Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Algal turf

7 Nitrogen Dynamics and Removal by Algal Turf Scrubber under High Ammonia and Organic Matter Loading in a Recirculating Aquaculture System

Authors: Joshua S. Valeta, Marc C. Verdegem

Abstract:

A study was undertaken to assess the potential of an Algal Turf Scrubber to remove nitrogen from aquaculture effluent to reduce environmental pollution. High total ammonia nitrogen concentrations were introduced to an Algal Turf Scrubber developed under varying hydraulic surface loading rates of African catfish (Clarius gariepinus) effluent in a recirculating aquaculture system. Nutrient removal rates were not affected at total suspended solids concentration of up to 0.04g TSS/l (P > 0.05). Nitrogen removal rates 0.93-0.99g TAN/m²/d were recorded at very high loading rates 3.76-3.81 g TAN/m²/d. Total ammonia removal showed ½ order kinetics between 1.6 to 2.3mg/l Total Ammonia Nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen removal increased with its loading, which increased with hydraulic surface loading rate. Total Ammonia Nitrogen removal by Algal turf scrubber was higher than reported values for fluidized bed filters and trickling filters. The algal turf scrubber also effectively removed nitrate thereby reducing the need for water exchange.

Keywords: Algal turf, loading rate, nitrogen, organic matter, removal rate.

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6 Fabrication of Microfluidic Device for Quantitative Monitoring of Algal Cell Behavior Using X-ray LIGA Technology

Authors: J. Ruenin, S. Sukprasong, R. Phatthanakun, N. Chomnawang, P. Kuntanawat

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple microfluidic device for monitoring algal cell behavior is proposed. An array of algal microwells is fabricated by PDMS soft-lithography using X-ray LIGA mold, placed on a glass substrate. Two layers of replicated PDMS and substrate are attached by oxygen plasma bonding, creating a microchannel for the microfluidic system. Algal cell are loaded into the microfluidic device, which provides positive charge on the bottom surface of wells. Algal cells, which are negative charged, can be attracted to the bottom of the wells via electrostatic interaction. By varying the concentration of algal cells in the loading suspension, it is possible to obtain wells with a single cell. Liquid medium for cells monitoring are flown continuously over the wells, providing nutrient and waste exchange between the well and the main flow. This device could lead to the uncovering of the quantitative biology of the algae, which is a key to effective and extensive algal utilizations in the field of biotechnology, food industry and bioenergy research and developments.

Keywords: Algal cells, microfluidic device, X-ray LIGA, X-ray lithography, metallic mold, synchrotron light, PDMS

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5 Investigation into Heterotrophic Activities and Algal Biomass in Surface Flow Stormwater Wetlands

Authors: Wendong Tao

Abstract:

Stormwater wetlands have been mainly designed in an empirical approach for water quality improvement, with little quantitative understanding of the internal microbial processes. This study investigated into heterotrophic bacterial production rate, heterotrophic bacterial mineralization percentage, and algal biomass in hypertrophic and eutrophic surface flow stormwater wetlands. Compared to a nearby wood leachate treatment wetland, the stormwater wetlands had much higher chlorophyll-a concentrations. The eutrophic stormwater wetland had improved water quality, whereas the hypertrophic stormwater wetland had degraded water quality. Heterotrophic bacterial activities in water were limited in the stormwater wetlands due to competition of algal growth for nutrients. The relative contribution of biofilms to the overall heterotrophic activities was higher in the stormwater wetlands than that in the wood leachate treatment wetland.

Keywords: chlorophyll-a, constructed wetland, heterotrophicproduction, mineralization, stormwater

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4 Biological Hotspots in the Galápagos Islands: Exploring Seasonal Trends of Ocean Climate Drivers to Monitor Algal Blooms

Authors: Emily Kislik, Gabriel Mantilla Saltos, Gladys Torres, Mercy Borbor-Córdova

Abstract:

The Galápagos Marine Reserve (GMR) is an internationally-recognized region of consistent upwelling events, high productivity, and rich biodiversity. Despite its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition, the archipelago has experienced phytoplankton blooms, especially in the western section between Isabela and Fernandina Islands. However, little is known about how climate variability will affect future phytoplankton standing stock in the Galápagos, and no consistent protocols currently exist to quantify phytoplankton biomass, identify species, or monitor for potential harmful algal blooms (HABs) within the archipelago. This analysis investigates physical, chemical, and biological oceanic variables that contribute to algal blooms within the GMR, using 4 km Aqua MODIS satellite imagery and 0.125-degree wind stress data from January 2003 to December 2016. Furthermore, this study analyzes chlorophyll-a concentrations at varying spatial scales— within the greater archipelago, as well as within five smaller bioregions based on species biodiversity in the GMR. Seasonal and interannual trend analyses, correlations, and hotspot identification were performed. Results demonstrate that chlorophyll-a is expressed in two seasons throughout the year in the GMR, most frequently in September and March, with a notable hotspot in the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Interannual chlorophyll-a trend analyses revealed highest peaks in 2003, 2007, 2013, and 2016, and variables that correlate highly with chlorophyll-a include surface temperature and particulate organic carbon. This study recommends future in situ sampling locations for phytoplankton monitoring, including the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Conclusions from this study contribute to the knowledge of oceanic drivers that catalyze primary productivity and consequently affect species biodiversity within the GMR. Additionally, this research can inform policy and decision-making strategies for species conservation and management within bioregions of the Galápagos.

Keywords: Bioregions, ecological monitoring, phytoplankton, remote sensing.

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3 Modeling Cost Structure for Assessment Production Cost of Algal - Biofue

Authors: A. Eman Mohammed

Abstract:

Algae-based fuel are considered a promising sources of clean energy, and because it has many advantages over traditional biofuel, research and business ventures have driven into developing and producing Algal-biofuel. But its production stages create a cost structure that it is not competitive with traditional fuels. Therefore, cost becomes the main obstacle in commercial production purpose. However, the present research which aims at using cost structure model, and designed MS-Dose program, to investigate the a mount of production cost and determined the parameter had great effect on it, second to measured the amount of contribution rate of algae in process the pollution by capturing Co2 from air . The result generated from the model shows that the production cost of biomass is between $0.137 /kg for 100 ha and $0.132 /kg for 500 ha which was less than cost of other studies, while gallon costs between $3.4 - 3.5, more than traditional sources of oil about $1 ,which regarded as a rate of contribution of algal in capturing CO2 from air.

Keywords: Cost Structure Model, Operation Costs(Production Cost), Capital Costs, Algae.

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2 Utilization of Laser-Ablation Based Analytical Methods for Obtaining Complete Chemical Information of Algae

Authors: Pavel Pořízka, David Prochazka, Karel Novotný, Ota Samek, ZdeněkPilát, Klára Procházková, and Jozef Kaiser

Abstract:

Themain goal of this article is to find efficient methods for elemental and molecular analysis of living microorganisms (algae) under defined environmental conditions and cultivation processes. The overall knowledge of chemical composition is obtained utilizing laser-based techniques, Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for acquiring information about elemental composition and Raman Spectroscopy for gaining molecular information, respectively. Algal cells were suspended in liquid media and characterized using their spectra. Results obtained employing LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy techniques will help to elucidate algae biology (nutrition dynamics depending on cultivation conditions) and to identify algal strains, which have the potential for applications in metal-ion absorption (bioremediation) and biofuel industry. Moreover, bioremediation can be readily combined with production of 3rd generation biofuels. In order to use algae for efficient fuel production, the optimal cultivation parameters have to be determinedleading to high production of oil in selected cellswithout significant inhibition of the photosynthetic activity and the culture growth rate, e.g. it is necessary to distinguish conditions for algal strain containing high amount of higher unsaturated fatty acids. Measurements employing LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy were utilized in order to give information about alga Trachydiscusminutus with emphasis on the amount of the lipid content inside the algal cell and the ability of algae to withdraw nutrients from its environment and bioremediation (elemental composition), respectively. This article can serve as the reference for further efforts in describing complete chemical composition of algal samples employing laserablation techniques.

Keywords: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Algae, Algal strains, Bioremediation, Biofuels.

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1 Pollution Induced Structural and Physico-Chemical Changes in Algal Community: A Case Study of River Pandu of North India

Authors: Seemaa Diwedi

Abstract:

The study area receives a wide variety of wastes generated by municipalities and the industries like paints and pigments, metal processing industries, thermal power plants electroprocessing industries etc. The Physico-chemical and structural investigation of water from river Pandu indicated high level of chlorides and calcium which made the water unsuitable for human use. Algae like Cyclotella fumida, Asterionella Formosa, Cladophora glomerata, Pediastrum simplex, Scenedesmus bijuga, Cladophora glomerata were the dominant pollution tolerant species recorded under these conditions. The sensitive and less abundant species of algae included Spirogyra sps., Merismopedia sps. The predominance colonies of Zygnema sps, Phormidium sps, Mycrocystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia minima, Pandorina morum, seems to correlate with high organic contents of Pandu river water. This study assumes significance as some algae can be used as bioindicators of water pollution and algal floral of a municipal drain carrying waste effluents from industrial area Kanpur and discharge them into the river Pandu flowing onto southern outskirts of Kanpur city.

Keywords: Kanpur, North India, Physico-chemical, Pollution, River Pandu.

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