Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: design of experiments

42 Optimization of Process Parameters for Friction Stir Welding of Cast Alloy AA7075 by Taguchi Method

Authors: Dhairya Partap Sing, Vikram Singh, Sudhir Kumar

Abstract:

This investigation proposes Friction stir welding technique to solve the fusion welding problems. Objectives of this investigation are fabrication of AA7075-10%wt. Silicon carbide (SiC) aluminum metal matrix composite and optimization of optimal process parameters of friction stir welded AA7075-10%wt. SiC Composites. Composites were prepared by the mechanical stir casting process. Experiments were performed with four process parameters such as tool rotational speed, weld speed, axial force and tool geometry considering three levels of each. The quality characteristics considered is joint efficiency (JE). The welding experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. An orthogonal array and design of experiments were used to give best possible welding parameters that give optimal JE. The fabricated welded joints using rotational speed of 1500 rpm, welding speed (1.3 mm/sec), axial force (7 k/n) of and tool geometry (square) give best possible results. Experimental result reveals that the tool rotation speed, welding speed and axial force are the significant process parameters affecting the welding performance. The predicted optimal value of percentage JE is 95.621. The confirmation tests also have been done for verifying the results.

Keywords: Metal matrix composite, axial force, joint efficiency, rotational speed, traverse speed, tool geometry.

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41 Analyses and Optimization of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Direct Recycled Aluminium Alloy (AA6061) Wastes by ANOVA Approach

Authors: Mohammed H. Rady, Mohd Sukri Mustapa, S Shamsudin, M. A. Lajis, A. Wagiman

Abstract:

The present study is aimed at investigating microhardness and density of aluminium alloy chips when subjected to various settings of preheating temperature and preheating time. Three values of preheating temperature were taken as 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C. On the other hand, three values of preheating time were chosen (1, 2, 3) hours. The influences of the process parameters (preheating temperature and time) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DOE) approach whereby full factorial design with center point analysis was adopted. The total runs were 11 and they comprise of two factors of full factorial design with 3 center points. The responses were microhardness and density. The results showed that the density and microhardness increased with decreasing the preheating temperature. The results also found that the preheating temperature is more important to be controlled rather than the preheating time in microhardness analysis while both the preheating temperature and preheating time are important in density analysis. It can be concluded that setting temperature at 450 °C for 1 hour resulted in the optimum responses.

Keywords: AA6061, density, DOE, hot extrusion, microhardness.

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40 A Study on the Effect of Mg and Ag Additions and Age Hardening Treatment on the Properties of As-Cast Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys

Authors: Ahmed. S. Alasmari, M. S. Soliman, Magdy M. El-Rayes

Abstract:

This study focuses on the effect of the addition of magnesium (Mg) and silver (Ag) on the mechanical properties of aluminum based alloys. The alloying elements will be added at different levels using the factorial design of experiments of 22; the two factors are Mg and Ag at two levels of concentration. The superior mechanical properties of the produced Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys after aging will be resulted from a unique type of precipitation named as Ω-phase. The formed precipitate enhanced the tensile strength and thermal stability. This paper further investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of as cast Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys after being complete homogenized treatment at 520 °C for 8 hours followed by isothermally age hardening process at 190 °C for different periods of time. The homogenization at 520 °C for 8 hours was selected based on homogenization study at various temperatures and times. The alloys’ microstructures were studied by using optical microscopy (OM). In addition to that, the fracture surface investigation was performed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Studying the microstructure of aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys reveal that the grains are equiaxed with an average grain size of about 50 µm. A detailed fractography study for fractured surface of the aged alloys exhibited a mixed fracture whereby the random fracture suggested crack propagation along the grain boundaries while the dimples indicated that the fracture was ductile. The present result has shown that alloy 5 has the highest hardness values and the best mechanical behaviors.

Keywords: Precipitation hardening, aluminum alloys, aging, design of experiments, analysis of variance, heat treatments.

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39 Optimization of Slider Crank Mechanism Using Design of Experiments and Multi-Linear Regression

Authors: Galal Elkobrosy, Amr M. Abdelrazek, Bassuny M. Elsouhily, Mohamed E. Khidr

Abstract:

Crank shaft length, connecting rod length, crank angle, engine rpm, cylinder bore, mass of piston and compression ratio are the inputs that can control the performance of the slider crank mechanism and then its efficiency. Several combinations of these seven inputs are used and compared. The throughput engine torque predicted by the simulation is analyzed through two different regression models, with and without interaction terms, developed according to multi-linear regression using LU decomposition to solve system of algebraic equations. These models are validated. A regression model in seven inputs including their interaction terms lowered the polynomial degree from 3rd degree to 1st degree and suggested valid predictions and stable explanations.

Keywords: Design of experiments, regression analysis, SI Engine, statistical modeling.

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38 Crashworthiness Optimization of an Automotive Front Bumper in Composite Material

Authors: S. Boria

Abstract:

In the last years, the crashworthiness of an automotive body structure can be improved, since the beginning of the design stage, thanks to the development of specific optimization tools. It is well known how the finite element codes can help the designer to investigate the crashing performance of structures under dynamic impact. Therefore, by coupling nonlinear mathematical programming procedure and statistical techniques with FE simulations, it is possible to optimize the design with reduced number of analytical evaluations. In engineering applications, many optimization methods which are based on statistical techniques and utilize estimated models, called meta-models, are quickly spreading. A meta-model is an approximation of a detailed simulation model based on a dataset of input, identified by the design of experiments (DOE); the number of simulations needed to build it depends on the number of variables. Among the various types of meta-modeling techniques, Kriging method seems to be excellent in accuracy, robustness and efficiency compared to other ones when applied to crashworthiness optimization. Therefore the application of such meta-model was used in this work, in order to improve the structural optimization of a bumper for a racing car in composite material subjected to frontal impact. The specific energy absorption represents the objective function to maximize and the geometrical parameters subjected to some design constraints are the design variables. LS-DYNA codes were interfaced with LS-OPT tool in order to find the optimized solution, through the use of a domain reduction strategy. With the use of the Kriging meta-model the crashworthiness characteristic of the composite bumper was improved.

Keywords: Composite material, crashworthiness, finite element analysis, optimization.

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37 Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Deposition, pH and Temperature with the Varying Coating Bath Parameters on Impact Energy by Taguchi Method

Authors: D. Kari Basavaraja, M. G. Skanda, C. Soumya, V. Ramesh

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effects of sodium hypophosphite concentration, pH, and temperature on deposition rate. This paper also discusses the evaluation of coating strength, surface, and subsurface by varying the bath parameters, percentage of phosphate, plating temperature, and pH of the plating solution. Taguchi technique has been used for the analysis. In the experiment, nickel chloride which is a source of nickel when mixed with sodium hypophosphite has been used as the reducing agent and the source of phosphate and sodium hydroxide has been used to vary the pH of the coating bath. The coated samples are tested for impact energy by conducting impact test. Finally, the effects of coating bath parameters on the impact energy absorbed have been plotted, and analysis has been carried out. Further, percentage contribution of coating bath parameters using Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been analysed. Finally, it can be concluded that the bath parameters of the Ni-P coating will certainly influence on the strength of the specimen.

Keywords: Bath parameters, coatings, design of experiment, fracture toughness, impact strength.

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36 Material and Parameter Analysis of the PolyJet Process for Mold Making Using Design of Experiments

Authors: A. Kampker, K. Kreisköther, C. Reinders

Abstract:

Since additive manufacturing technologies constantly advance, the use of this technology in mold making seems reasonable. Many manufacturers of additive manufacturing machines, however, do not offer any suggestions on how to parameterize the machine to achieve optimal results for mold making. The purpose of this research is to determine the interdependencies of different materials and parameters within the PolyJet process by using design of experiments (DoE), to additively manufacture molds, e.g. for thermoforming and injection molding applications. Therefore, the general requirements of thermoforming molds, such as heat resistance, surface quality and hardness, have been identified. Then, different materials and parameters of the PolyJet process, such as the orientation of the printed part, the layer thickness, the printing mode (matte or glossy), the distance between printed parts and the scaling of parts, have been examined. The multifactorial analysis covers the following properties of the printed samples: Tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, elongation at break, surface quality, heat deflection temperature and surface hardness. The key objective of this research is that by joining the results from the DoE with the requirements of the mold making, optimal and tailored molds can be additively manufactured with the PolyJet process. These additively manufactured molds can then be used in prototyping processes, in process testing and in small to medium batch production.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, design of experiments, mold making, PolyJet.

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35 Optimization of Process Parameters using Response Surface Methodology for the Removal of Zinc(II) by Solvent Extraction

Authors: B. Guezzen, M.A. Didi, B. Medjahed

Abstract:

A factorial design of experiments and a response surface methodology were implemented to investigate the liquid-liquid extraction process of zinc (II) from acetate medium using the 1-Butyl-imidazolium di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate [BIm+][D2EHP-]. The optimization process of extraction parameters such as the initial pH effect (2.5, 4.5, and 6.6), ionic liquid concentration (1, 5.5, and 10 mM) and salt effect (0.01, 5, and 10 mM) was carried out using a three-level full factorial design (33). The results of the factorial design demonstrate that all these factors are statistically significant, including the square effects of pH and ionic liquid concentration. The results showed that the order of significance: IL concentration > salt effect > initial pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showing high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.91) and low probability values (P < 0.05) signifies the validity of the predicted second-order quadratic model for Zn (II) extraction. The optimum conditions for the extraction of zinc (II) at the constant temperature (20 °C), initial Zn (II) concentration (1mM) and A/O ratio of unity were: initial pH (4.8), extractant concentration (9.9 mM), and NaCl concentration (8.2 mM). At the optimized condition, the metal ion could be quantitatively extracted.

Keywords: Ionic liquid, response surface methodology, solvent extraction, zinc acetate.

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34 Optimization of Lean Methodologies in the Textile Industry Using Design of Experiments

Authors: Ahmad Yame, Ahad Ali, Badih Jawad, Daw Al-Werfalli Mohamed Nasser, Sabah Abro

Abstract:

Industries in general have a lot of waste. Wool textile company, Baniwalid, Libya has many complex problems that led to enormous waste generated due to the lack of lean strategies, expertise, technical support and commitment. To successfully address waste at wool textile company, this study will attempt to develop a methodical approach that integrates lean manufacturing tools to optimize performance characteristics such as lead time and delivery. This methodology will utilize Value Stream Mapping (VSM) techniques to identify the process variables that affect production. Once these variables are identified, Design of Experiments (DOE) Methodology will be used to determine the significantly influential process variables, these variables are then controlled and set at their optimal to achieve optimal levels of productivity, quality, agility, efficiency and delivery to analyze the outputs of the simulation model for different lean configurations. The goal of this research is to investigate how the tools of lean manufacturing can be adapted from the discrete to the continuous manufacturing environment and to evaluate their benefits at a specific industrial.

Keywords: Lean manufacturing, DOE, value stream mapping, textiles.

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33 Optimization of Process Parameters in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Inconel X-750 for Dimensional Deviation Using Taguchi Technique

Authors: Mandeep Kumar, Hari Singh

Abstract:

The effective optimization of machining process parameters affects dramatically the cost and production time of machined components as well as the quality of the final products. This paper presents the optimization aspects of a Wire Electrical Discharge Machining operation using Inconel X-750 as work material. The objective considered in this study is minimization of the dimensional deviation. Six input process parameters of WEDM namely spark gap voltage, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, wire feed rate, peak current and wire tension, were chosen as variables to study the process performance. Taguchi's design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The analysis of variance was carried out for raw data as well as for signal to noise ratio. Four input parameters and one two-factor interaction have been found to be statistically significant for their effects on the response of interest. The confirmation experiments were also performed for validating the predicted results.

Keywords: ANOVA, DOE, inconel, machining, optimization.

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32 Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete from Early Age Test Result Using Design of Experiments (RSM)

Authors: Salem Alsanusi, Loubna Bentaher

Abstract:

Response Surface Methods (RSM) provide statistically validated predictive models that can then be manipulated for finding optimal process configurations. Variation transmitted to responses from poorly controlled process factors can be accounted for by the mathematical technique of propagation of error (POE), which facilitates ‘finding the flats’ on the surfaces generated by RSM. The dual response approach to RSM captures the standard deviation of the output as well as the average. It accounts for unknown sources of variation. Dual response plus propagation of error (POE) provides a more useful model of overall response variation. In our case, we implemented this technique in predicting compressive strength of concrete of 28 days in age. Since 28 days is quite time consuming, while it is important to ensure the quality control process. This paper investigates the potential of using design of experiments (DOE-RSM) to predict the compressive strength of concrete at 28th day. Data used for this study was carried out from experiment schemes at university of Benghazi, civil engineering department. A total of 114 sets of data were implemented. ACI mix design method was utilized for the mix design. No admixtures were used, only the main concrete mix constituents such as cement, coarseaggregate, fine aggregate and water were utilized in all mixes. Different mix proportions of the ingredients and different water cement ratio were used. The proposed mathematical models are capable of predicting the required concrete compressive strength of concrete from early ages.

Keywords: Mix proportioning, response surface methodology, compressive strength, optimal design.

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31 Design of a Statistics Lecture for Multidisciplinary Postgraduate Students Using a Range of Tools and Techniques

Authors: S. Assi, M. Haffar

Abstract:

Teaching statistics is a critical and challenging issue especially to students from multidisciplinary and diverse postgraduate backgrounds. Postgraduate research students require statistics not only for the design of experiments; but also for data analysis. Students often perceive statistics as a complex and technical subject; thus, they leave data analysis to the last moment. The lecture needs to be simple and inclusive at the same time to make it comprehendible and address the learning needs of each student. Therefore, the aim of this work was to design a simple and comprehendible statistics lecture to postgraduate research students regarding ‘Research plan, design and data collection’. The lecture adopted the constructive alignment learning theory which facilitated the learning environments for the students. The learning environment utilized a student-centered approach and used interactive learning environment with in-class discussion, handouts and electronic voting system handsets. For evaluation of the lecture, formative assessment was made with in-class discussions and poll questions which were introduced during and after the lecture. The whole approach showed to be effective in creating a learning environment to the students who were able to apply the concepts addressed to their individual research projects.

Keywords: Teaching, statistics, lecture, multidisciplinary, postgraduate, learning theory, learning environment, student-centered approach, data analysis.

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30 Numerical Investigation on Optimizing Fatigue Life in a Lap Joint Structure

Authors: P. Zamani, S. Mohajerzadeh, R. Masoudinejad, Kh. Farhangdoost

Abstract:

Riveting process is one of the important ways to keep fastening the lap joints in aircraft structures. Failure of aircraft lap joints directly depends on the stress field in the joint. An important application of riveting process is in the construction of aircraft fuselage structures. In this paper, a 3D finite element method is carried out in order to optimize residual stress field in a riveted lap joint and also to estimate its fatigue life. In continue, a number of experiments are designed and analyzed using design of experiments (DOE). Then, Taguchi method is used to select an optimized case between different levels of each factor. Besides that, the factor which affects the most on residual stress field is investigated. Such optimized case provides the maximum residual stress field. Fatigue life of the optimized joint is estimated by Paris-Erdogan law. Stress intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated using both finite element analysis and experimental formula. In addition, the effect of residual stress field, geometry and secondary bending are considered in SIF calculation. A good agreement is found between results of such methods. Comparison between optimized fatigue life and fatigue life of other joints has shown an improvement in the joint’s life.

Keywords: Fatigue life, Residual stress, Riveting process, Stress intensity factor, Taguchi method.

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29 Effect of Be, Zr and Heat Treatment on Mechanical Behavior of Cast Al-Mg-Zn-Cu Alloys (7075)

Authors: Mahmoud M. Tash

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aging parameters (time and temperature) on the mechanical properties of Be-and/or Zr- treated Al-Mg-Zn (7075) alloys. Ultimate tensile strength, 0.5% offset yield strength and % elongation measurements were carried out on specimens prepared from cast and heat treated 7075 alloys containing Be and/or Zr. Different aging treatment were carried out for the as solution treated (SHT) specimens (after quenching in warm water). The specimens were aged at different conditions; Natural and artificial aging was carried out at room temperature, 120C, 150C, 180C and 220C for different periods of time. Duplex aging was performed for SHT conditions (pre-aged at different time and temperature followed by high temperature aging). Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and % elongation data results as a function of different aging parameters are analysed. A statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach using fractional factorial design is applied to acquire an understanding of the effects of these variables and their interactions on the mechanical properties of Be- and/or Zr- treated 7075 alloys. Mathematical models are developed to relate the alloy mechanical properties with the different aging parameters.

Keywords: Casting, Aging Treatment, Mechanical Properties, Al-Mg-Zn (7075) alloys, Be- and/or Zr-Treatment, Experimental Correlation.

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28 Multi Response Optimization in Drilling Al6063/SiC/15% Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Hari Singh, Abhishek Kamboj, Sudhir Kumar

Abstract:

This investigation proposes a grey-based Taguchi method to solve the multi-response problems. The grey-based Taguchi method is based on the Taguchi’s design of experimental method, and adopts grey relational analysis (GRA) to transfer multi-response problems into single-response problems. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the drilling process parameters considering weighted output response characteristics using grey relational analysis. The output response characteristics considered are surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error under the experimental conditions of cutting speed, feed rate, step angle, and cutting environment. The drilling experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. A combination of orthogonal array, design of experiments and grey relational analysis was used to ascertain best possible drilling process parameters that give minimum surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error. The results reveal that combination of Taguchi design of experiment and grey relational analysis improves surface quality of drilled hole. 

Keywords: Metal matrix composite, Drilling, Optimization, step drill, Surface roughness, burr height, hole diameter error.

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27 Genetic Algorithm Parameters Optimization for Bi-Criteria Multiprocessor Task Scheduling Using Design of Experiments

Authors: Sunita Dhingra, Satinder Bal Gupta, Ranjit Biswas

Abstract:

Multiprocessor task scheduling is a NP-hard problem and Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been revealed as an excellent technique for finding an optimal solution. In the past, several methods have been considered for the solution of this problem based on GAs. But, all these methods consider single criteria and in the present work, minimization of the bi-criteria multiprocessor task scheduling problem has been considered which includes weighted sum of makespan & total completion time. Efficiency and effectiveness of genetic algorithm can be achieved by optimization of its different parameters such as crossover, mutation, crossover probability, selection function etc. The effects of GA parameters on minimization of bi-criteria fitness function and subsequent setting of parameters have been accomplished by central composite design (CCD) approach of response surface methodology (RSM) of Design of Experiments. The experiments have been performed with different levels of GA parameters and analysis of variance has been performed for significant parameters for minimisation of makespan and total completion time simultaneously.

Keywords: Multiprocessor task scheduling, Design of experiments, Genetic Algorithm, Makespan, Total completion time.

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26 Factorial Design Analysis for Quality of Video on MANET

Authors: Hyoup-Sang Yoon

Abstract:

The quality of video transmitted by mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be influenced by several factors, including protocol layers; parameter settings of each protocol. In this paper, we are concerned with understanding the functional relationship between these influential factors and objective video quality in MANETs. We illustrate a systematic statistical design of experiments (DOE) strategy can be used to analyze MANET parameters and performance. Using a 2k factorial design, we quantify the main and interactive effects of 7 factors on a response metric (i.e., mean opinion score (MOS) calculated by PSNR with Evalvid package) we then develop a first-order linear regression model between the influential factors and the performance metric.

Keywords: Evalvid, full factorial design, mobile ad hoc networks, ns-2.

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25 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chromatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag S. Rathore

Abstract:

The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3 -(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved in obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: Aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies.

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24 Roughness and Hardness of 60/40 Cu-Zn Alloy

Authors: Pavana Manvikar, G K Purohit

Abstract:

The functional performance of machined components, often, depends on surface topography, hardness, nature of stress and strain induced on the surface, etc. Invariably, surfaces of metallic components obtained by turning, milling, etc., consist of irregularities such as machining marks are responsible for the above. Surface finishing/coating processes used to produce improved surface quality/textures are classified as chip-removal and chip-less processes. Burnishing is chip-less cold working process carried out to improve surface finish, hardness and resistance to fatigue and corrosion; not obtainable by other surface coating and surface treatment processes. It is a very simple, but effective method which improves surface characteristics and is reported to introduce compressive stresses.

Of late, considerable attention is paid to post-machining, finishing operations, such as burnishing. During burnishing the micro-irregularities start to deform plastically, initially the crests are gradually flattened and zones of reduced deformation are formed. When all the crests are deformed, the valleys between the micro-irregularities start moving in the direction of the newly formed surface. The grain structure is then condensed, producing a smoother and harder surface with superior load-carrying and wear-resistant capabilities.

Burnishing can be performed on a lathe with a highly polished ball or roller type tool which is traversed under force over a rotating/stationary work piece. Often, several passes are used to obtain the work piece surface with the desired finish and hardness.

This paper presents the findings of an experimental investigation on the effect of ball burnishing parameters such as, burnishing speed, feed, force and number of passes; on surface roughness (Ra) and micro-hardness (Hv) of a 60/40 copper/zinc alloy, using a 2-level fractional factorial design of experiments (DoE). Mathematical models were developed to predict surface roughness and hardness generated by burnishing in terms of the above process parameters. A ball-type tool, designed and constructed from a high chrome steel material (HRC=63 and Ra=0.012 µm), was used for burnishing of fine-turned cylindrical bars (0.68-0.78µm and 145Hv). They are given by,

 

Ra= 0.305-0.005X1 - 0.0175X2 + 0.0525X4 + 0.0125X1X4 -0.02X2X4 - 0.0375X3X4

 

Hv=160.625 -2.37 5X1 + 5.125X2 + 1.875X3 + 4.375X4 - 1.625X1X4 + 4.375X2X4 - 2.375X3X4

 

High surface microhardness (175HV) was obtained at 400rpm, 2passes, 0.05mm/rev and 15kgf., and high surface finish (0.20µm) was achieved at 30kgf, 0.1mm/rev, 112rpm and single pass. In other words, surface finish improved by 350% and microhardness improved by 21% compared to as machined conditions.

Keywords: Ball burnishing, surface roughness, micro-hardness.

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23 Identifying Interactions in a Feeding System

Authors: Jan Busch, Sebastian Schneider, Konja Knüppel, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

In production processes, assembly conceals a considerable potential for increased efficiency in terms of lowering production costs. Due to the individualisation of customer requirements, product variants have increased in recent years. Simultaneously, the portion of automated production systems has increased. A challenge is to adapt the flexibility and adaptability of automated systems to these changes. The Institute for Production Systems and Logistics developed an aerodynamic orientation system for feeding technology. When changing to other components, only four parameters must be adjusted. The expenditure of time for setting parameters is high. An objective therefore is developing an optimisation algorithm for automatic parameter configuration. Know how regarding the interaction of the four parameters and their effect on the sizes to be optimised is required in order to be able to develop a more efficient algorithm. This article introduces an analysis of the interactions between parameters and their influence on the quality of feeding.

Keywords: Aerodynamic feeding system, design of experiments, interactions between parameters.

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22 Surface Roughness Prediction Model for Grinding of Composite Laminate Using Factorial Design

Authors: P. Chockalingam, C. K. Kok, T. R. Vijayaram

Abstract:

Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates have been widely used because of their unique mechanical and physical properties such as high specific strength, stiffness and corrosive resistance. Accordingly, the demand for precise grinding of composites has been increasing enormously. Grinding is the one of the obligatory methods for fabricating products with composite materials and it is usually the final operation in the assembly of structural laminates. In this experimental study, an attempt has been made to develop an empirical model to predict the surface roughness of ground GFRP composite laminate with respect to the influencing grinding parameters by factorial design approach of design of experiments (DOE). The significance of grinding parameters and their three factor interaction effects on grinding of GFRP composite have been analyzed in detail. An empirical equation has been developed to attain minimum surface roughness in GFRP laminate grinding.

Keywords: GFRP Laminates, Grinding, Surface Roughness, Factorial Design.

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21 Optimization of Car Seat Considering Whiplash Injury

Authors: Wookyung Baik, Seungchan Lee, Choongmin Jeong, Siwoo Kim, Myungwon Suh

Abstract:

Development of motor car safety devices has reduced fatality rates in car accidents. Yet despite this increase in car safety, neck injuries resulting from rear impact collisions, particularly at low speed, remain a primary concern. In this study, FEA(Finite Element Analysis) of seat was performed to evaluate neck injuries in rear impact. And the FEA result was verified by comparison with the actual test results. The dummy used in FE model and actual test is BioRID II which is regarded suitable for rear impact collision analysis. A threshold of the BioRID II neck injury indicators was also proposed to upgrade seat performance in order to reduce whiplash injury. To optimize the seat for a low-speed rear impact collision, a method was proposed, which is multi-objective optimization idea using DOE (Design of Experiments) results.

Keywords: Whiplash injury, Dynamic assessment, Finite element method, Optimization, DOE (Design of Experiments), WSM (Weighed Sum Method).

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20 The Application of an Experimental Design for the Defect Reduction of Electrodeposition Painting on Stainless Steel Washers

Authors: Chansiri Singhtaun, Nattaporn Prasartthong

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to reduce the amount of incomplete coating of stainless steel washers in the electrodeposition painting process by using an experimental design technique. The surface preparation was found to be a major cause of painted surface quality. The influence of pretreating and painting process parameters, which are cleaning time, chemical concentration and shape of hanger were studied. A 23 factorial design with two replications was performed. The analysis of variance for the designed experiment showed the great influence of cleaning time and shape of hanger. From this study, optimized cleaning time was determined and a newly designed electrical conductive hanger was proved to be superior to the original one. The experimental verification results showed that the amount of incomplete coating defects decreased from 4% to 1.02% and operation cost decreased by 10.5%.

Keywords: Defect reduction, design of experiments, electrodeposition painting, stainless steel.

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19 Optimization of Process Parameters of Pressure Die Casting using Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Satish Kumar, Arun Kumar Gupta, Pankaj Chandna

Abstract:

The present work analyses different parameters of pressure die casting to minimize the casting defects. Pressure diecasting is usually applied for casting of aluminium alloys. Good surface finish with required tolerances and dimensional accuracy can be achieved by optimization of controllable process parameters such as solidification time, molten temperature, filling time, injection pressure and plunger velocity. Moreover, by selection of optimum process parameters the pressure die casting defects such as porosity, insufficient spread of molten material, flash etc. are also minimized. Therefore, a pressure die casting component, carburetor housing of aluminium alloy (Al2Si2O5) has been considered. The effects of selected process parameters on casting defects and subsequent setting of parameters with the levels have been accomplished by Taguchi-s parameter design approach. The experiments have been performed as per the combination of levels of different process parameters suggested by L18 orthogonal array. Analyses of variance have been performed for mean and signal-to-noise ratio to estimate the percent contribution of different process parameters. Confidence interval has also been estimated for 95% consistency level and three conformational experiments have been performed to validate the optimum level of different parameters. Overall 2.352% reduction in defects has been observed with the help of suggested optimum process parameters.

Keywords: Aluminium Casting, Pressure Die Casting, Taguchi Methodology, Design of Experiments

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18 Statistical Screening of Medium Components on Ethanol Production from Cashew Apple Juice using Saccharomyces diasticus

Authors: Karuppaiya Maruthai, Viruthagiri Thangavelu, Manikandan Kanagasabai

Abstract:

In the present study, effect of critical medium components (a total of fifteen components) on ethanol production from waste cashew apple juice (CAJ) using yeast Saccharomyces diasticus was studied. A statistical response surface methodology (RSM) based Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) was used for the design of experiments. The design contains a total of 32 experimental trails. The effect of medium components on ethanol was studied at two different levels such as low concentration level (-) and high concentration levels (+). The dependent variables selected in this study were ethanol concentration (g/L) and cellmass concentration (g/L). Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). In general, initial substrate concentration significantly influenced the microbial growth and product formation. Of the medium components evaluated, CAJ concentration, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, and malt extract showed significant effect on ethanol fermentation. A second-order polynomial model was used to predict the experimental data and the model fitted the data with a high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.98). Maximum ethanol (15.3 g/L) and biomass (6.4 g/L) concentrations were obtained at the optimum medium composition and at optimum condition (temperature-30°C; initial pH-6.8) after 72 h fermentation using S.diasticus.

Keywords: cashew apple juice, ethanol, fermentation, yeast, response surface methodology

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17 Effect of Hormonal Manipulations on the Pattern of the Vaginal Tissue Structure

Authors: Fatahian Dehkordi RF., Parchami A.

Abstract:

Design of experiments made for correlated the hormonal activity of steroids and their effect on the vaginal structure properties. Vaginal wall consists of distinct layers of cells which strongly differ regarding growth in answer to steroid hormones. The presence study carried out for functional evaluation and sustained replacement effect of the reproductive hormones on the vaginal morphometry in the rabbit. Rabbits were maintained control (Co) or ovariectomized (Ovz) and continuously treated with estradiol (Ovz E) and estradiol mixture with testosterone (Ovz ET). Relative to control rabbits with the distinct tissue distribution pattern, ovariectomized animals displayed declined epithelial thickness and atrophy of the muscularis layer that cause the vaginal wall thinning. Estradiol treatment of Orz rabbits inverted these changes to status of the preovariectomy. Histometric measurements in Ovz ET group completely including of thickness of the epithelial and muscular layers was greater in comparison to that of control animals.

Keywords: Vagina, Ovariectomy, Rabbit, Morphometry

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16 Using Combination of Optimized Recurrent Neural Network with Design of Experiments and Regression for Control Chart Forecasting

Authors: R. Behmanesh, I. Rahimi

Abstract:

recurrent neural network (RNN) is an efficient tool for modeling production control process as well as modeling services. In this paper one RNN was combined with regression model and were employed in order to be checked whether the obtained data by the model in comparison with actual data, are valid for variable process control chart. Therefore, one maintenance process in workshop of Esfahan Oil Refining Co. (EORC) was taken for illustration of models. First, the regression was made for predicting the response time of process based upon determined factors, and then the error between actual and predicted response time as output and also the same factors as input were used in RNN. Finally, according to predicted data from combined model, it is scrutinized for test values in statistical process control whether forecasting efficiency is acceptable. Meanwhile, in training process of RNN, design of experiments was set so as to optimize the RNN.

Keywords: RNN, DOE, regression, control chart.

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15 Micromachining with ECDM: Research Potentials and Experimental Investigations

Authors: C.S. Jawalkar, Apurbba Kumar Sharma, Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

Electro Chemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) is an emerging hybrid machining process used in precision machining of hard and brittle non-conducting materials. The present paper gives a critical review on materials machined by ECDM under the prevailing machining conditions; capability indicators of the process are reported. Some results obtained while performing experiments in micro-channeling on soda lime glass using ECDM are also presented. In these experiments, Tool Wear (TW) and Material Removal (MR) were studied using design of experiments and L–4 orthogonal array. Experimental results showed that the applied voltage was the most influencing parameter in both MR and TW studies. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results obtained on the microchannels confirmed the presence of micro-cracks, primarily responsible for MR. Chemical etching was also seen along the edges. The Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results were used to detect the elements present in the debris and specimens.

Keywords: ECDM, applied-voltage, FESEM, EDS.

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14 An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Deep cold Rolling Parameters on Surface Roughness and Hardness of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma

Abstract:

Deep cold rolling (DCR) is a cold working process, which easily produces a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. In the present study, the influence of main deep cold rolling process parameters on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied by using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in terms of identifying the predominant factor amongst the selected parameters, their order of significance and setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. It was found that the ball diameter, rolling force, initial surface roughness and number of tool passes are the most pronounced parameters, which have great effects on the work piece-s surface during the deep cold rolling process. A simple, inexpensive and newly developed DCR tool, with interchangeable collet for using different ball diameters, was used throughout the experimental work presented in this paper.

Keywords: Deep cold rolling, design of experiments, surface hardness, surface roughness

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13 Evaluating the Tool Wear Rate in Ultrasonic Machining of Titanium using Design of Experiments Approach

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a non-traditional machining process being widely used for commercial machining of brittle and fragile materials such as glass, ceramics and semiconductor materials. However, USM could be a viable alternative for machining a tough material such as titanium; and this aspect needs to be explored through experimental research. This investigation is focused on exploring the use of ultrasonic machining for commercial machining of pure titanium (ASTM Grade-I) and evaluation of tool wear rate (TWR) under controlled experimental conditions. The optimal settings of parameters are determined through experiments planned, conducted and analyzed using Taguchi method. In all, the paper focuses on parametric optimization of ultrasonic machining of pure titanium metal with TWR as response, and validation of the optimized value of TWR by conducting confirmatory experiments.

Keywords: Ultrasonic machining, titanium, tool wear rate

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