Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 206

Search results for: phosphorous removal

206 Scope of BOD, Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal through Plant-Soil Interaction in the Wetland

Authors: Debabrata Mazumder

Abstract:

Constructed and natural wetlands are being used extensively to treat different types of wastewater including the domestic one. Considerable removal efficiency has been achieved for a variety of pollutants like BOD, nitrogen and phosphorous in the wetlands. Wetland treatment appears to be the best choice for treatment or pre-treatment of wastewater because of the low maintenance cost and simplicity of operation. Wetlands are the natural exporters of organic carbon on account of decomposition of organic matter. The emergent plants like reeds, bulrushes and cattails are commonly used in constructed wetland for the treatment process providing surface for bacterial growth, filtration of solids, nutrient uptake and oxygenation to promote nitrification as well as denitrification. The present paper explored different scopes of organic matter (BOD), nitrogen and phosphorous removal from wastewater through wetlands. Emphasis is given to look into the soil chemistry for tracing the behavior of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the wetland. Due consideration is also made to see the viability for upgrading the BOD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency through different classical modifications of wetland.

Keywords: BOD removal, modification, nitrogen removal, phosphorous removal, wetland.

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205 Investigation of the Effect of Phosphorous on the Flame Retardant Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber

Authors: Mustafa Yılmaz, Ahmet Akar, Nesrin Köken, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

Commercially available poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) P(AN-VA) or poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate) P(AN-MA) are not satisfactory to meet the demand in flame and fire-resistance. In this work, vinylphosphonic acid is used during polymerization of acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, methacrylic acid to produce fire-retardant polymers. These phosphorus containing polymers are successfully spun in the form of nanofibers. Properties such as water absorption of polymers are also determined and compared with commercial polymers.

Keywords: Flame retardant, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile, phosphorous compound, membrane.

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204 The Effects of Four Organic Cropping Sequences on Soil Phosphorous Cycling and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: R. J. Parham, J. D. Knight

Abstract:

Organic farmers across Saskatchewan face soil phosphorus (P) shortages. Due to the restriction on inputs in organic systems, farmers rely on crop rotation and naturally-occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for plant P supply. Crop rotation is important for disease, pest, and weed management. Crops that are not colonized by AMF (non-mycorrhizal) can decrease colonization of a following crop. An experiment was performed to quantify soil P cycling in four cropping sequences under organic management and determine if mustard (non-mycorrhizal) was delaying the colonization of subsequent wheat. Soils from the four cropping sequences were measured for inorganic soil P (Pi), AMF spore density (SD), phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA, for AMF biomarker counts), and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPase, related to AMF metabolic activity). Plants were measured for AMF colonization and P content and uptake of above-ground biomass. A lack of difference in AMF activity indicated that mustard was not depressing colonization. Instead, AMF colonization was largely determined by crop type and crop rotation.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, crop rotation, organic farming, phosphorous, soil microbiology.

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203 Development of Molecular Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) for the Selective Removal of Carbamazepine from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Bianca Schweiger, Lucile Bahnweg, Barbara Palm, Ute Steinfeld

Abstract:

The occurrence and removal of trace organic contaminants in the aquatic environment has become a focus of environmental concern. For the selective removal of carbamazepine from loaded waters molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized with carbamazepine as template. Parameters varied were the type of monomer, crosslinker, and porogen, the ratio of starting materials, and the synthesis temperature. Best results were obtained with a template to crosslinker ratio of 1:20, toluene as porogen, and methacrylic acid (MAA) as monomer. MIPs were then capable to recover carbamazepine by 93% from a 10-5 M landfill leachate solution containing also caffeine and salicylic acid. By comparison, carbamazepine recoveries of 75% were achieved using a nonimprinted polymer (NIP) synthesized under the same conditions, but without template. In landfill leachate containing solutions carbamazepine was adsorbed by 93-96% compared with an uptake of 73% by activated carbon. The best solvent for desorption was acetonitrile, with which the amount of solvent necessary and dilution with water was tested. Selected MIPs were tested for their reusability and showed good results for at least five cycles. Adsorption isotherms were prepared with carbamazepine solutions in the concentration range of 0.01 M to 5*10-6 M. The heterogeneity index showed a more homogenous binding site distribution.

Keywords: Carbamazepine, landfill leachate, removal, reuse

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202 The removal of Ni, Cu and Fe from a Mixed Metal System using Sodium Hypophosphite as a Reducing Agent

Authors: Promise Sethembiso Ngema, Freeman Ntuli, Mohamed Belaid

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to remove and recover Ni, Cu and Fe from a mixed metal system using sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent and nickel powder as seeding material. The metal systems studied consisted of Ni-Cu, Ni-Fe and Ni-Cu-Fe solutions. A 5 L batch reactor was used to conduct experiments where 100 mg/l of each respective metal was used. It was found that the metals were reduced to their elemental form with removal efficiencies of over 80%. The removal efficiency decreased in the order Fe>Ni>Cu. The metal powder obtained contained between 97-99% Ni and was almost spherical and porous. Size enlargement by aggregation was the dominant particulate process.

Keywords: crystallization, electroless plating, heavy metal removal, wastewater treatment

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201 Inorganic Anion Removal from Water Using Natural Adsorbents

Authors: A. Ortuzar, I. Escondrillas, F. Mijangos

Abstract:

There is a need for new systems that can be attached to drinking water treatment plants and have the required treatment capacity as well as the selectivity regarding components derived from anthropogenic activities. In a context of high volumes of water and low concentration of contaminants, adsorption/interchange processes are appealing since they meet the required features. Iron oxides such as siderite and molysite, which are respectively based on FeCO3 and FeCl3, can be found in nature. In this work, their observed performance, raw or roasted at different temperatures, as adsorbents of some inorganic anions is discussed. Roasted 1:1 FeCO3: FeCl3 mixture was very selective for arsenic and allowed a 100% removal of As from a 10 mg L-1 As solution. Besides, the 1:1 FeCO3 and FeCl3 mixture roasted at 500 ºC showed good selectivity for, in order of preference, arsenate, bromate, phosphate, fluoride and nitrate anions with distribution coefficients of, respectively, 4200, 2800, 2500 0.4 and 0.03 L g-1.

Keywords: Drinking water, natural adsorbent materials, removal, selectivity.

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200 Effect of Influent COD on Biological Ammonia Removal Efficiency

Authors: S. H. Mirhossaini, H. Godini, A. Jafari

Abstract:

Biological Ammonia removal (nitrification), the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate catalyzed by bacteria, is a key part of global nitrogen cycling. In the first step of nitrification, chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer transform ammonia to nitrite, this subsequently oxidized to nitrate by nitrite oxidizing bacteria. This process can be affected by several factors. In this study the effect of influent COD on biological ammonia removal in a bench-scale biological reactor was investigated. Experiments were carried out using synthetic wastewater. The initial ammonium concentration was 25mgNH4 +-N L-1. The effect of COD between 247.55±1.8 and 601.08±3.24mgL-1 on biological ammonia removal was investigated by varying the COD loading supplied to reactor. From the results obtained in this study it could be concluded in the range of 247.55±1.8 to 351.35±2.05mgL-1, there is a direct relationship between amount of COD and ammonia removal. However more than 351.35±2.05 up to 601.08±3.24mgL-1 were found an indirect relationship between them.

Keywords: Ammonia biological removal, Nitrification, InfluentCOD.

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199 Removal of Arsenic (III) from Contaminated Waterby Synthetic Nano Size Zerovalent Iron

Authors: A. R. Rahmani, H. R. Ghaffari, M. T. Samadi

Abstract:

The present work was conducted for Arsenic (III) removal, which one of the most poisonous groundwater pollutants, by synthetic nano size zerovalent iron (nZVI). Batch experiments were performed to investigate the influence of As (III), nZVI concentration, pH of solution and contact time on the efficiency of As (III) removal. nZVI was synthesized by reduction of ferric chloride by sodium borohydrid. SEM and XRD were used to determine particle size and characterization of produced nanoparticles. Up to 99.9% removal efficiency for arsenic (III) was obtained by nZVI dosage of 1 g/L at time equal to 10 min. and pH=7. It could be concluded that the removal efficiency were enhanced with increasing of ZVI dosage and reaction time, but decreased with increasing of arsenic concentration and pH for nano sized ZVI. nZVI presented an outstanding ability to remove As (III) due to not only a high surface area and low particle size but also to high inherent activity.

Keywords: Arsenic removal, aqueous solution, zero valent iron.

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198 Efficient CNC Milling by Adjusting Material Removal Rate

Authors: Majid Tolouei-Rad

Abstract:

This paper describes a combined mathematicalgraphical approach for optimum tool path planning in order to improve machining efficiency. A methodology has been used that stabilizes machining operations by adjusting material removal rate in pocket milling operations while keeping cutting forces within limits. This increases the life of cutting tool and reduces the risk of tool breakage, machining vibration, and chatter. Case studies reveal the fact that application of this approach could result in a slight increase of machining time, however, a considerable reduction of tooling cost, machining vibration, noise and chatter can be achieved in addition to producing a better surface finish.

Keywords: CNC machines, milling, optimization, removal rate.

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197 Removal of Boron from Waste Waters by Ion- Exchange in a Batch System

Authors: Pelin Demirçivi, Gülhayat Nasün-Saygılı

Abstract:

Boron minerals are very useful for various industrial activities, such as glass industry and detergent industry, due to its mechanical and chemical properties. During the production of boron compounds, many of these are introduced into the environment in the form of waste. Boron is also an important micro nutrient for the plants to vegetate but if it exists in high concentrations, it could have toxic effects. The maximum boron level in drinking water for human health is given as 0.3 mg/L in World Health Organization (WHO) standards. The toxic effects of boron should be noted especially for dry regions, thus, in recent years, increasing attention has been paid to remove the boron from waste waters. In this study, boron removal is implemented by ion exchange process using Amberlite IRA-743 resin. Amberlite IRA-743 resin is a boron specific resin and it belongs to the polymerizate sorbent group within the aminopolyol functional group. Batch studies were performed to investigate the effects of various experimental parameters, such as adsorbent dose, initial concentration and pH, on the removal of boron. It is found that, when the adsorbent dose increases removal of boron from the liquid phase increases. However, an increase in the initial concentration decreases the removal of boron. The effective pH values for removal of boron are determined between 8.5 and 9. Equilibrium isotherms were also analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm is obeyed better than the Freundlich isotherm.

Keywords: Amberlite resin, boron removal, ion exchange, isotherm models.

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196 Nutrients Removal from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent using Eichhornia Crassipes

Authors: S. R. M. Kutty, S. N. I. Ngatenah, M. H. Isa, A. Malakahmad

Abstract:

Water hyacinth has been used in aquatic systems for wastewater purification in many years worldwide. The role of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) species in polishing nitrate and phosphorus concentration from municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent by phytoremediation method was evaluated. The objective of this project is to determine the removal efficiency of water hyacinth in polishing nitrate and phosphorus, as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia. Water hyacinth is considered as the most efficient aquatic plant used in removing vast range of pollutants such as organic matters, nutrients and heavy metals. Water hyacinth, also referred as macrophytes, were cultivated in the treatment house in a reactor tank of approximately 90(L) x 40(W) x 25(H) in dimension and built with three compartments. Three water hyacinths were placed in each compartments and water sample in each compartment were collected in every two days. The plant observation was conducted by weight measurement, plant uptake and new young shoot development. Water hyacinth effectively removed approximately 49% of COD, 81% of ammonia, 67% of phosphorus and 92% of nitrate. It also showed significant growth rate at starting from day 6 with 0.33 shoot/day and they kept developing up to 0.38 shoot/day at the end of day 24. From the studies conducted, it was proved that water hyacinth is capable of polishing the effluent of municipal wastewater which contains undesirable amount of nitrate and phosphorus concentration.

Keywords: water hyacinth, phytoremediation, nutrient removal, Eichhornia crassipes

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195 Removal of Copper (II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Teak (Tectona grandis L.f) Leaves

Authors: S. Rathnakumar, R. Y. Sheeja, T. Murugesan

Abstract:

The experiments were performed in a batch set up under different concentrations of Cu (II) (0.2 g.l-1 to 0.9 g.l-1), pH (4- 6), temperatures (20oC – 40oC) with varying teak leaves powder (as biosorbent) dosage of 0.3 g.l-1 to 0.5 g.l-1. The kinetics of interactions were tested with pseudo first order Lagergran equation and the value for k1 was found to be 6.909 x 10-3 min-1. The biosorption data gave a good fit with Langmuir and Fruendlich isotherms and the Langmuir monolayer capacity (qm) was found to be 166.78 mg. g-1. Similarly the Freundlich adsorption capacity (Kf) was estimated as 2.49 l g-1. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG were -62.42 KJ. mol-1, -0.219 KJ.mol-1 K-1 and -1.747 KJ.mol-1 at 293 K from a solution containing 0.4 g l-1 of Cu(II) showing the biosorption to be thermodynamically favourable. These results show good potentiality of using teak leaves as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Teak leaves, Cu(II) removal, biosorption, Lagergran, Langmuir, Fruendlich isotherm.

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194 New Corneal Reflection Removal Method Used In Iris Recognition System

Authors: Walid Aydi, Nouri Masmoudi, Lotfi Kamoun

Abstract:

Images of human iris contain specular highlights due to the reflective properties of the cornea. This corneal reflection causes many errors not only in iris and pupil center estimation but also to locate iris and pupil boundaries especially for methods that use active contour. Each iris recognition system has four steps: Segmentation, Normalization, Encoding and Matching. In order to address the corneal reflection, a novel reflection removal method is proposed in this paper. Comparative experiments of two existing methods for reflection removal method are evaluated on CASIA iris image databases V3. The experimental results reveal that the proposed algorithm provides higher performance in reflection removal.

Keywords: iris, pupil, specular highlights, reflection removal

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193 Development of a RAM Simulation Model for Acid Gas Removal System

Authors: Ainul Akmar Mokhtar, Masdi Muhammad, Hilmi Hussin, Mohd Amin Abdul Majid

Abstract:

A reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) model has been built for acid gas removal plant for system analysis that will play an important role in any process modifications, if required, for achieving its optimum performance. Due to the complexity of the plant, the model was based on a Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) with a Monte Carlo simulation engine. The model has been validated against actual plant data as well as local expert opinions, resulting in an acceptable simulation model. The results from the model showed that the operation and maintenance can be further improved, resulting in reduction of the annual production loss.

Keywords: Acid gas removal plant, RAM model, Reliabilityblock diagram

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192 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Amine-Based Hybrid Solvent Absorption

Authors: Supitcha Rinprasertmeechai, Sumaeth Chavadej, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Santi Kulprathipanja

Abstract:

This study was to investigate the performance of hybrid solvents blended between primary, secondary, or tertiary amines and piperazine (PZ) for CO2 removal from flue gas in terms of CO2 absorption capacity and regeneration efficiency at 90 oC. Alkanolamines used in this work were monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA). The CO2 absorption was experimentally examined under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The results show that MEA blend with PZ provided the maximum CO2 absorption capacity of 0.50 mol CO2/mol amine while TEA provided the minimum CO2 absorption capacity of 0.30 mol CO2/mol amine. TEA was easier to regenerate for both first cycle and second cycle with less loss of absorption capacity. The regeneration efficiency of TEA was 95.09 and 92.89 %, for the first and second generation cycles, respectively.

Keywords: CO2 absorption capacity, regeneration efficiency, CO2 removal, flue gas

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191 Malt Bagasse Waste as Biosorbent for Malachite Green: An Ecofriendly Approach for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: H. C. O. Reis, A. S. Cossolin, B. A. P. Santos, K. C. Castro, G. M. Pereira, V. C. Silva, P. T. Sousa Jr, E. L. Dall’Oglio, L. G. Vasconcelos, E. B. Morais

Abstract:

In this study, malt bagasse, a low-cost waste biomass, was tested as a biosorbent to remove the cationic dye Malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Batch biosorption experiments were investigated as functions of different experimental parameters such as initial pH, salt (NaCl) concentration, contact time, temperature and initial dye concentration. Higher removal rates of MG were obtained at pH 8 and 10. The equilibrium and kinetic studies suggest that the biosorption follows Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was estimated at 117.65 mg/g (at 45 °C). According to Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of MG onto malt bagasse occurs physically. The thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy indicated that the MG biosorption onto malt bagasse is spontaneous and endothermic. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance under high salt concentrations. It can be concluded that malt bagasse waste has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of MG from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Color removal, kinetic and isotherm studies, thermodynamic parameters, FTIR.

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190 Alignment of MG-63 Osteoblasts on Fibronectin-Coated Phosphorous Doping Lattices in Silicon

Authors: Andreas Körtge, Susanne Stählke, Regina Lange, Mario Birkholz, Mirko Fraschke, Katrin Schulz, Barbara Nebe, Patrick Elter

Abstract:

A major challenge in biomaterials research is the regulation of protein adsorption which is a key factor for controlling the subsequent cell adhesion at implant surfaces. The aim of the present study was to control the adsorption of fibronectin (FN) and the attachment of MG-63 osteoblasts with an electronic nanostructure. Shallow doping line lattices with a period of 260 nm were produced for this purpose by implantation of phosphorous in silicon wafers. Protein coverage was determined after incubating the substrate with FN by means of an immunostaining procedure and the measurement of the fluorescence intensity with a TECAN analyzer. We observed an increased amount of adsorbed FN on the nanostructure compared to control substrates. MG-63 osteoblasts were cultivated for 24h on FN-incubated substrates and their morphology was assessed by SEM. Preferred orientation and elongation of the cells in direction of the doping lattice lines was observed on FN-coated nanostructures.

Keywords: Cell adhesion, electronic nanostructures, doping lattice, fibronectin, MG-63 osteoblasts, protein adsorption.

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189 Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Adsorption and Membrane Processes: a Comparative Study

Authors: Nermen N. Maximous, George F. Nakhla, W. K. Wan

Abstract:

This research aimed at investigating the Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) removal efficiencies by using the newly synthesized metal oxides/ polyethersulfone (PES), Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES, membranes from synthetic wastewater and exploring fouling mechanisms. A Comparative study between the removal efficiencies of Cr (III), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from synthetic and natural wastewater by using adsorption onto agricultural by products and the newly synthesized Al2O3/PES and ZrO2/PES membranes was conducted to assess the advantages and limitations of using the metal oxides/PES membranes for heavy metals removal. The results showed that about 99 % and 88 % removal efficiencies were achieved by the tested membranes for Pb (II) and Cr (III), respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption, metals removal, ultrafiltrationmembranes, wastewater

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188 Nutrients Removal Control via an Intermittently Aerated Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Junior B. N. Adohinzin, Ling Xu

Abstract:

Nitrogen is among the main nutrients encouraging the growth of organic matter and algae which cause eutrophication in water bodies. Therefore, its removal from wastewater has become a worldwide emerging concern. In this research, an innovative Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) system named “moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR)” was developed and investigated under intermittently-aerated mode for simultaneous removal of organic carbon and nitrogen.

Results indicated that the variation of the intermittently aerated duration did not have an apparent impact on COD and NH4+–N removal rate, yielding the effluent with average COD and NH4+–N removal efficiency of more than 92 and 91% respectively. However, in the intermittently aerated cycle of (continuously aeration/0s mix), (aeration 90s/mix 90s) and (aeration 90s/mix 180s); the average TN removal efficiency was 67.6%, 69.5% and 87.8% respectively. At the same time, their nitrite accumulation rate was 4.5%, 49.1% and 79.4% respectively. These results indicate that the intermittently aerated mode is an efficient way to controlling the nitrification to stop at nitrition; and also the length of anoxic duration is a key factor in improving TN removal.

Keywords: Membrane bioreactor (MBR), Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), Nutrients removal, Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

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187 The Removal of As(V) from Drinking Waters by Coagulation Process using Iron Salts

Authors: M. Donmez, F. Akbal

Abstract:

In this study arsenate [As(V)] removal from drinking water by coagulation process was investigated. Ferric chloride (FeCl3.6H2O) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O) were used as coagulant. The effects of major operating variables such as coagulant dose (1–30 mg/L) and pH (5.5–9.5) were investigated. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate were found as effective and reliable coagulant due to required dose, residual arsenate and coagulant concentration. Optimum pH values for maximum arsenate removal for ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride were found as 8 and 7.5. The arsenate removal efficiency decreased at neutral and acidic pH values for Fe(II) and at the high acidic and high alkaline pH for Fe(III). It was found that the increase of coagulant dose caused a substantial increase in the arsenate removal. But above a certain ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dosage, the increase in arsenate removal was not significant. Ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate dose above 8 mg/L slightly increased arsenate removal.

Keywords: Arsenic removal, coagulation, ıron salts, drinking water.

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186 Internal Behavior of Biological Nutrient Removal System for Advanced Wastewater Treatment

Authors: J. K. Choi , D. W. Kim, H. S. Shin, H. J. Yeon, B. K. Kim, Yeon. Fan, D. Chang, S. B. Han, J.M. Hur, B. R. Jung, S. M. Park

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was develop a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system which has low energy consumption, sludge production, and land usage. These indicate that BNR system could be a alternative of future wastewater treatment in ubiquitous city(U-city). Organics and nitrogen compounds could be removed by this system so that secondary or tertiary stages of wastewater treatment satisfy their standards. This system was composed of oxic and anoxic filter filed with PVDC and POM media. Anoxic/oxic filter system operated under empty bed contact time of 4 hours by increasing recirculation ratio from 0 to 100 %. The system removals of total nitrogen and COD were 76.3% and 93%, respectively. To be observed internal behavior in this system SCOD, NH3-N, and NO3-N were conducted and removal shows range of 25~100%, 59~99%, and 70~100%, respectively.

Keywords: BNR, nitrification, denitrification, organics removal, anoxic, oxic, advanced treatment.

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185 Removal of Elemental Mercury from Dry Methane Gas with Manganese Oxides

Authors: Junya Takenami, Md. Azhar Uddin, Eiji Sasaoka, Yasushi Shioya, Tsuneyoshi Takase

Abstract:

In this study, we sought to investigate the mercury removal efficiency of manganese oxides from natural gas. The fundamental studies on mercury removal with manganese oxides sorbents were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor at 30 °C with a mixture of methane (20%) and nitrogen gas laden with 4.8 ppb of elemental mercury. Manganese oxides with varying surface area and crystalline phase were prepared by conventional precipitation method in this study. The effects of surface area, crystallinity and other metal oxides on mercury removal efficiency were investigated. Effect of Ag impregnation on mercury removal efficiency was also investigated. Ag supported on metal oxide such titania and zirconia as reference materials were also used in this study for comparison. The characteristics of mercury removal reaction with manganese oxide was investigated using a temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique. Manganese oxides showed very high Hg removal activity (about 73-93% Hg removal) for first time use. Surface area of the manganese oxide samples decreased after heat-treatment and resulted in complete loss of Hg removal ability for repeated use after Hg desorption in the case of amorphous MnO2, and 75% loss of the initial Hg removal activity for the crystalline MnO2. Mercury desorption efficiency of crystalline MnO2 was very low (37%) for first time use and high (98%) after second time use. Residual potassium content in MnO2 may have some effect on the thermal stability of the adsorbed Hg species. Desorption of Hg from manganese oxides occurs at much higher temperatures (with a peak at 400 °C) than Ag/TiO2 or Ag/ZrO2. Mercury may be captured on manganese oxides in the form of mercury manganese oxide.

Keywords: Mercury removal, Metal and metal oxide sorbents, Methane, Natural gas.

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184 Salinity Reduction from Saharan Brackish Water by Fluoride Removal on Activated Natural Materials: A Comparative Study

Authors: Amina Ramadni, Safia Taleb, André Dératani

Abstract:

The present study presents, firstly, to characterize the physicochemical quality of brackish groundwater of the Terminal Complex (TC) from the region of Eloued-souf and to investigate the presence of fluoride, and secondly, to study the comparison of adsorbing power of three materials, such as (activated alumina AA, sodium clay SC and hydroxyapatite HAP) against the groundwater in the region of Eloued-souf. To do this, a sampling campaign over 16 wells and consumer taps was undertaken. The results show that the groundwater can be characterized by very high fluoride content and excessive mineralization that require in some cases, specific treatment before supply. The study of adsorption revealed removal efficiencies fluoride by three adsorbents, maximum adsorption is achieved after 45 minutes at 90%, 83.4% and 73.95%, and with an adsorbed fluoride content of 0.22 mg/L, 0.318 mg/L and 0.52 mg/L for AA, HAP and SC, respectively. The acidity of the medium significantly affects the removal fluoride. Results deducted from the adsorption isotherms also showed that the retention follows the Langmuir model. The adsorption tests by adsorbent materials show that the physicochemical characteristics of brackish water are changed after treatment. The adsorption mechanism is an exchange between the OH- ions and fluoride ions. Three materials are proving to be effective adsorbents for fluoride removal that could be developed into a viable technology to help reduce the salinity of the Saharan hyper-fluorinated waters. Finally, a comparison between the results obtained from the different adsorbents allowed us to conclude that the defluoridation by AA is the process of choice for many waters of the region of Eloued-souf, because it was shown to be a very interesting and promising technique.

Keywords: Fluoride removal, groundwater, hydrochemical characterization, natural materials.

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183 Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera Coagulant Protein as Natural Coagulant aid in Removal of Turbidity and Bacteria from Turbid Waters

Authors: B. Bina, M.H. Mehdinejad, Gunnel Dalhammer, Guna RajaraoM. Nikaeen, H. Movahedian Attar

Abstract:

Coagulation of water involves the use of coagulating agents to bring the suspended matter in the raw water together for settling and the filtration stage. Present study is aimed to examine the effects of aluminum sulfate as coagulant in conjunction with Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid on turbidity, hardness, and bacteria in turbid water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The best removal was observed at a pH of 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between % 80 to % 99 by Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid. Dosage of coagulant and coagulant aid decreased with increasing turbidity. In addition, Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein significantly has reduced the required dosage of primary coagulant. Residual Al+3 in treated water were less than 0.2 mg/l and meets the environmental protection agency guidelines. The results showed that turbidity reduction of % 85.9- % 98 paralleled by a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 1-3 log units (99.2 – 99.97%) was obtained within the first 1 to 2 h of treatment. In conclusions, Moringa Oleifera Coagulant Protein as coagulant aid can be used for drinking water treatment without the risk of organic or nutrient release. We demonstrated that optimal design method is an efficient approach for optimization of coagulation-flocculation process and appropriate for raw water treatment.

Keywords: MOCP, Coagulant aid, turbidity removal, E.coliremoval, water, treatment

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182 Ammonia Gas Removal from Gas Stream by Biofiltration using Agricultural Residue Biofilter Medias in Laboratory-scale Biofilter

Authors: Thaniya Kaosol, Nuttawut Pongpat

Abstract:

In this research, a biofiltration process to remove ammonia gas from gas stream using agricultural residue biofilter medias is studied. The experiments were conducted in laboratoryscale biofilter. The biofilter medias were a mixture of manure fertilizer and bagasse at various ratios i.e., 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7. The experiments were performed for a period of 40 days. The empty bed retention time (EBRT) is 78s. The moisture content of biofilter media was maintained at 45-60% using water. The results showed that the agricultural residues (manure fertilizer and bagasse) are suitable as biofilter media for ammonia gas removal in biofiltration process. The maximum efficiency of ammonia gas removal is observed from the 1:5 of manure fertilizer: bagasse ratio at 89.93%. The biofiltration is more effective at low ammonia gas concentration. In addition, the mixture ratio of biofilter media is not a significant factor in biofiltration operation while the most significant factor for biofiltration operation is the inlet ammonia gas concentration.

Keywords: ammonia gas, biofiltration, biofilter media, removal efficiency, elimination capacity

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181 Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Synthetic Nano Size ZeroValent Iron (nZVI)

Authors: A.R. Rahmani, M.T. Samadi, R. Noroozi

Abstract:

The present work was conducted for the synthesis of nano size zerovalent iron (nZVI) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal as a highly toxic pollutant by using this nanoparticles. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effects of Cr(VI), nZVI concentration, pH of solution and contact time variation on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI). nZVI was synthesized by reduction of ferric chloride using sodium borohydrid. SEM and XRD examinations applied for determination of particle size and characterization of produced nanoparticles. The results showed that the removal efficiency decreased with Cr(VI) concentration and pH of solution and increased with adsorbent dosage and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for the adsorption equilibrium data and the Langmuir isotherm model was well fitted. Nanoparticle ZVI presented an outstanding ability to remove Cr(VI) due to high surface area, low particle size and high inherent activity.

Keywords: Adsorption, aqueous solution, Chromium, nZVI, removal.

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180 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Ahmed I. Shehab, Sabah M. Abdel Basir, M. A. Abdel Khalek, M. H. Soliman, G. Elgemeie

Abstract:

Spent bleaching earth (SBE) recycling and utilization as an adsorbent to eliminate dyes from aqueous solution was studied. Organic solvents and subsequent thermal treatment were carried out to recover and reactivate the SBE. The effect of pH, temperature, dye’s initial concentration, and contact time on the dye removal using recycled spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was investigated. Recycled SBE showed better removal affinity of cationic than anionic dyes. The maximum removal was achieved at pH 2 and 8 for anionic and cationic dyes, respectively. Kinetic data matched with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption phenomenon governing this process was identified by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for anionic dye while Freundlich model represented the sorption process for cationic dye. The changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were computed and compared through thermodynamic study for both dyes.

Keywords: Spent bleaching earth, Regeneration, Dye removal, Thermodynamics.

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179 Ammonia Removal from Nitrogenous Industrial Waste Water Using Iranian Natural Zeolite of Clinoptilolite Type

Authors: M.M. Jafarpour, Ar. Foolad, M.K. Mansouri, Z. Nikbakhsh, H. Saeedizade

Abstract:

Ammonia nitrogen is one of the most hazardous water pollutants, discharging into water receptors through industrial effluents. Negative environmental impacts of such chemical species in hydrosphere include accelerated eutrophication, water toxicity and harming the aquatics. Natural zeolite clinoptilolite has very high selectivity & capacity for ammonium cation sorption. It occurs in high abundances and rich mines of this zeolite exist in different parts of Iran and thus are available more cheaply and with different sizing. The aim of this study is to investigate ammonia nitrogen removal over this natural sorbent from real samples of high polluted wastewater discharging from a fertilizer producing plant. The experimental results showed that this natural sorbent without even any pre treatment system & with the same particle size available in Iranian markets has still high capability & selectivity in ammonia nitrogen removal both in batch and continuous tests.

Keywords: Ammonia nitrogen removal, Clinoptilolite, Naturalzeolite, Waste water.

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178 Removal of Methylene Blue Dye Using Roselle Petals from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Abdulali Ben Saleh, Mohamed Abudabbus

Abstract:

The present study based on removal of natural dyes of Roselle petals, then used Roselle petals powder (RPP) as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye (as a typical cationic or basic dye) from aqueous solutions. The present study shows that used Roselle petals powder exhibit adsorption trend for the dye. The adsorption processes were carried out at various conditions of temperatures ranging from 278 to 338 K ± 2 K , concentrations, processing time and a wide range of pH between 2.5-11. Adsorption isotherm equations such as Freundlich, and Langmuir were applied to calculate the values of respective constants. Adsorption study was found that the currently introduced adsorbent can be used to remove cationic dyes such as methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Adsorption, methylene blue, removal of dyes, Roselle petals powder.

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177 Comparison of Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation for Boron Removal from Synthetic Wastewater Using Aluminium

Authors: Kartikaningsih Danis, Yao-Hui Huang

Abstract:

Various techniques including conventional and advanced have been employed for the boron treatment from water and wastewater. The electrocoagulation involves an electrolytic reactor for coagulation/flotation with aluminium as anode and cathode. There is aluminium as coagulant to be used for removal which may induce secondary pollution in chemical coagulation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the performance between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation on boron removal from synthetic wastewater. The effect of different parameters, such as pH reaction, coagulant dosage, and initial boron concentration were examined. The results show that the boron removal using chemical coagulation was lower. At the optimum condition (e.g. pH 8 and 0.8 mol coagulant dosage), boron removal efficiencies for chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation were 61% and 91%, respectively. In addition, the electrocoagulation needs no chemical reagents and makes the boron treatment easy for application.

Keywords: Electrocoagulation, chemical coagulation, aluminum electrode, boron removal.

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