specially-designed gripping fixture (with five degrees of freedom) mounted within a universal mechanical testing machine. Very good agreements were found between the experimental and the predicted failure patterns and the associated load levels.

Keywords: Bone, Osteoporosis, Noninvasive methods, Failure Analysis

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616 Feasibility Studies through Quantitative Methods: The Revamping of a Tourist Railway Line in Italy

Authors: Armando Cartenì, Ilaria Henke

Abstract:

Recently, the Italian government has approved a new law for public contracts and has been laying the groundwork for restarting a planning phase. The government has adopted the indications given by the European Commission regarding the estimation of the external costs within the Cost-Benefit Analysis, and has been approved the ‘Guidelines for assessment of Investment Projects’. In compliance with the new Italian law, the aim of this research was to perform a feasibility study applying quantitative methods regarding the revamping of an Italian tourist railway line. A Cost-Benefit Analysis was performed starting from the quantification of the passengers’ demand potentially interested in using the revamped rail services. The benefits due to the external costs reduction were also estimated (quantified) in terms of variations (with respect to the not project scenario): climate change, air pollution, noises, congestion, and accidents. Estimations results have been proposed in terms of the Measure of Effectiveness underlying a positive Net Present Value equal to about 27 million of Euros, an Internal Rate of Return much greater the discount rate, a benefit/cost ratio equal to 2 and a PayBack Period of 15 years.

Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, evaluation analysis, demand management, external cost, transport planning, quality.

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615 On the Performance of Information Criteria in Latent Segment Models

Authors: Jaime R. S. Fonseca

Abstract:

Nevertheless the widespread application of finite mixture models in segmentation, finite mixture model selection is still an important issue. In fact, the selection of an adequate number of segments is a key issue in deriving latent segments structures and it is desirable that the selection criteria used for this end are effective. In order to select among several information criteria, which may support the selection of the correct number of segments we conduct a simulation study. In particular, this study is intended to determine which information criteria are more appropriate for mixture model selection when considering data sets with only categorical segmentation base variables. The generation of mixtures of multinomial data supports the proposed analysis. As a result, we establish a relationship between the level of measurement of segmentation variables and some (eleven) information criteria-s performance. The criterion AIC3 shows better performance (it indicates the correct number of the simulated segments- structure more often) when referring to mixtures of multinomial segmentation base variables.

Keywords: Quantitative Methods, Multivariate Data Analysis, Clustering, Finite Mixture Models, Information Theoretical Criteria, Simulation experiments.

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614 Simulating and Forecasting Qualitative Marcoeconomic Models Using Rule-Based Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Spiros Mazarakis, George Matzavinos, Peter P. Groumpos

Abstract:

Economic models are complex dynamic systems with a lot of uncertainties and fuzzy data. Conventional modeling approaches using well known methods and techniques cannot provide realistic and satisfactory answers to today-s challenging economic problems. Qualitative modeling using fuzzy logic and intelligent system theories can be used to model macroeconomic models. Fuzzy Cognitive maps (FCM) is a new method been used to model the dynamic behavior of complex systems. For the first time FCMs and the Mamdani Model of Intelligent control is used to model macroeconomic models. This new model is referred as the Mamdani Rule-Based Fuzzy Cognitive Map (MBFCM) and provides the academic and research community with a new promising integrated advanced computational model. A new economic model is developed for a qualitative approach to Macroeconomic modeling. Fuzzy Controllers for such models are designed. Simulation results for an economic scenario are provided and extensively discussed

Keywords: Macroeconomic Models, Mamdani Rule Based- FCMs(MBFCMs), Qualitative and Dynamics System, Simulation.

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613 Qualitative Case Study Research in Accounting: Challenges and Prospects the Libyan Case Study

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

Abstract:

Much of the literature on research design has focused on research conducted in developed, uni-cultural or primarily English speaking countries. Studies of qualitative case study research, the challenges, and prospects have been embedded in Western/Eurocentric society and social theories. Although there have been some theoretical studies, few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the nature of the challenges of qualitative case study in developing countries. These challenges include accessibility to organizations, conducting interviews in developing countries, accessing documents and observing official meetings, language and cultural challenges, the use of consent forms, issues affecting access to companies, respondent issues, and data analysis. The author, while conducting qualitative case study research in Libya, faced all these issues. The discussion in this paper examines these issues in order to make a contribution toward the literature in this area.

Keywords: Accounting, Libya, culture, language, developing countries, qualitative case study.

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612 IKEv1 and IKEv2: A Quantitative Analyses

Authors: H.Soussi, M.Hussain, H.Afifi, D.Seret

Abstract:

Key management is a vital component in any modern security protocol. Due to scalability and practical implementation considerations automatic key management seems a natural choice in significantly large virtual private networks (VPNs). In this context IETF Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is the most promising protocol under permanent review. We have made a humble effort to pinpoint IKEv2 net gain over IKEv1 due to recent modifications in its original structure, along with a brief overview of salient improvements between the two versions. We have used US National Institute of Technology NIIST VPN simulator to get some comparisons of important performance metrics.

Keywords: Quantitative Analyses, IKEv1, IKEv2, NIIST.

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611 Dead Bodies that Matter: A Consensual Qualitative Research on the Lived Experience of Embalmers

Authors: Mark N. Abello, Betina Velanie L. Cruz, Angelo Joachim D. C. De Castro, Arnel A. Diego, John Ezequel V. Murillo

Abstract:

Embalmers are widely recognized as someone who mends the cadavers, but behind that is a great deal of work. These professionals are competent in physiology, chemicals, and cosmetics. Another is that such professionals face cadavers day-to-day. Given this background, the researchers intended to find out the lived experience of embalmers. The purpose of the present study is to discover the essence of the work of these professionals, to determine factors that influence their work, the depths of their life and on how the occupation affects upon physical, emotional-mental, spiritual, moral and social aspects. The researchers used the Consensual Qualitative Research, and eight embalmers, seven male and one female, from Manila and Bulacan were interviewed using open-ended questions and were used to triangulate the results. A primary research team conducted the consensus of domains, and an external auditor reviewed the results. A personal data sheet was also used, this helped the researchers group the respondents according to demographic profile. The results of the consensual qualitative research investigation revealed the four core components of the lived experience of embalmers which are motivation, struggles, acceptance, and contentment. The results revealed core components that play an important role in their everyday lives as an embalmer, daily hardships, and source of their pleasures. The present study will help future researchers, embalmers, and society.

Keywords: Embalmers, consensual qualitative research, lived experience.

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610 Didactic Material Resources in the Teaching of National History and Geography: Selected Results of a Qualitative Survey

Authors: Martin Skutil, Klára Havlíčková, Renata Matějíčková

Abstract:

The paper is the first output of a larger research project conducted at the Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Králové, which deals with an improved understanding of teachers' work in the subject of National History and Geography. Partial findings focusing on the use of didactic material resources in teaching are presented in this phase. With the regard to promotion of independent activity of students within learner based education, material equipment of schools with didactic aids is becoming increasingly important. This paper is based on qualitative research, where the possibilities and mainly the reasons for use of material didactic resources in teaching were investigated through semi-structured interviews. Attention was focused on ways of working with different teaching aids and their implementation in the educational process. It turns out that teachers accept current constructivist and humanistic approaches to education associated with the requirement to prepare students for life in an information society, and accordingly they adjust their teaching.

Keywords: Primary education, National History and Geography, didactic material resources, qualitative research.

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