Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1369

Search results for: Local optima

1369 An Evolutionary Statistical Learning Theory

Authors: Sung-Hae Jun, Kyung-Whan Oh

Abstract:

Statistical learning theory was developed by Vapnik. It is a learning theory based on Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension. It also has been used in learning models as good analytical tools. In general, a learning theory has had several problems. Some of them are local optima and over-fitting problems. As well, statistical learning theory has same problems because the kernel type, kernel parameters, and regularization constant C are determined subjectively by the art of researchers. So, we propose an evolutionary statistical learning theory to settle the problems of original statistical learning theory. Combining evolutionary computing into statistical learning theory, our theory is constructed. We verify improved performances of an evolutionary statistical learning theory using data sets from KDD cup.

Keywords: Evolutionary computing, Local optima, Over-fitting, Statistical learning theory

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1368 Application of a New Hybrid Optimization Algorithm on Cluster Analysis

Authors: T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour, B.Bahmani Firouzi

Abstract:

Clustering techniques have received attention in many areas including engineering, medicine, biology and data mining. The purpose of clustering is to group together data points, which are close to one another. The K-means algorithm is one of the most widely used techniques for clustering. However, K-means has two shortcomings: dependency on the initial state and convergence to local optima and global solutions of large problems cannot found with reasonable amount of computation effort. In order to overcome local optima problem lots of studies done in clustering. This paper is presented an efficient hybrid evolutionary optimization algorithm based on combining Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), called PSO-ACO, for optimally clustering N object into K clusters. The new PSO-ACO algorithm is tested on several data sets, and its performance is compared with those of ACO, PSO and K-means clustering. The simulation results show that the proposed evolutionary optimization algorithm is robust and suitable for handing data clustering.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Data clustering, Hybrid evolutionary optimization algorithm, K-means clustering, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).

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1367 Upgraded Cuckoo Search Algorithm to Solve Optimisation Problems Using Gaussian Selection Operator and Neighbour Strategy Approach

Authors: Mukesh Kumar Shah, Tushar Gupta

Abstract:

An Upgraded Cuckoo Search Algorithm is proposed here to solve optimization problems based on the improvements made in the earlier versions of Cuckoo Search Algorithm. Short comings of the earlier versions like slow convergence, trap in local optima improved in the proposed version by random initialization of solution by suggesting an Improved Lambda Iteration Relaxation method, Random Gaussian Distribution Walk to improve local search and further proposing Greedy Selection to accelerate to optimized solution quickly and by “Study Nearby Strategy” to improve global search performance by avoiding trapping to local optima. It is further proposed to generate better solution by Crossover Operation. The proposed strategy used in algorithm shows superiority in terms of high convergence speed over several classical algorithms. Three standard algorithms were tested on a 6-generator standard test system and the results are presented which clearly demonstrate its superiority over other established algorithms. The algorithm is also capable of handling higher unit systems.

Keywords: Economic dispatch, Gaussian selection operator, prohibited operating zones, ramp rate limits, upgraded cuckoo search.

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1366 An Adaptive Memetic Algorithm With Dynamic Population Management for Designing HIV Multidrug Therapies

Authors: Hassan Zarei, Ali Vahidian Kamyad, Sohrab Effati

Abstract:

In this paper, a mathematical model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is utilized and an optimization problem is proposed, with the final goal of implementing an optimal 900-day structured treatment interruption (STI) protocol. Two type of commonly used drugs in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) and protease inhibitors (PI), are considered. In order to solving the proposed optimization problem an adaptive memetic algorithm with population management (AMAPM) is proposed. The AMAPM uses a distance measure to control the diversity of population in genotype space and thus preventing the stagnation and premature convergence. Moreover, the AMAPM uses diversity parameter in phenotype space to dynamically set the population size and the number of crossovers during the search process. Three crossover operators diversify the population, simultaneously. The progresses of crossover operators are utilized to set the number of each crossover per generation. In order to escaping the local optima and introducing the new search directions toward the global optima, two local searchers assist the evolutionary process. In contrast to traditional memetic algorithms, the activation of these local searchers is not random and depends on both the diversity parameters in genotype space and phenotype space. The capability of AMAPM in finding optimal solutions compared with three popular metaheurestics is introduced.

Keywords: HIV therapy design, memetic algorithms, adaptivealgorithms, nonlinear integer programming.

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1365 The Design of Self-evolving Artificial Immune System II for Permutation Flow-shop Problem

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Pei-Chann Chang, Wei-Hsiu Huang

Abstract:

Artificial Immune System is adopted as a Heuristic Algorithm to solve the combinatorial problems for decades. Nevertheless, many of these applications took advantage of the benefit for applications but seldom proposed approaches for enhancing the efficiency. In this paper, we continue the previous research to develop a Self-evolving Artificial Immune System II via coordinating the T and B cell in Immune System and built a block-based artificial chromosome for speeding up the computation time and better performance for different complexities of problems. Through the design of Plasma cell and clonal selection which are relative the function of the Immune Response. The Immune Response will help the AIS have the global and local searching ability and preventing trapped in local optima. From the experimental result, the significant performance validates the SEAIS II is effective when solving the permutation flows-hop problems.

Keywords: Artificial Immune System, Clonal Selection, Immune Response, Permutation Flow-shop Scheduling Problems

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1364 Selective Mutation for Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Sung Hoon Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a selective mutation method for improving the performances of genetic algorithms. In selective mutation, individuals are first ranked and then additionally mutated one bit in a part of their strings which is selected corresponding to their ranks. This selective mutation helps genetic algorithms to fast approach the global optimum and to quickly escape local optima. This results in increasing the performances of genetic algorithms. We measured the effects of selective mutation with four function optimization problems. It was found from extensive experiments that the selective mutation can significantly enhance the performances of genetic algorithms.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, selective mutation, function optimization

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1363 Development of Heterogeneous Parallel Genetic Simulated Annealing Using Multi-Niche Crowding

Authors: Z. G. Wang, M. Rahman, Y. S. Wong, K. S. Neo

Abstract:

In this paper, a new hybrid of genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA), referred to as GSA, is presented. In this algorithm, SA is incorporated into GA to escape from local optima. The concept of hierarchical parallel GA is employed to parallelize GSA for the optimization of multimodal functions. In addition, multi-niche crowding is used to maintain the diversity in the population of the parallel GSA (PGSA). The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated against a standard set of multimodal benchmark functions. The multi-niche crowding PGSA and normal PGSA show some remarkable improvement in comparison with the conventional parallel genetic algorithm and the breeder genetic algorithm (BGA).

Keywords: Crowding, genetic algorithm, parallel geneticalgorithm, simulated annealing.

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1362 Aerodynamics and Optimization of Airfoil Under Ground Effect

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Byeong Sam Kim, Juhee Lee, Kwang Soo Kim

Abstract:

The Prediction of aerodynamic characteristics and shape optimization of airfoil under the ground effect have been carried out by integration of computational fluid dynamics and the multiobjective Pareto-based genetic algorithm. The main flow characteristics around an airfoil of WIG craft are lift force, lift-to-drag ratio and static height stability (H.S). However, they show a strong trade-off phenomenon so that it is not easy to satisfy the design requirements simultaneously. This difficulty can be resolved by the optimal design. The above mentioned three characteristics are chosen as the objective functions and NACA0015 airfoil is considered as a baseline model in the present study. The profile of airfoil is constructed by Bezier curves with fourteen control points and these control points are adopted as the design variables. For multi-objective optimization problems, the optimal solutions are not unique but a set of non-dominated optima and they are called Pareto frontiers or Pareto sets. As the results of optimization, forty numbers of non- dominated Pareto optima can be obtained at thirty evolutions.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Shape optimization, Airfoil on WIGcraft, Genetic algorithm, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

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1361 A Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization-Nelder- Mead Algorithm (PSO-NM) for Nelson-Siegel- Svensson Calibration

Authors: Sofia Ayouche, Rachid Ellaia, Rajae Aboulaich

Abstract:

Today, insurers may use the yield curve as an indicator evaluation of the profit or the performance of their portfolios; therefore, they modeled it by one class of model that has the ability to fit and forecast the future term structure of interest rates. This class of model is the Nelson-Siegel-Svensson model. Unfortunately, many authors have reported a lot of difficulties when they want to calibrate the model because the optimization problem is not convex and has multiple local optima. In this context, we implement a hybrid Particle Swarm optimization and Nelder Mead algorithm in order to minimize by least squares method, the difference between the zero-coupon curve and the NSS curve.

Keywords: Optimization, zero-coupon curve, Nelson-Siegel- Svensson, Particle Swarm Optimization, Nelder-Mead Algorithm.

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1360 A Hybrid Approach for Color Image Quantization Using K-means and Firefly Algorithms

Authors: Parisut Jitpakdee, Pakinee Aimmanee, Bunyarit Uyyanonvara

Abstract:

Color Image quantization (CQ) is an important problem in computer graphics, image and processing. The aim of quantization is to reduce colors in an image with minimum distortion. Clustering is a widely used technique for color quantization; all colors in an image are grouped to small clusters. In this paper, we proposed a new hybrid approach for color quantization using firefly algorithm (FA) and K-means algorithm. Firefly algorithm is a swarmbased algorithm that can be used for solving optimization problems. The proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of both algorithms such as the local optima converge problem in K-means and the early converge of firefly algorithm. Experiments on three commonly used images and the comparison results shows that the proposed algorithm surpasses both the base-line technique k-means clustering and original firefly algorithm.

Keywords: Clustering, Color quantization, Firefly algorithm, Kmeans.

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1359 Multi-objective Optimization of Graph Partitioning using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: M. Farshbaf, M. R. Feizi-Derakhshi

Abstract:

Graph partitioning is a NP-hard problem with multiple conflicting objectives. The graph partitioning should minimize the inter-partition relationship while maximizing the intra-partition relationship. Furthermore, the partition load should be evenly distributed over the respective partitions. Therefore this is a multiobjective optimization problem (MOO). One of the approaches to MOO is Pareto optimization which has been used in this paper. The proposed methods of this paper used to improve the performance are injecting best solutions of previous runs into the first generation of next runs and also storing the non-dominated set of previous generations to combine with later generation's non-dominated set. These improvements prevent the GA from getting stuck in the local optima and increase the probability of finding more optimal solutions. Finally, a simulation research is carried out to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Graph partitioning, Genetic algorithm, Multiobjective optimization, Pareto front.

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1358 The Use of Local Knowledge and its Transferfor Community Self-Protection Development in Flood Prone Residential Area

Authors: Siyanee Hirunsalee, Hidehiko Kanegae

Abstract:

This paper aims to study at the use of local knowledge to develop community self-protection in flood prone residential area, Ayutthaya Island has been chosen as a case study. This study tries to examine the strength of local knowledge which is able to develop community self-protection and cope with flood disaster. In-depth, this paper focuses on the influence of social network on knowledge transfer. After conducted the research, authors reviewed the strength of local knowledge and also mentioned the obstacles of community to use and also transfer local knowledge. Moreover, the result of the study revealed that local knowledge is not always transferred by the strongest-tie social network (family or kinship) as we used to believe. Surprisingly, local knowledge could be also transferred by the weaker-tie social network (teacher/ monk) with the better effectiveness in some knowledge.

Keywords: Community Self-Protection Development, FloodRisk Reduction, Knowledge Transfer, Local Knowledge

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1357 Present State of Local Public Transportation Service in Local Municipalities of Japan and Its Effects on Population

Authors: Akiko Kondo, Akio Kondo

Abstract:

We are facing regional problems to low birth rate and longevity in Japan. Under this situation, there are some local municipalities which lose their vitality. The aims of this study are to clarify the present state of local public transportation services in local municipalities and relation between local public transportation services and population quantitatively. We conducted a questionnaire survey concerning regional agenda in all local municipalities in Japan. We obtained responses concerning the present state of convenience in use of public transportation and local public transportation services. Based on the data gathered from the survey, it is apparent that we should some sort of measures concerning public transportation services. Convenience in use of public transportation becomes an object of public concern in many rural regions. It is also clarified that some local municipalities introduce a demand bus for the purpose of promotion of administrative and financial efficiency. They also introduce a demand taxi in order to secure transportation to weak people in transportation and eliminate of blank area related to public transportation services. In addition, we construct a population model which includes explanatory variables of present states of local public transportation services. From this result, we can clarify the relation between public transportation services and population quantitatively.

Keywords: Public transportation, local municipality, regional analysis, regional issue.

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1356 Learning to Recognize Faces by Local Feature Design and Selection

Authors: Yanwei Pang, Lei Zhang, Zhengkai Liu

Abstract:

Studies in neuroscience suggest that both global and local feature information are crucial for perception and recognition of faces. It is widely believed that local feature is less sensitive to variations caused by illumination, expression and illumination. In this paper, we target at designing and learning local features for face recognition. We designed three types of local features. They are semi-global feature, local patch feature and tangent shape feature. The designing of semi-global feature aims at taking advantage of global-like feature and meanwhile avoiding suppressing AdaBoost algorithm in boosting weak classifies established from small local patches. The designing of local patch feature targets at automatically selecting discriminative features, and is thus different with traditional ways, in which local patches are usually selected manually to cover the salient facial components. Also, shape feature is considered in this paper for frontal view face recognition. These features are selected and combined under the framework of boosting algorithm and cascade structure. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the standard eigenface method and Bayesian method. Moreover, the selected local features and observations in the experiments are enlightening to researches in local feature design in face recognition.

Keywords: Face recognition, local feature, AdaBoost, subspace analysis.

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1355 Local Mesh Co-Occurrence Pattern for Content Based Image Retrieval

Authors: C. Yesubai Rubavathi, R. Ravi

Abstract:

This paper presents the local mesh co-occurrence patterns (LMCoP) using HSV color space for image retrieval system. HSV color space is used in this method to utilize color, intensity and brightness of images. Local mesh patterns are applied to define the local information of image and gray level co-occurrence is used to obtain the co-occurrence of LMeP pixels. Local mesh co-occurrence pattern extracts the local directional information from local mesh pattern and converts it into a well-mannered feature vector using gray level co-occurrence matrix. The proposed method is tested on three different databases called MIT VisTex, Corel, and STex. Also, this algorithm is compared with existing methods, and results in terms of precision and recall are shown in this paper.

Keywords: Content-based image retrieval system, HSV color space, gray level co-occurrence matrix, local mesh pattern.

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1354 A Hybrid Metaheuristic Framework for Evolving the PROAFTN Classifier

Authors: Feras Al-Obeidat, Nabil Belacel, Juan A. Carretero, Prabhat Mahanti,

Abstract:

In this paper, a new learning algorithm based on a hybrid metaheuristic integrating Differential Evolution (DE) and Reduced Variable Neighborhood Search (RVNS) is introduced to train the classification method PROAFTN. To apply PROAFTN, values of several parameters need to be determined prior to classification. These parameters include boundaries of intervals and relative weights for each attribute. Based on these requirements, the hybrid approach, named DEPRO-RVNS, is presented in this study. In some cases, the major problem when applying DE to some classification problems was the premature convergence of some individuals to local optima. To eliminate this shortcoming and to improve the exploration and exploitation capabilities of DE, such individuals were set to iteratively re-explored using RVNS. Based on the generated results on both training and testing data, it is shown that the performance of PROAFTN is significantly improved. Furthermore, the experimental study shows that DEPRO-RVNS outperforms well-known machine learning classifiers in a variety of problems.

Keywords: Knowledge Discovery, Differential Evolution, Reduced Variable Neighborhood Search, Multiple criteria classification, PROAFTN, Supervised Learning.

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1353 Analysis of Risk-Based Disaster Planning in Local Communities

Authors: R. A. Temah, L. A. Nkengla-Asi

Abstract:

Planning for future disasters sets the stage for a variety of activities that may trigger multiple recurring operations and expose the community to opportunities to minimize risks. Local communities are increasingly embracing the necessity for planning based on local risks, but are also significantly challenged to effectively plan and response to disasters. This research examines basic risk-based disaster planning model and compares it with advanced risk-based planning that introduces the identification and alignment of varieties of local capabilities within and out of the local community that can be pivotal to facilitate the management of local risks and cascading effects prior to a disaster. A critical review shows that the identification and alignment of capabilities can potentially enhance risk-based disaster planning. A tailored holistic approach to risk based disaster planning is pivotal to enhance collective action and a reduction in disaster collective cost.

Keywords: Capabilities, disaster planning, hazards, local community, risk-based.

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1352 An Efficient Stud Krill Herd Framework for Solving Non-Convex Economic Dispatch Problem

Authors: Bachir Bentouati, Lakhdar Chaib, Saliha Chettih, Gai-Ge Wang

Abstract:

The problem of economic dispatch (ED) is the basic problem of power framework, its main goal is to find the most favorable generation dispatch to generate each unit, reduce the whole power generation cost, and meet all system limitations. A heuristic algorithm, recently developed called Stud Krill Herd (SKH), has been employed in this paper to treat non-convex ED problems. The proposed KH has been modified using Stud selection and crossover (SSC) operator, to enhance the solution quality and avoid local optima. We are demonstrated SKH effects in two case study systems composed of 13-unit and 40-unit test systems to verify its performance and applicability in solving the ED problems. In the above systems, SKH can successfully obtain the best fuel generator and distribute the load requirements for the online generators. The results showed that the use of the proposed SKH method could reduce the total cost of generation and optimize the fulfillment of the load requirements.

Keywords: Stud Krill Herd, economic dispatch, crossover, stud selection, valve-point effect.

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1351 A Developmental Survey of Local Stereo Matching Algorithms

Authors: André Smith, Amr Abdel-Dayem

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the history and development of stereo matching algorithms. Details from its inception, up to relatively recent techniques are described, noting challenges that have been surmounted across these past decades. Different components of these are explored, though focus is directed towards the local matching techniques. While global approaches have existed for some time, and demonstrated greater accuracy than their counterparts, they are generally quite slow. Many strides have been made more recently, allowing local methods to catch up in terms of accuracy, without sacrificing the overall performance.

Keywords: Developmental survey, local stereo matching, stereo correspondence.

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1350 Critical Buckling Load of Carbon Nanotube with Non-Local Timoshenko Beam Using the Differential Transform Method

Authors: Tayeb Bensattalah, Mohamed Zidour, Mohamed Ait Amar Meziane, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji, Abdelouahed Tounsi

Abstract:

In this paper, the Differential Transform Method (DTM) is employed to predict and to analysis the non-local critical buckling loads of carbon nanotubes with various end conditions and the non-local Timoshenko beam described by single differential equation. The equation differential of buckling of the nanobeams is derived via a non-local theory and the solution for non-local critical buckling loads is finding by the DTM. The DTM is introduced briefly. It can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and it reduces the size of computational work. Influence of boundary conditions, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads are studied and discussed. Effects of nonlocal parameter, ratios L/d, the chirality of single-walled carbon nanotube, as well as the boundary conditions on buckling of CNT are investigated.

Keywords: Boundary conditions, buckling, non-local, the differential transform method.

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1349 Extended Set of DCT-TPLBP and DCT-FPLBP for Face Recognition

Authors: El Mahdi Barrah, Said Safi, Abdessamad Malaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe an application for face recognition. Many studies have used local descriptors to characterize a face, the performance of these local descriptors remain low by global descriptors (working on the entire image). The application of local descriptors (cutting image into blocks) must be able to store both the advantages of global and local methods in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. This system uses neural network techniques. The letter method provides a good compromise between the two approaches in terms of simplifying of calculation and classifying performance. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained from other local and global conventional approaches.

Keywords: Face detection, face recognition, discrete cosine transform (DCT), FPLBP, TPLBP, NN.

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1348 A Study on Local Wisdom towards Career Building of People in Kamchanoad Community

Authors: Phusit Phukamchanoad, Thananya Santithammakul, Suwaree Yordchim, Pennapa Palapin

Abstract:

This research gathered local wisdom towards career building of people in Kamchanoad Community, Baan Muang sub-district, Baan Dung district, Udon Thani province. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with village headmen, community board, teachers, monks, Kamchanoad forest managers and revered elderly aged over 60 years old. All of these 30 interviewees have resided in Kamchanoad Community for more than 40. Descriptive data analysis result revealed that the most prominent local wisdom of Kamchanoad community is their beliefs and religion. Most people in the community have strongly maintained local tradition, the festival of appeasing Chao Pu Sri Suttho on the middle of the 6th month of Thai lunar calendar which falls on the same day with Vesak Day. 100 percent of the people in this community are Buddhist. They believe that Naga, an entity or being, taking the form of a serpent, named “Sri Suttho” lives in Kamchanoad forest. The local people worship the serpent and ask for blessings. Another local wisdom of this community is Sinh fabric weaving.

Keywords: Local Wisdom, Careers, Kamchanoad Community.

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1347 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri

Abstract:

This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: Adaptive control, convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching.

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1346 Fusing Local Binary Patterns with Wavelet Features for Ethnicity Identification

Authors: S. Hma Salah, H. Du, N. Al-Jawad

Abstract:

Ethnicity identification of face images is of interest in many areas of application, but existing methods are few and limited. This paper presents a fusion scheme that uses block-based uniform local binary patterns and Haar wavelet transform to combine local and global features. In particular, the LL subband coefficients of the whole face are fused with the histograms of uniform local binary patterns from block partitions of the face. We applied the principal component analysis on the fused features and managed to reduce the dimensionality of the feature space from 536 down to around 15 without sacrificing too much accuracy. We have conducted a number of preliminary experiments using a collection of 746 subject face images. The test results show good accuracy and demonstrate the potential of fusing global and local features. The fusion approach is robust, making it easy to further improve the identification at both feature and score levels.

Keywords: Ethnicity identification, fusion, local binary patterns, wavelet.

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1345 Evaluation of Classifiers Based On I2C Distance for Action Recognition

Authors: Lei Zhang, Tao Wang, Xiantong Zhen

Abstract:

Naive Bayes Nearest Neighbor (NBNN) and its variants, i,e., local NBNN and the NBNN kernels, are local feature-based classifiers that have achieved impressive performance in image classification. By exploiting instance-to-class (I2C) distances (instance means image/video in image/video classification), they avoid quantization errors of local image descriptors in the bag of words (BoW) model. However, the performances of NBNN, local NBNN and the NBNN kernels have not been validated on video analysis. In this paper, we introduce these three classifiers into human action recognition and conduct comprehensive experiments on the benchmark KTH and the realistic HMDB datasets. The results shows that those I2C based classifiers consistently outperform the SVM classifier with the BoW model.

Keywords: Instance-to-class distance, NBNN, Local NBNN, NBNN kernel.

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1344 Some Discrete Propositions in IVSs

Authors: A. Pouhassani

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exhibit some properties of local topologies of an IVS. Also, we Introduce ISG structure as an interesting structure of semigroups in IVSs.

Keywords: IVS, ISG, Local topology, Lebesgue number, Lindelof theorem

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1343 Selective Harmonic Elimination of PWM AC/AC Voltage Controller Using Hybrid RGA-PS Approach

Authors: A. K. Al-Othman, Nabil A. Ahmed, A. M. Al-Kandari, H. K. Ebraheem

Abstract:

Selective harmonic elimination-pulse width modulation techniques offer a tight control of the harmonic spectrum of a given voltage waveform generated by a power electronic converter along with a low number of switching transitions. Traditional optimization methods suffer from various drawbacks, such as prolonged and tedious computational steps and convergence to local optima; thus, the more the number of harmonics to be eliminated, the larger the computational complexity and time. This paper presents a novel method for output voltage harmonic elimination and voltage control of PWM AC/AC voltage converters using the principle of hybrid Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm-Pattern Search (RGA-PS) method. RGA is the primary optimizer exploiting its global search capabilities, PS is then employed to fine tune the best solution provided by RGA in each evolution. The proposed method enables linear control of the fundamental component of the output voltage and complete elimination of its harmonic contents up to a specified order. Theoretical studies have been carried out to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method of selective harmonic elimination. Theoretical results are validated through simulation studies using PSIM software package.

Keywords: PWM, AC/AC voltage converters, selectiveharmonic elimination, direct search method, pattern search method, Real-coded Genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms andoptimization.

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1342 Promoting Authenticity in Employer Brands to Address the Global-Local Problem in Complex Organisations: The Case of a Developing Country

Authors: Saud A. Taj

Abstract:

Employer branding is considered as a useful tool for addressing the global-local problem facing complex organisations that have operations scattered across the globe and face challenges of dealing with the local environment alongside. Despite being an established field of study within the Western developed world, there is little empirical evidence concerning the relevance of employer branding to global companies that operate in the under-developed economies. This paper fills this gap by gaining rich insight into the implementation of employer branding programs in a foreign multinational operating in Pakistan dealing with the global-local problem. The study is qualitative in nature and employs semistructured and focus group interviews with senior/middle managers and local frontline employees to deeply examine the phenomenon in case organisation. Findings suggest that authenticity is required in employer brands to enable them to respond to the local needs thereby leading to the resolution of the global-local problem. However, the role of signaling theory is key to the development of authentic employer brands as it stresses on the need to establish an efficient and effective signaling environment where in signals travel in both directions (from signal designers to receivers and backwards) and facilitate firms with the global-local problem. The paper also identifies future avenues of research for the employer branding field.

Keywords: Authenticity, Counter-signals, Employer Branding, Global-Local Problem, Signaling Theory.

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1341 Assessing the Strategies of Local Italian Food for Promoting Food Policy in Developing Countries

Authors: A. Sohrabi

Abstract:

The importance of local food products and their promotion are drivers for economic growth. Entrepreneurship is one of the most important tools for development, which puts its most important effect on the way of increasing business in society. The purpose of this paper is to assess the breadth of food strategies in Italy toward to promoting local Italian foods in order to present useful food policies for developing countries. The methodology of this paper is based on qualitative analysis. In order to achieve such objectives, a literature review is carried out by employing documenting study. In this research, at first, we seek to present compliance’s concepts and definitions. Then, after examining the dimensions of the three strategies, we access to the indicators and compare their effects in order to present some useful policies and guidelines for developing countries. Despite of the limitations like inaccessibility, performance of companies in exporting local foods and lacking perception of awareness and experience of people, the study offers possible ways for future, as an example for Middle East countries to promote Italian local foods. The finding of this paper evaluates the three strategies in order to promote local food entrepreneurship in Italy and developing countries.

Keywords: Local food, Italian food, Italian strategy, food policy.

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1340 Analyzing the Fiscal Health of Local Governments in Taiwan: Evidence from Quantile Analysis

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang, Yuan-Hong Ho

Abstract:

This paper develops the fiscal health index of 21 local governments in Taiwan over the 1984 to 2010 period. A quantile regression analysis was used to explore the extent that economic variables, political budget cycles, and legislative checks and balances, impact different quantiles of fiscal health index for a country over a sample period of time. Our findings suggest that local governments at the lower quantile are significantly benefited from political budget cycles and the increase in central government revenues, while legislative effective checks and balances and the increase in central government expenditures have a significantly negative effect on local fiscal health. When local governments are in the upper tail of the distribution, legislative checks and balances and growth in macroeconomics have significant and adverse effects on the fiscal health of local governments. However, increases in central government revenues have significant and positive effects on the health status of local government in Taiwan.

Keywords: Fiscal health, political budget cycles, legislative checks and balances, quantile regression.

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