A Meta-Model for Tubercle Design of Wing Planforms Inspired by Humpback Whale Flippers
Authors: A. Taheri
Inspired by topology of humpback whale flippers, a meta-model is designed for wing planform design. The net is trained based on experimental data using cascade-forward artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate effects of the amplitude and wavelength of sinusoidal leading edge configurations on the wing performance. Afterwards, the trained ANN is coupled with a genetic algorithm method towards an optimum design strategy. Finally, flow physics of the problem for an optimized rectangular planform and also a real flipper geometry planform is simulated using Lam-Bremhorst low Reynolds number turbulence model with damping wall-functions resolving to the wall. Lift and drag coefficients and also details of flow are presented along with comparisons to available experimental data. Results show that the proposed strategy can be adopted with success as a fast-estimation tool for performance prediction of wing planforms with wavy leading edge at preliminary design phase.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1317268Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 675
 B.L. Woodward, J. P. Winn and F. E. Fish, “Morphological specializations of baleen whales associated with hydrodynamic performance and ecological niche”, Journal of Morphology, vol.267, pp.1284–1294, 2006.
 Humpback whale documentation, Marine Mammal Center, Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA.
 W. Welles, Picture Amy Whale, breaching, Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, 2007.
 F.E. Fish and J. M. Battle, “Hydrodynamic design of the humpback whale ﬂipper”, Journal of Morphology, vol.225, No.1, pp.51–60, 1995.
 J. Potvin, J.A. Goldborgen, R.E. shadwick, “Passive versus active engulfment: verdict from trajectory simulations of lunge-feeding fin whales Balaenoptera Physalus”, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, doi:10.1098/rsif.2008.0492, 2009.
 J. A. Goldbogen, J. Potvin and R.E. shadwick, “Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales”, J. of Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol.277, pp.861–868, 2010.
 N. Rostamzadeh, K.L. Hansen, R.M. Kelso and B.B. Dally , “The formation mechanism and impact of streamwise vortices on NACA 0021 airfoils performance with undulating leading edge modification”, Journal of Physics of Fluids, v.26, n.107101, 2014.
 K.L. Hansen, R.M. Kelso, B.B. Dally and E.R. Hassan, “Analysis of the streamwise vortices generated between leading edge tubercles”, 6th Australian Conference on Laser Diagnostics in Fluid Mechanics and Combustion, Canberra, Australia, 5–7 December, 2011.
 K.Yang, L. Zhang and J.Z. Xu, “Simulation of aerodynamic performance affected by vortex generators on blunt trailing-edge airfoils”, Journal of Science China Technological Sciences, Springer-Verlag, vol.53, no.1, pp.1-7, 2010.
 E.A. Van Nierop, S. Alben and M.P. Brenner, “How bumps on whale flippers delay stall: an aerodynamic model”, Physical Review Letters, PRL 100, 054502, February 2009.
 A. Taheri, “On the hydrodynamic effects of humpback whale’s ventral pleats”, American Journal of Fluid Dynamics, vol.8, no.2, pp.47-62, 2018.
 J. Favier, A. Pinelli and U. Piomelli, “Control of the separated ﬂow around an airfoil using a wavy leading edge inspired by humpback whale ﬂippers”, Journal of Comptes Rendus Mecanique, vol. 340, pp.107–114, 2012.
 H. Arai, Y. Doi, T. Nakashima and H. Mutsuda, “A Study on Stall Delay by Various Wavy Leading Edges”, Journal of Aero Aqua Bio-Mechanics, vol.1, no.1, pp. 18-23, 2010.
 C. Cai, Z. Zuo, S. Liu and Y. Wu, “Effect of a single leading-edge protuberance on NACA 634-021 airfoil performance”, ISROMAC 2016-International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery, Hawaii- Honolulu, April 10-15, 2016.
 A.K. Malipeddi, “Numerical analysis of effects of leading edge protuberances on aircraft wing performance”, Master of Science Thesis, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Wichita State University, 2011.
 A. Skillen, A. Revell, A. Pinelli, U. Piomelli and J. Favier, “Flow over a wing with leading-edge undulations”, AIAA Journal, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, , vol.53, No.2 , pp.464-472, 2014.
 A. Esmaeili and J. M. M. Sousa, “Influence of wing aspect ratio on passive stall control at low Reynolds number using sinusoidal leading edges”, 29th Conference of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, Sep. 7-12, 2014.
 K.R. Atkins, “ Investigation into the flow behavior of a NACA 0021 airfoil with leading edge undulations simulated with RANS in STAR-CCM+”, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.
 M. Asli, B. Mashhadi Gholamali and A. Mesgarpour Tousi, “Numerical Analysis of Wind Turbine Airfoil Aerodynamic Performance with Leading Edge Bump”, Journal of Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Article ID 493253, 8 pages; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/ 2015/493253, 2015.
 N. Rostamzadeh, R.M. Kelso, B.B. Dally and Z.F. Tian ,“An experimental and computational study of flow over a NACA 0021 airfoil with wavy leading edge modification”, 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, Launceston, Australia, 3-7 Dec., 2012.
 C. Cai, Z. Zuo, S. Liu and Y. Wu, “Numerical investigations of hydrodynamic performance of hydrofoils with leading-edge protuberances”, Journal of Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol. 7, no.7, pp.1–11, 2015.
 I. Solís-Gallego, D. Menéndez-Alonso, A. Meana Fernández, J. M. Fernández Oro, K. M. Argüelles Díaz and S. Velarde-Suárez, “Optimization of Wind Turbine Airfoils using Geometries based on Humpback Whale Flippers”, International Congress of Energy and Environment Engineering and Management, Paris, 22-24 July, 2015.
 T.M.A. Maksoud and V. Ramasamy, “The effect of leading edge and trailing edge protubercles on aerofoil performance”, HEFAT2014 10th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Orlando, Florida, 14 – 16 July, 2014.
 J.H. Chen, S.S. Li and V.T. Nguyen, “The effect of leading edge protuberances on the performance of small aspect ratio foils”, 15th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, 25-28 June, Minsk, Belarus, 2012.
 H. T. C. Pedro and M. H. Kobayashi, “Numerical study of stall delay on humpback whale ﬂippers”, 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 7-10 January, Reno, Nevada, 2008.
 P. W. Weber, L. E. Howle, M. M. Murray and D. S. Miklosovic, “Computational Evaluation of the Performance of Lifting Surfaces with Leading-Edge Protuberances”, Journal of Aircraft, vol. 48, no. 2, pp.591-600, 2011.
 M. W. Lohry, D. Clifton and L. Martinelli, “Characterization and design of tubercle leading-edge wings”, 7th International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ICCFD7), Big Island, Hawaii, July 9-13, 2012.
 J. Joy, T.H. New and I. H. Ibrahim, “A computational study on flow separation control of humpback whale inspired sinusoidal hydrofoils”, International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, vol.10, no.2, 2016.
 D. Serson, J.R. Meneghini, S.J. Sherwin, “Direct numerical simulations of the ﬂow around wings with spanwise waviness at a very low Reynolds number”, Journal of Computers and Fluids, vol.146, pp.117–124, 2017.
 D.S. Miklosovic, M. M. Murray, L. E. H. and Fish, F. E., “Leading-edge tubercles delay stall on humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) ﬂippers”, Physics of Fluids, vol. 16, pp. 39 – 42, 2004.
 D.S. Miklosovic, M. M. Murray and L. E. Howle, “Experimental Evaluation of Sinusoidal Leading Edges,” Journal of Aircraft, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1404–1408, 2007.
 D. Custodio, “The effect of humpback whale-like leading edge protuberances on hydrofoil performance”, Master of Science Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2007.
 H. Johari, C. Henoch, D. Custodio and A. Levshin, “Effects of leading edge protuberances on airfoil performance”, AIAA Journal, vol.45, no.11, pp.2634-2641, 2007.
 M. J. Stanway, “Hydrodynamic effects of leading edge tubercles on control surfaces and in flapping foil propulsion”, Master of Science Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2008.
 K. L. Hansen, “Effect of leading edge tubercles on airfoil performance”, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, 2012.
 J. Borg, “The effect of leading edge serrations on dynamic stall”, M.S. Thesis, school of engineering sciences, Faculty of engineering and the environment, University of Southampton, 2012.
 D. Custodio, C. Henoch and H. Johari, “Aerodynamic characteristics of finite span wings with leading edge protuberances”, AIAA Journal, vol.53, no.7, pp. 1878-1893, 2015.
 A. Agrico de Paula, “the airfoil thickness effects on wavy leading edge phenomena at low Reynolds number regime”, Ph.D. thesis, Polytechnic school, University of Sao Paulo, 2016.
 M.D. Bolzon, R.M. Kelso and M. Arjomandi, “The effects of tubercles on swept wing performance at low angles of attack”, 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference Melbourne, Australia, 8-11 December, 2014.
 M. Bolzon, R.M. Kelso, and M. Arjomandi. "Force measurements and wake surveys of a swept tubercled wing", Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol.30, No.3, 04016085, 2017.
 H.Demuth, M. Beale and M.Hagan, “Neural network toolbox user’s guide”, The MathWorks Inc., Natrick, USA, 2009.
 S. E. Fahlman and C. Lebiere, “The cascade-correlation learning architecture”, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, no.2, pp. 524–532, 1990.
 A. Chipperfield, P. Fleming, H. Pohlheim and C. Fonseca, “Genetic Algorithm toolbox”, Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, 2000.
 SolidWorks, Software Package, Dassault Systemes, SolidWorks Corp., Concord, MA, 2016.
 A. Sobachkin and G. Dumnov, “Numerical Basis of CAD-Embedded CFD”, NAFEMS World Congress, Dassult Systems Inc., 2013.
 C. K. G. Lam and K. A. Bremhorst, “A modified form of the k-e model for predicting wall turbulence”, Journal of Fluid Engineering, Vol.103, pp. 456–460, 1981.