Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: preliminary design

14 High-Frequency Monitoring Results of a Piled Raft Foundation under Wind Loading

Authors: Laurent Pitteloud, Jörg Meier

Abstract:

Piled raft foundations represent an efficient and reliable technique for transferring high vertical and horizontal loads to the subsoil. Piled raft foundations were success­fully implemented for several high-rise buildings world­wide over the last decades. For the structural design of this foundation type the stiffnesses of both the piles and the raft have to be deter­mined for the static (e.g. dead load, live load) and the dynamic load cases (e.g. earthquake). In this context the question often arises, to which proportion wind loads are to be considered as dynamic loads. Usually a piled raft foundation has to be monitored in order to verify the design hypotheses. As an additional benefit, the analysis of this monitoring data may lead to a better under­standing of the behaviour of this foundation type for future projects in similar subsoil conditions. In case the measurement frequency is high enough, one may also draw conclusions on the effect of wind loading on the piled raft foundation. For a 41-storey office building in Basel, Switzerland, the preliminary design showed that a piled raft foundation was the best solution to satisfy both design requirements, as well as economic aspects. A high-frequency monitoring of the foundation including pile loads, vertical stresses under the raft, as well as pore water pressures was performed over 5 years. In windy situations the analysis of the measure­ments shows that the pile load increment due to wind consists of a static and a cyclic load term. As piles and raft react with different stiffnesses under static and dynamic loading, these measure­ments are useful for the correct definition of stiffnesses of future piled raft foundations. This paper outlines the design strategy and the numerical modelling of the aforementioned piled raft foundation. The measurement results are presented and analysed. Based on the findings, comments and conclusions on the definition of pile and raft stiffnesses for vertical and wind loading are proposed.

Keywords: Dynamic Loading, high-frequency monitoring, piled raft foundations, wind loading

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13 Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar

Authors: Thanawat Chuleekiat

Abstract:

Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants and contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data were also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.

Keywords: pile load test, shaft friction, piled foundation, weathered limestone, rock socket

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12 Study on Optimization Design of Pressure Hull for Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Qasim Idrees, Gao Liangtian, Liu Bo, Miao Yiran

Abstract:

In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the pressure hull structure, optimization of underwater vehicle based on response surface methodology, a method for optimizing the design of pressure hull structure was studied. To determine the pressure shell of five dimensions as a design variable, the application of thin shell theory and the Chinese Classification Society (CCS) specification was carried on the preliminary design. In order to optimize variables of the feasible region, different methods were studied and implemented such as Opt LHD method (to determine the design test sample points in the feasible domain space), parametric ABAQUS solution for each sample point response, and the two-order polynomial response for the surface model of the limit load of structures. Based on the ultimate load of the structure and the quality of the shell, the two-generation genetic algorithm was used to solve the response surface, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained. The final optimization result was 41.68% higher than that of the initial design, and the shell quality was reduced by about 27.26%. The parametric method can ensure the accuracy of the test and improve the efficiency of optimization.

Keywords: Structure Optimization, response surface, parameterization, pressure hull

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11 A Meta-Model for Tubercle Design of Wing Planforms Inspired by Humpback Whale Flippers

Authors: A. Taheri

Abstract:

Inspired by topology of humpback whale flippers, a meta-model is designed for wing planform design. The net is trained based on experimental data using cascade-forward artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate effects of the amplitude and wavelength of sinusoidal leading edge configurations on the wing performance. Afterwards, the trained ANN is coupled with a genetic algorithm method towards an optimum design strategy. Finally, flow physics of the problem for an optimized rectangular planform and also a real flipper geometry planform is simulated using Lam-Bremhorst low Reynolds number turbulence model with damping wall-functions resolving to the wall. Lift and drag coefficients and also details of flow are presented along with comparisons to available experimental data. Results show that the proposed strategy can be adopted with success as a fast-estimation tool for performance prediction of wing planforms with wavy leading edge at preliminary design phase.  

Keywords: CFD, Bionics, Humpback whale flipper, cascade-forward ANN

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10 Application of Artificial Neural Network in Assessing Fill Slope Stability

Authors: An-Jui. Li, Kelvin Lim, Chien-Kuo Chiu, Benson Hsiung

Abstract:

This paper details the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of slope stability whereby quick and convenient solutions can be obtained using the developed tool. The AI tool used in this study is the artificial neural network (ANN), while the slope stability analysis methods are the finite element limit analysis methods. The developed tool allows for the prompt prediction of the safety factors of fill slopes and their corresponding probability of failure (depending on the degree of variation of the soil parameters), which can give the practicing engineer a reasonable basis in their decision making. In fact, the successful use of the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) algorithm shows that slope stability analysis is no longer confined to the conventional methods of modeling, which at times may be tedious and repetitive during the preliminary design stage where the focus is more on cost saving options rather than detailed design. Therefore, similar ANN-based tools can be further developed to assist engineers in this aspect.

Keywords: Landslide, Limit Analysis, Soil Properties, ANN

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9 Analysis and Design of Offshore Triceratops under Ultra-Deep Waters

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, R. Nagavinothini

Abstract:

Offshore platforms for ultra-deep waters are form-dominant by design; hybrid systems with large flexibility in horizontal plane and high rigidity in vertical plane are preferred due to functional complexities. Offshore triceratops is relatively a new-generation offshore platform, whose deck is partially isolated from the supporting buoyant legs by ball joints. They allow transfer of partial displacements of buoyant legs to the deck but restrain transfer of rotational response. Buoyant legs are in turn taut-moored to the sea bed using pre-tension tethers. Present study will discuss detailed dynamic analysis and preliminary design of the chosen geometric, which is necessary as a proof of validation for such design applications. A detailed numeric analysis of triceratops at 2400 m water depth under random waves is presented. Preliminary design confirms member-level design requirements under various modes of failure. Tether configuration, proposed in the study confirms no pull-out of tethers as stress variation is comparatively lesser than the yield value. Presented study shall aid offshore engineers and contractors to understand suitability of triceratops, in terms of design and dynamic response behaviour.

Keywords: Offshore Structures, Dynamic Analysis, Preliminary Design, random waves, triceratops, buoyant legs

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8 Rule Based Architecture for Collaborative Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design Optimisation

Authors: Nickolay Jelev, Andy Keane, Carren Holden, András Sóbester

Abstract:

In aircraft design, the jump from the conceptual to preliminary design stage introduces a level of complexity which cannot be realistically handled by a single optimiser, be that a human (chief engineer) or an algorithm. The design process is often partitioned along disciplinary lines, with each discipline given a level of autonomy. This introduces a number of challenges including, but not limited to: coupling of design variables; coordinating disciplinary teams; handling of large amounts of analysis data; reaching an acceptable design within time constraints. A number of classical Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) architectures exist in academia specifically designed to address these challenges. Their limited use in the industrial aircraft design process has inspired the authors of this paper to develop an alternative strategy based on well established ideas from Decision Support Systems. The proposed rule based architecture sacrifices possibly elusive guarantees of convergence for an attractive return in simplicity. The method is demonstrated on analytical and aircraft design test cases and its performance is compared to a number of classical distributed MDO architectures.

Keywords: Decision Support System, Aircraft design, Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation, rule based architecture

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7 Aircraft Automatic Collision Avoidance Using Spiral Geometric Approach

Authors: M. Orefice, V. Di Vito

Abstract:

This paper provides a description of a Collision Avoidance algorithm that has been developed starting from the mathematical modeling of the flight of insects, in terms of spirals and conchospirals geometric paths. It is able to calculate a proper avoidance manoeuver aimed to prevent the infringement of a predefined distance threshold between ownship and the considered intruder, while minimizing the ownship trajectory deviation from the original path and in compliance with the aircraft performance limitations and dynamic constraints. The algorithm is designed in order to be suitable for real-time applications, so that it can be considered for the implementation in the most recent airborne automatic collision avoidance systems using the traffic data received through an ADS-B IN device. The presented approach is able to take into account the rules-of-the-air, due to the possibility to select, through specifically designed decision making logic based on the consideration of the encounter geometry, the direction of the calculated collision avoidance manoeuver that allows complying with the rules-of-the-air, as for instance the fundamental right of way rule. In the paper, the proposed collision avoidance algorithm is presented and its preliminary design and software implementation is described. The applicability of this method has been proved through preliminary simulation tests performed in a 2D environment considering single intruder encounter geometries, as reported and discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Collision Avoidance, ADS-B Based Application, RPAS, Spiral Geometry

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6 Application of Flexi-Wall in Noise Barriers Renewal

Authors: B. Daee, H. M. El Naggar

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study on structural performance of an innovative noise barrier consisting of poly-block, light polyurethane foam (LPF) and polyurea. This wall system (flexi-wall) is intended to be employed as a vertical extension to existing sound barriers in an accelerated construction method. To aid in the wall design, several mechanical tests were conducted on LPF specimens and two full-scale walls were then fabricated employing the same LPF material. The full-scale walls were subjected to lateral loading in order to establish their lateral resistance. A cyclic fatigue test was also performed on a full-scale flexi-wall in order to evaluate the performance of the wall under a repetitive loading condition. The result of the experiments indicated the suitability of flexi-wall in accelerated construction and confirmed that the structural performance of the wall system under lateral loading is satisfactory for the sound barrier application. The experimental results were discussed and a preliminary design procedure for application of flexi-wall in sound barrier applications was also developed.

Keywords: noise barrier, polyurethane foam, full-scale experiment, Accelerated construction

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5 CFD Prediction of the Round Elbow Fitting Loss Coefficient

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli

Abstract:

Pressure loss in ductworks is an important factor to be considered in design of engineering systems such as power-plants, refineries, HVAC systems to reduce energy costs. Ductwork can be composed by straight ducts and different types of fittings (elbows, transitions, converging and diverging tees and wyes). Duct fittings are significant sources of pressure loss in fluid distribution systems. Fitting losses can be even more significant than equipment components such as coils, filters, and dampers. At the present work, a conventional 90o round elbow under turbulent incompressible airflow is studied. Mass, momentum, and k-e turbulence model equations are solved employing the finite volume method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. In order to validate the numerical tool, the elbow pressure loss coefficient is determined using the same conditions to compare with ASHRAE database. Furthermore, the effect of Reynolds number variation on the elbow pressure loss coefficient is investigated. These results can be useful to perform better preliminary design of air distribution ductworks in air conditioning systems.

Keywords: duct fitting, pressure loss, elbow

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4 An Approximate Engineering Method for Aerodynamic Heating Solution around Blunt Body Nose

Authors: Sahar Noori, Seyed Amir Hossein, Mohammad Ebrahimi

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to predict laminar and turbulent heating rates around blunt re-entry spacecraft at hypersonic conditions. Heating calculation of a hypersonic body is normally performed during the critical part of its flight trajectory. The procedure is of an inverse method, where a shock wave is assumed, and the body shape that supports this shock, as well as the flowfield between the shock and body, are calculated. For simplicity the normal momentum equation is replaced with a second order pressure relation; this simplification significantly reduces computation time. The geometries specified in this research, are parabola and ellipsoids which may have conical after bodies. An excellent agreement is observed between the results obtained in this paper and those calculated by others- research. Since this method is much faster than Navier-Stokes solutions, it can be used in preliminary design, parametric study of hypersonic vehicles.

Keywords: Aerodynamic Heating, turbulent, blunt body, laminar, Hypersonic Flow

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3 The Data Processing Electronics of the METIS Coronagraph aboard the ESA Solar Orbiter Mission

Authors: M. Focardi, M. Pancrazzi, M. Uslenghi, G. Nicolini, E. Magli, F. Landini, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, E. Antonucci, S. Fineschi, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, V. Andretta

Abstract:

METIS is the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy, a Coronagraph aboard the European Space Agency-s Solar Orbiter Mission aimed at the observation of the solar corona via both VIS and UV/EUV narrow-band imaging and spectroscopy. METIS, with its multi-wavelength capabilities, will study in detail the physical processes responsible for the corona heating and the origin and properties of the slow and fast solar wind. METIS electronics will collect and process scientific data thanks to its detectors proximity electronics, the digital front-end subsystem electronics and the MPPU, the Main Power and Processing Unit, hosting a space-qualified processor, memories and some rad-hard FPGAs acting as digital controllers.This paper reports on the overall METIS electronics architecture and data processing capabilities conceived to address all the scientific issues as a trade-off solution between requirements and allocated resources, just before the Preliminary Design Review as an ESA milestone in April 2012.

Keywords: Solar Coronagraph, Data Processing Electronics, VIS and UV/EUV Detectors, LEON Processor, Rad-hard FPGAs

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2 Preliminary Design of Frozen Soil Simulation System Based on Finite Element Simulation

Authors: Wenyu Song, Bingxi Li, Zhongbin Fu, Baocheng Jiang

Abstract:

Full - Scale Accelerated Loading System, one part of “the Eleventh - Five - Year National Grand Technology Infrastructure Program" is a facility to evaluate the performance and service life of different kinds of pavements subjected to traffic loading under full - controlled environment. While simulating the environments of frigid zone and permafrost zone, the accurate control of air temperature, road temperature and roadbed temperature are the key points and also aporias for the designment. In this paper, numerical simulations are used to determine the design parameters of the frozen soil simulation system. At first, a brief introduction of the Full - Scale Accelerate Loading System was given. Then, the temperature control method of frozen soil simulation system was proposed. Finally, by using finite element simulations, the optimal design of frozen soil simulation system was obtained. This proposed design, which was obtained by finite element simulations, provided significant referents to the ultimate design of the environment simulation system.

Keywords: China, finite element simulation, Preliminary Design, frozen soilsimulation system

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1 Phase Equilibrium of Volatile Organic Compounds in Polymeric Solvents Using Group Contribution Methods

Authors: E. Muzenda

Abstract:

Group contribution methods such as the UNIFAC are of major interest to researchers and engineers involved synthesis, feasibility studies, design and optimization of separation processes as well as other applications of industrial use. Reliable knowledge of the phase equilibrium behavior is crucial for the prediction of the fate of the chemical in the environment and other applications. The objective of this study was to predict the solubility of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in glycol polymers and biodiesel. Measurements can be expensive and time consuming, hence the need for thermodynamic models. The results obtained in this study for the infinite dilution activity coefficients compare very well those published in literature obtained through measurements. It is suggested that in preliminary design or feasibility studies of absorption systems for the abatement of volatile organic compounds, prediction procedures should be implemented while accurate fluid phase equilibrium data should be obtained from experiment.

Keywords: Environmental, prediction, Volatile Organic Compounds, Phaseequilibrium, Infinite dilution

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