Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 460

Search results for: Evolutionary Algorithms

460 Understanding Evolutionary Algorithms through Interactive Graphical Applications

Authors: Javier Barrachina, Piedad Garrido, Manuel Fogue, Julio A. Sanguesa, Francisco J. Martinez

Abstract:

It is very common to observe, especially in Computer Science studies that students have difficulties to correctly understand how some mechanisms based on Artificial Intelligence work. In addition, the scope and limitations of most of these mechanisms are usually presented by professors only in a theoretical way, which does not help students to understand them adequately. In this work, we focus on the problems found when teaching Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), which imitate the principles of natural evolution, as a method to solve parameter optimization problems. Although this kind of algorithms can be very powerful to solve relatively complex problems, students often have difficulties to understand how they work, and how to apply them to solve problems in real cases. In this paper, we present two interactive graphical applications which have been specially designed with the aim of making Evolutionary Algorithms easy to be understood by students. Specifically, we present: (i) TSPS, an application able to solve the ”Traveling Salesman Problem”, and (ii) FotEvol, an application able to reconstruct a given image by using Evolution Strategies. The main objective is that students learn how these techniques can be implemented, and the great possibilities they offer.

Keywords: Education, evolutionary algorithms, evolution strategies, interactive learning applications.

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459 A Review on Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms to Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Production

Authors: Nkechi Neboh, Josiah Adeyemo, Abimbola Enitan, Oludayo Olugbara

Abstract:

Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) have been used widely through evolution theory to discover acceptable solutions that corresponds to challenges such as natural resources management. EAs are also used to solve varied problems in the real world. EAs have been rapidly identified for its ease in handling multiple objective problems. Reservoir operations is a vital and researchable area which has been studied in the last few decades due to the limited nature of water resources that is found mostly in the semi-arid regions of the world. The state of some developing economy that depends on electricity for overall development through hydropower production, a renewable form of energy, is appalling due to water scarcity. This paper presents a review of the applications of evolutionary algorithms to reservoir operation for hydropower production. This review includes the discussion on areas such as genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and reservoir operation. It also identified the research gaps discovered in these areas. The results of this study will be an eye opener for researchers and decision makers to think deeply of the adverse effect of water scarcity and drought towards economic development of a nation. Hence, it becomes imperative to identify evolutionary algorithms that can address this issue which can hamper effective hydropower generation.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithm, hydropower, multi-objective, reservoir operations.

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458 Universal Method for Timetable Construction based on Evolutionary Approach

Authors: Maciej Norberciak

Abstract:

Timetabling problems are often hard and timeconsuming to solve. Most of the methods of solving them concern only one problem instance or class. This paper describes a universal method for solving large, highly constrained timetabling problems from different domains. The solution is based on evolutionary algorithm-s framework and operates on two levels – first-level evolutionary algorithm tries to find a solution basing on given set of operating parameters, second-level algorithm is used to establish those parameters. Tabu search is employed to speed up the solution finding process on first level. The method has been used to solve three different timetabling problems with promising results.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, tabu search, timetabling.

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457 Comparison of Evolutionary Algorithms and their Hybrids Applied to MarioAI

Authors: Hidehiko Okada, Yuki Fujii

Abstract:

Researchers have been applying artificial/ computational intelligence (AI/CI) methods to computer games. In this research field, further researchesare required to compare AI/CI methods with respect to each game application. In thispaper, we report our experimental result on the comparison of evolution strategy, genetic algorithm and their hybrids, applied to evolving controller agents for MarioAI. GA revealed its advantage in our experiment, whereas the expected ability of ES in exploiting (fine-tuning) solutions was not clearly observed. The blend crossover operator and the mutation operator of GA might contribute well to explore the vast search space.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithm, autonomous game controller agent, neuroevolutions, MarioAI

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456 Evolutionary Algorithms for Learning Primitive Fuzzy Behaviors and Behavior Coordination in Multi-Objective Optimization Problems

Authors: Li Shoutao, Gordon Lee

Abstract:

Evolutionary robotics is concerned with the design of intelligent systems with life-like properties by means of simulated evolution. Approaches in evolutionary robotics can be categorized according to the control structures that represent the behavior and the parameters of the controller that undergo adaptation. The basic idea is to automatically synthesize behaviors that enable the robot to perform useful tasks in complex environments. The evolutionary algorithm searches through the space of parameterized controllers that map sensory perceptions to control actions, thus realizing a specific robotic behavior. Further, the evolutionary algorithm maintains and improves a population of candidate behaviors by means of selection, recombination and mutation. A fitness function evaluates the performance of the resulting behavior according to the robot-s task or mission. In this paper, the focus is in the use of genetic algorithms to solve a multi-objective optimization problem representing robot behaviors; in particular, the A-Compander Law is employed in selecting the weight of each objective during the optimization process. Results using an adaptive fitness function show that this approach can efficiently react to complex tasks under variable environments.

Keywords: adaptive fuzzy neural inference, evolutionary tuning

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455 Discriminant Analysis as a Function of Predictive Learning to Select Evolutionary Algorithms in Intelligent Transportation System

Authors: Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, Daniel Vélez-Díaz, Edith Olaco García

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the use of the discriminant analysis to select evolutionary algorithms that better solve instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows. We use indicators as independent variables to obtain the classification criteria, and the best algorithm from the generic genetic algorithm (GA), random search (RS), steady-state genetic algorithm (SSGA), and sexual genetic algorithm (SXGA) as the dependent variable for the classification. The discriminant classification was trained with classic instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows obtained from the Solomon benchmark. We obtained a classification of the discriminant analysis of 66.7%.

Keywords: Intelligent transportation systems, data-mining techniques, evolutionary algorithms, discriminant analysis, machine learning.

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454 Optimization of Kinematics for Birds and UAVs Using Evolutionary Algorithms

Authors: Mohamed Hamdaoui, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Stephane Doncieux, Pierre Sagaut

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to present a multi-objective optimization method to find maximum efficiency kinematics for a flapping wing unmanned aerial vehicle. We restrained our study to rectangular wings with the same profile along the span and to harmonic dihedral motion. It is assumed that the birdlike aerial vehicle (whose span and surface area were fixed respectively to 1m and 0.15m2) is in horizontal mechanically balanced motion at fixed speed. We used two flight physics models to describe the vehicle aerodynamic performances, namely DeLaurier-s model, which has been used in many studies dealing with flapping wings, and the model proposed by Dae-Kwan et al. Then, a constrained multi-objective optimization of the propulsive efficiency is performed using a recent evolutionary multi-objective algorithm called є-MOEA. Firstly, we show that feasible solutions (i.e. solutions that fulfil the imposed constraints) can be obtained using Dae-Kwan et al.-s model. Secondly, we highlight that a single objective optimization approach (weighted sum method for example) can also give optimal solutions as good as the multi-objective one which nevertheless offers the advantage of directly generating the set of the best trade-offs. Finally, we show that the DeLaurier-s model does not yield feasible solutions.

Keywords: Flight physics, evolutionary algorithm, optimization, Pareto surface.

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453 Evolutionary Algorithms for the Multiobjective Shortest Path Problem

Authors: José Maria A. Pangilinan, Gerrit K. Janssens

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the multiobjective shortest path problem (MSPP) and a review of essential and recent issues regarding the methods to its solution. The paper further explores a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm as applied to the MSPP and describes its behavior in terms of diversity of solutions, computational complexity, and optimality of solutions. Results show that the evolutionary algorithm can find diverse solutions to the MSPP in polynomial time (based on several network instances) and can be an alternative when other methods are trapped by the tractability problem.

Keywords: Multiobjective evolutionary optimization, geneticalgorithms, shortest paths.

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452 Evolutionary Approach for Automated Discovery of Censored Production Rules

Authors: Kamal K. Bharadwaj, Basheer M. Al-Maqaleh

Abstract:

In the recent past, there has been an increasing interest in applying evolutionary methods to Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) and a number of successful applications of Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Genetic Programming (GP) to KDD have been demonstrated. The most predominant representation of the discovered knowledge is the standard Production Rules (PRs) in the form If P Then D. The PRs, however, are unable to handle exceptions and do not exhibit variable precision. The Censored Production Rules (CPRs), an extension of PRs, were proposed by Michalski & Winston that exhibit variable precision and supports an efficient mechanism for handling exceptions. A CPR is an augmented production rule of the form: If P Then D Unless C, where C (Censor) is an exception to the rule. Such rules are employed in situations, in which the conditional statement 'If P Then D' holds frequently and the assertion C holds rarely. By using a rule of this type we are free to ignore the exception conditions, when the resources needed to establish its presence are tight or there is simply no information available as to whether it holds or not. Thus, the 'If P Then D' part of the CPR expresses important information, while the Unless C part acts only as a switch and changes the polarity of D to ~D. This paper presents a classification algorithm based on evolutionary approach that discovers comprehensible rules with exceptions in the form of CPRs. The proposed approach has flexible chromosome encoding, where each chromosome corresponds to a CPR. Appropriate genetic operators are suggested and a fitness function is proposed that incorporates the basic constraints on CPRs. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Censored Production Rule, Data Mining, MachineLearning, Evolutionary Algorithms.

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451 A Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm forMultiobjective Image Segmentation

Authors: Hichem Talbi, Mohamed Batouche, Amer Draa

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new approach to deal with image segmentation. The fact that a single segmentation result do not generally allow a higher level process to take into account all the elements included in the image has motivated the consideration of image segmentation as a multiobjective optimization problem. The proposed algorithm adopts a split/merge strategy that uses the result of the k-means algorithm as input for a quantum evolutionary algorithm to establish a set of non-dominated solutions. The evaluation is made simultaneously according to two distinct features: intra-region homogeneity and inter-region heterogeneity. The experimentation of the new approach on natural images has proved its efficiency and usefulness.

Keywords: Image segmentation, multiobjective optimization, quantum computing, evolutionary algorithms.

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450 On Enhancing Robustness of an Evolutionary Fuzzy Tracking Controller

Authors: H. Megherbi, A. C. Megherbi, N. Megherbi, K. Benmahamed

Abstract:

This paper presents three-phase evolution search methodology to automatically design fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) that can work in a wide range of operating conditions. These include varying load, parameter variations, and unknown external disturbances. The three-phase scheme consists of an exploration phase, an exploitation phase and a robustness phase. The first two phases search for FLC with high accuracy performances while the last phase aims at obtaining FLC providing the best compromise between the accuracy and robustness performances. Simulations were performed for direct-drive two-axis robot arm. The evolved FLC with the proposed design technique found to provide a very satisfactory performance under the wide range of operation conditions and to overcome problem associated with coupling and nonlinearities characteristics inherent to robot arms.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic control, evolutionary algorithms, robustness, exploration/exploitation phase.

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449 Evolutionary Design of Polynomial Controller

Authors: R. Matousek, S. Lang, P. Minar, P. Pivonka

Abstract:

In the control theory one attempts to find a controller that provides the best possible performance with respect to some given measures of performance. There are many sorts of controllers e.g. a typical PID controller, LQR controller, Fuzzy controller etc. In the paper will be introduced polynomial controller with novel tuning method which is based on the special pole placement encoding scheme and optimization by Genetic Algorithms (GA). The examples will show the performance of the novel designed polynomial controller with comparison to common PID controller.

Keywords: Evolutionary design, Genetic algorithms, PID controller, Pole placement, Polynomial controller

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448 Solving an Extended Resource Leveling Problem with Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms

Authors: Javier Roca, Etienne Pugnaghi, Gaëtan Libert

Abstract:

We introduce an extended resource leveling model that abstracts real life projects that consider specific work ranges for each resource. Contrary to traditional resource leveling problems this model considers scarce resources and multiple objectives: the minimization of the project makespan and the leveling of each resource usage over time. We formulate this model as a multiobjective optimization problem and we propose a multiobjective genetic algorithm-based solver to optimize it. This solver consists in a two-stage process: a main stage where we obtain non-dominated solutions for all the objectives, and a postprocessing stage where we seek to specifically improve the resource leveling of these solutions. We propose an intelligent encoding for the solver that allows including domain specific knowledge in the solving mechanism. The chosen encoding proves to be effective to solve leveling problems with scarce resources and multiple objectives. The outcome of the proposed solvers represent optimized trade-offs (alternatives) that can be later evaluated by a decision maker, this multi-solution approach represents an advantage over the traditional single solution approach. We compare the proposed solver with state-of-art resource leveling methods and we report competitive and performing results.

Keywords: Intelligent problem encoding, multiobjective decision making, evolutionary computing, RCPSP, resource leveling.

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447 Selective Harmonic Elimination of PWM AC/AC Voltage Controller Using Hybrid RGA-PS Approach

Authors: A. K. Al-Othman, Nabil A. Ahmed, A. M. Al-Kandari, H. K. Ebraheem

Abstract:

Selective harmonic elimination-pulse width modulation techniques offer a tight control of the harmonic spectrum of a given voltage waveform generated by a power electronic converter along with a low number of switching transitions. Traditional optimization methods suffer from various drawbacks, such as prolonged and tedious computational steps and convergence to local optima; thus, the more the number of harmonics to be eliminated, the larger the computational complexity and time. This paper presents a novel method for output voltage harmonic elimination and voltage control of PWM AC/AC voltage converters using the principle of hybrid Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm-Pattern Search (RGA-PS) method. RGA is the primary optimizer exploiting its global search capabilities, PS is then employed to fine tune the best solution provided by RGA in each evolution. The proposed method enables linear control of the fundamental component of the output voltage and complete elimination of its harmonic contents up to a specified order. Theoretical studies have been carried out to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method of selective harmonic elimination. Theoretical results are validated through simulation studies using PSIM software package.

Keywords: PWM, AC/AC voltage converters, selectiveharmonic elimination, direct search method, pattern search method, Real-coded Genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms andoptimization.

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446 SMART: Solution Methods with Ants Running by Types

Authors: Nicolas Zufferey

Abstract:

Ant algorithms are well-known metaheuristics which have been widely used since two decades. In most of the literature, an ant is a constructive heuristic able to build a solution from scratch. However, other types of ant algorithms have recently emerged: the discussion is thus not limited by the common framework of the constructive ant algorithms. Generally, at each generation of an ant algorithm, each ant builds a solution step by step by adding an element to it. Each choice is based on the greedy force (also called the visibility, the short term profit or the heuristic information) and the trail system (central memory which collects historical information of the search process). Usually, all the ants of the population have the same characteristics and behaviors. In contrast in this paper, a new type of ant metaheuristic is proposed, namely SMART (for Solution Methods with Ants Running by Types). It relies on the use of different population of ants, where each population has its own personality.

Keywords: Optimization, Metaheuristics, Ant Algorithms, Evolutionary Procedures, Population-Based Methods.

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445 Partial 3D Reconstruction using Evolutionary Algorithms

Authors: Mónica Pérez-Meza, Rodrigo Montúfar-Chaveznava

Abstract:

When reconstructing a scenario, it is necessary to know the structure of the elements present on the scene to have an interpretation. In this work we link 3D scenes reconstruction to evolutionary algorithms through the vision stereo theory. We consider vision stereo as a method that provides the reconstruction of a scene using only a couple of images of the scene and performing some computation. Through several images of a scene, captured from different positions, vision stereo can give us an idea about the threedimensional characteristics of the world. Vision stereo usually requires of two cameras, making an analogy to the mammalian vision system. In this work we employ only a camera, which is translated along a path, capturing images every certain distance. As we can not perform all computations required for an exhaustive reconstruction, we employ an evolutionary algorithm to partially reconstruct the scene in real time. The algorithm employed is the fly algorithm, which employ “flies" to reconstruct the principal characteristics of the world following certain evolutionary rules.

Keywords: 3D Reconstruction, Computer Vision, EvolutionaryAlgorithms, Vision Stereo.

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444 Evolutionary Cobreeding of Cooperative and Competitive Subcultures

Authors: Emilia Nercissians

Abstract:

Neoclassical and functionalist explanations of self organization in multiagent systems have been criticized on several accounts including unrealistic explication of overadapted agents and failure to resolve problems of externality. The paper outlines a more elaborate and dynamic model that is capable of resolving these dilemmas. An illustrative example where behavioral diversity is cobred in a repeated nonzero sum task via evolutionary computing is presented.

Keywords: evolutionary stability, externalities, neofunctionalism, prisoners' dilemma.

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443 An Expert System Designed to Be Used with MOEAs for Efficient Portfolio Selection

Authors: K. Metaxiotis, K. Liagkouras

Abstract:

This study presents an Expert System specially designed to be used with Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) for the solution of the portfolio selection problem. The validation of the proposed hybrid System is done by using data sets from Hang Seng 31 in Hong Kong, DAX 100 in Germany and FTSE 100 in UK. The performance of the proposed system is assessed in comparison with the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII). The evaluation of the performance is based on different performance metrics that evaluate both the proximity of the solutions to the Pareto front and their dispersion on it. The results show that the proposed hybrid system is efficient for the solution of this kind of problems.

Keywords: Expert Systems, Multiobjective optimization, Evolutionary Algorithms, Portfolio Selection.

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442 A Mean–Variance–Skewness Portfolio Optimization Model

Authors: Kostas Metaxiotis

Abstract:

Portfolio optimization is one of the most important topics in finance. This paper proposes a mean–variance–skewness (MVS) portfolio optimization model. Traditionally, the portfolio optimization problem is solved by using the mean–variance (MV) framework. In this study, we formulate the proposed model as a three-objective optimization problem, where the portfolio's expected return and skewness are maximized whereas the portfolio risk is minimized. For solving the proposed three-objective portfolio optimization model we apply an adapted version of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII). Finally, we use a real dataset from FTSE-100 for validating the proposed model.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, portfolio optimization, skewness, stock selection.

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441 Examining the Performance of Three Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms Based on Benchmarking Problems

Authors: Konstantinos Metaxiotis, Konstantinos Liagkouras

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the performance of three well-known multiobjective evolutionary algorithms for solving optimization problems. The first algorithm is the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), the second one is the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA-2), and the third one is the Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms based on decomposition (MOEA/D). The examined multiobjective algorithms are analyzed and tested on the ZDT set of test functions by three performance metrics. The results indicate that the NSGA-II performs better than the other two algorithms based on three performance metrics.

Keywords: MOEAs, Multiobjective optimization, ZDT test functions, performance metrics.

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440 Turbine Follower Control Strategy Design Based on Developed FFPP Model

Authors: Ali Ghaffari, Mansour Nikkhah Bahrami, Hesam Parsa

Abstract:

In this paper a comprehensive model of a fossil fueled power plant (FFPP) is developed in order to evaluate the performance of a newly designed turbine follower controller. Considering the drawbacks of previous works, an overall model is developed to minimize the error between each subsystem model output and the experimental data obtained at the actual power plant. The developed model is organized in two main subsystems namely; Boiler and Turbine. Considering each FFPP subsystem characteristics, different modeling approaches are developed. For economizer, evaporator, superheater and reheater, first order models are determined based on principles of mass and energy conservation. Simulations verify the accuracy of the developed models. Due to the nonlinear characteristics of attemperator, a new model, based on a genetic-fuzzy systems utilizing Pittsburgh approach is developed showing a promising performance vis-à-vis those derived with other methods like ANFIS. The optimization constraints are handled utilizing penalty functions. The effect of increasing the number of rules and membership functions on the performance of the proposed model is also studied and evaluated. The turbine model is developed based on the equation of adiabatic expansion. Parameters of all evaluated models are tuned by means of evolutionary algorithms. Based on the developed model a fuzzy PI controller is developed. It is then successfully implemented in the turbine follower control strategy of the plant. In this control strategy instead of keeping control parameters constant, they are adjusted on-line with regard to the error and the error rate. It is shown that the response of the system improves significantly. It is also shown that fuel consumption decreases considerably.

Keywords: Attemperator, Evolutionary algorithms, Fossil fuelled power plant (FFPP), Fuzzy set theory, Gain scheduling

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439 Self-Organizing Maps in Evolutionary Approachmeant for Dimensioning Routes to the Demand

Authors: J.-C. Créput, A. Koukam, A. Hajjam

Abstract:

We present a non standard Euclidean vehicle routing problem adding a level of clustering, and we revisit the use of self-organizing maps as a tool which naturally handles such problems. We present how they can be used as a main operator into an evolutionary algorithm to address two conflicting objectives of route length and distance from customers to bus stops minimization and to deal with capacity constraints. We apply the approach to a real-life case of combined clustering and vehicle routing for the transportation of the 780 employees of an enterprise. Basing upon a geographic information system we discuss the influence of road infrastructures on the solutions generated.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithm, self-organizing map, clustering and vehicle routing.

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438 Comparison of Two Interval Models for Interval-Valued Differential Evolution

Authors: Hidehiko Okada

Abstract:

The author previously proposed an extension of differential evolution. The proposed method extends the processes of DE to handle interval numbers as genotype values so that DE can be applied to interval-valued optimization problems. The interval DE can employ either of two interval models, the lower and upper model or the center and width model, for specifying genotype values. Ability of the interval DE in searching for solutions may depend on the model. In this paper, the author compares the two models to investigate which model contributes better for the interval DE to find better solutions. Application of the interval DE is evolutionary training of interval-valued neural networks. A result of preliminary study indicates that the CW model is better than the LU model: the interval DE with the CW model could evolve better neural networks. 

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, differential evolution, neural network, neuroevolution, interval arithmetic.

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437 A Combined Meta-Heuristic with Hyper-Heuristic Approach to Single Machine Production Scheduling Problem

Authors: C. E. Nugraheni, L. Abednego

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with minimization of mean tardiness and flow time in a real single machine production scheduling problem. Two variants of genetic algorithm as metaheuristic are combined with hyper-heuristic approach are proposed to solve this problem. These methods are used to solve instances generated with real world data from a company. Encouraging results are reported.

Keywords: Hyper-heuristics, evolutionary algorithms, production scheduling.

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436 Evolutionary Computing Approach for the Solution of Initial value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. Junaid, M. A. Z. Raja, I. M. Qureshi

Abstract:

An evolutionary computing technique for solving initial value problems in Ordinary Differential Equations is proposed in this paper. Neural network is used as a universal approximator while the adaptive parameters of neural networks are optimized by genetic algorithm. The solution is achieved on the continuous grid of time instead of discrete as in other numerical techniques. The comparison is carried out with classical numerical techniques and the solution is found with a uniform accuracy of MSE ≈ 10-9 .

Keywords: Neural networks, Unsupervised learning, Evolutionary computing, Numerical methods, Fitness evaluation function.

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435 Surrogate based Evolutionary Algorithm for Design Optimization

Authors: Maumita Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Optimization is often a critical issue for most system design problems. Evolutionary Algorithms are population-based, stochastic search techniques, widely used as efficient global optimizers. However, finding optimal solution to complex high dimensional, multimodal problems often require highly computationally expensive function evaluations and hence are practically prohibitive. The Dynamic Approximate Fitness based Hybrid EA (DAFHEA) model presented in our earlier work [14] reduced computation time by controlled use of meta-models to partially replace the actual function evaluation by approximate function evaluation. However, the underlying assumption in DAFHEA is that the training samples for the meta-model are generated from a single uniform model. Situations like model formation involving variable input dimensions and noisy data certainly can not be covered by this assumption. In this paper we present an enhanced version of DAFHEA that incorporates a multiple-model based learning approach for the SVM approximator. DAFHEA-II (the enhanced version of the DAFHEA framework) also overcomes the high computational expense involved with additional clustering requirements of the original DAFHEA framework. The proposed framework has been tested on several benchmark functions and the empirical results illustrate the advantages of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithm, Fitness function, Optimization, Meta-model, Stochastic method.

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434 Particle Swarm Optimization with Interval-valued Genotypes and Its Application to Neuroevolution

Authors: Hidehiko Okada

Abstract:

The author proposes an extension of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for solving interval-valued optimization problems and applies the extended PSO to evolutionary training of neural networks (NNs) with interval weights. In the proposed PSO, values in the genotypes are not real numbers but intervals. Experimental results show that interval-valued NNs trained by the proposed method could well approximate hidden target functions despite the fact that no training data was explicitly provided.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, particle swarm optimization, neural network, interval arithmetic.

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433 A Phenomic Algorithm for Reconstruction of Gene Networks

Authors: Rio G. L. D'Souza, K. Chandra Sekaran, A. Kandasamy

Abstract:

The goal of Gene Expression Analysis is to understand the processes that underlie the regulatory networks and pathways controlling inter-cellular and intra-cellular activities. In recent times microarray datasets are extensively used for this purpose. The scope of such analysis has broadened in recent times towards reconstruction of gene networks and other holistic approaches of Systems Biology. Evolutionary methods are proving to be successful in such problems and a number of such methods have been proposed. However all these methods are based on processing of genotypic information. Towards this end, there is a need to develop evolutionary methods that address phenotypic interactions together with genotypic interactions. We present a novel evolutionary approach, called Phenomic algorithm, wherein the focus is on phenotypic interaction. We use the expression profiles of genes to model the interactions between them at the phenotypic level. We apply this algorithm to the yeast sporulation dataset and show that the algorithm can identify gene networks with relative ease.

Keywords: Evolutionary computing, gene expression analysis, gene networks, microarray data analysis, phenomic algorithms.

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432 Genetic Programming: Principles, Applications and Opportunities for Hydrological Modelling

Authors: Oluwaseun K. Oyebode, Josiah A. Adeyemo

Abstract:

Hydrological modelling plays a crucial role in the planning and management of water resources, most especially in water stressed regions where the need to effectively manage the available water resources is of critical importance. However, due to the complex, nonlinear and dynamic behaviour of hydro-climatic interactions, achieving reliable modelling of water resource systems and accurate projection of hydrological parameters are extremely challenging. Although a significant number of modelling techniques (process-based and data-driven) have been developed and adopted in that regard, the field of hydrological modelling is still considered as one that has sluggishly progressed over the past decades. This is majorly as a result of the identification of some degree of uncertainty in the methodologies and results of techniques adopted. In recent times, evolutionary computation (EC) techniques have been developed and introduced in response to the search for efficient and reliable means of providing accurate solutions to hydrological related problems. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles, methodological needs and applications of a promising evolutionary computation modelling technique – genetic programming (GP). It examines the specific characteristics of the technique which makes it suitable to solving hydrological modelling problems. It discusses the opportunities inherent in the application of GP in water related-studies such as rainfall estimation, rainfall-runoff modelling, streamflow forecasting, sediment transport modelling, water quality modelling and groundwater modelling among others. Furthermore, the means by which such opportunities could be harnessed in the near future are discussed. In all, a case for total embracement of GP and its variants in hydrological modelling studies is made so as to put in place strategies that would translate into achieving meaningful progress as it relates to modelling of water resource systems, and also positively influence decision-making by relevant stakeholders.

Keywords: Computational modelling, evolutionary algorithms, genetic programming, hydrological modelling.

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431 Flow Modeling and Runner Design Optimization in Turgo Water Turbines

Authors: John S. Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios E. Papantonis

Abstract:

The incorporation of computational fluid dynamics in the design of modern hydraulic turbines appears to be necessary in order to improve their efficiency and cost-effectiveness beyond the traditional design practices. A numerical optimization methodology is developed and applied in the present work to a Turgo water turbine. The fluid is simulated by a Lagrangian mesh-free approach that can provide detailed information on the energy transfer and enhance the understanding of the complex, unsteady flow field, at very small computing cost. The runner blades are initially shaped according to hydrodynamics theory, and parameterized using Bezier polynomials and interpolation techniques. The use of a limited number of free design variables allows for various modifications of the standard blade shape, while stochastic optimization using evolutionary algorithms is implemented to find the best blade that maximizes the attainable hydraulic efficiency of the runner. The obtained optimal runner design achieves considerably higher efficiency than the standard one, and its numerically predicted performance is comparable to a real Turgo turbine, verifying the reliability and the prospects of the new methodology.

Keywords: Turgo turbine, Lagrangian flow modeling, Surface parameterization, Design optimization, Evolutionary algorithms.

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