Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30075
The Effects of Four Organic Cropping Sequences on Soil Phosphorous Cycling and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

Authors: R. J. Parham, J. D. Knight

Abstract:

Organic farmers across Saskatchewan face soil phosphorus (P) shortages. Due to the restriction on inputs in organic systems, farmers rely on crop rotation and naturally-occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for plant P supply. Crop rotation is important for disease, pest, and weed management. Crops that are not colonized by AMF (non-mycorrhizal) can decrease colonization of a following crop. An experiment was performed to quantify soil P cycling in four cropping sequences under organic management and determine if mustard (non-mycorrhizal) was delaying the colonization of subsequent wheat. Soils from the four cropping sequences were measured for inorganic soil P (Pi), AMF spore density (SD), phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA, for AMF biomarker counts), and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPase, related to AMF metabolic activity). Plants were measured for AMF colonization and P content and uptake of above-ground biomass. A lack of difference in AMF activity indicated that mustard was not depressing colonization. Instead, AMF colonization was largely determined by crop type and crop rotation.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, crop rotation, organic farming, phosphorous, soil microbiology.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1087009

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1606

References:


[1] Buckman, H. O. and N. C. Brady. 1969. The nature and properties of soils. The MacMillan Company, New York, NY.
[2] Brady, N. C. 1990. The nature and properties of soils. Mamillan Publishing Company, New York, NY.
[3] Canadian Organic Growers 2011.
[4] Wallace Canadian Organic Growers 2001.
[5] Beckie, H. J. and S. A. Brandt. 1997. Nitrogen contribution of field pea in annual cropping systems. 1. Nitrogen residual effect. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 77:311-322.
[6] Phatak, S. C., N. B. Callaway, and C. S. Vavrina. 1987. Biological control and its integration in weed management systems for purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus). Weed Technology 1:84-91.
[7] Dapaah, H. K. and T. J. Vyn. 1998. Nitrogen fertilization and cover crop effects on soil structure stability and corn performance. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 29:2557-2569.
[8] Delgado, J. A., R. R. Riggenbach, R. T. Sparks, M. A. Dillon, L. A. Kawanabe, and R. J. Ristau. 2001. Evaluation of nitrate-nitrogen transport in a potato-barley rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65:878-883.
[9] Zhu, H. H., Q. Yao, X. T. Sun, and Y. L. Hu. 2007. Colonization, ALP activity and plant growth promotion of native and exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at low pH. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39:942-950.
[10] George, E., K. Haussler, S. K. Kothari, X. L. Li, and H. Marshner. 1992. Contribution of mycorrhizal hyphae to nutrient and water uptake of plants. In: Eds. D. J. Read, D. H. Lewis, A. H. Fitter, I. J. Alexander, Mycorrhizas in Ecosystems. C. A. B. International, United Kingdom. pp. 42-47.
[11] Karasawa, T., Y. Kasahara, and A. Takebe. 2002. Differences in growth responses of maize to preceding cropping caused by fluctuation in the population of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34:851-857.
[12] Bendini, S., L. Avio, E. Argese, and M. Giovannetti. 2007. Effects of long-term land use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and glomalin-related soil protein. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 120: 463-466.
[13] Allen, M. F., J.C. Sexton, T.S. Moore Jr., and M. Christensen. 1981. Influence of phosphate source on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal rhizae of Bouteloua gracilis. New Phytologist 87:687-694.
[14] Douds, D. D. and N. C. Schenk. 1990. Increased sporulation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by manipulation of nutrient regimes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 56:413-418.
[15] Qian, P., J. J. Schoenau, and R. E. Karamanos. 1994. Simultaneous extraction of available phosphorous and potassium with a new soil test: A modification of Kelowna extraction. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 25:627-635.
[16] Dandan, Z. and Z. Zhiwei, 2007. Biodiversity of arbscular mycorrhizal fungi in the hot-dry valley of the Jinsha River, southwest China. Applied Soil Ecology 37:118-128.
[17] White, D. C., W. M. Davis, J. S. Nickels, J. C. King, and R. J. Bobbie. 1979. Determination of the sedimentary microbial biomass by extractable lipid phosphate. Oecologia 40:51-62.
[18] Tabatabai, M. A. and J. M. Bremner. 1969. Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 1:301-307.
[19] Vierheilig, H., A. P. Coughlan, U. Wyss, and Y. Piche. 1998. Ink and vinegar, a simple staining technique for arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:5004-5007.
[20] Giavonnetti, M. and B. Mosse. 1980. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytologist 84:489-500.
[21] Thomas, R. L., R. W. Sheard, and J. R. Moyer. 1967. Comparison of conventional and automated procedures for N, P, and K analysis of plant material using a single digestion. Agronomy Journal 59:240-243.
[22] Olsson, P. A. 1999. Nutrient supply, nutrient demand and plant response to mycorrhizal infection. New Phytologist 117:365-386.
[23] Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. and S. Gianinazzi. 1978. Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. II. Soluble alkaline phosphatase specific to mycorrhizal infection in onion roots. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 12:45-53.
[24] Jajabi-Hare, S. H., J. Therien, and P. M. Charest. 1990. High-resolution cytochemical study of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal association, Glomus clarum-Allium porrum. New Phytologist 114:481-496.
[25] Guillemin, J. P., M. O. Orozco, V. Gianinazzi-Pearson, and S. Gianinazzi. 1995. Influence of phosphate fertilization on fungal alkaline phosphatasae and succinate dehydrogenase activities in arbuscular mycorrhiza of soybean and pineapple. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 53:63-69.
[26] Tisdale, S. L. and W. L. Nelson. 1975. Soil fertility and fertilizers, third edition. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, NY.
[27] Koide, R. T. 1991. Nutrient supply, nutrient demand and plant response to mycorrhizal infection. New Phytologist 117:365-386.
[28] Asimi, S., V. Gianinazzi-Pearson, and S. Gianinazzi. 1980. Influence of increasing soil phosphorous levels on interactions between vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae and Rhizobium in soybeans. Canadian Journal of Botany 58:2200-2205.
[29] Hinsinger, P. 2001. Bioavailability of soil inorganic P in the rhizosphere as affected by root induced chemical changes: A review. Plant and Soil 237:173-195.
[30] Chen, X., J. Tang, G. Zhi, and S. Hu. 2005. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and phosphorus acquisition of plants: Effects of coexisting plant species. Applied Soil Ecology 28:259-269.