Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: youngsters

24 Integration problems of Dutch-Turkish Youngsters: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Ozge Karayalçin


This study tries to find out the reasons for the integration problems of third generation Dutch-Turkish youngsters by particularly focusing on the socio-cultural and socio-economic situations of these people in the Netherlands. The results obtained from the field research are summed up under four sections. These four sections are education and language, labour market, cultural factors, religion, and nationality. The underlying reasons of the integration problems are reflected from two different perspectives. The first one is the effects of social and economic enforcements implemented on the Turkish immigrant society. The second one is the traditional Turkish values that are quite different from Dutch values. The problems experienced by third generation Turkish origin Dutch youngsters are not one-sided. To conclude, solution-oriented advisements are asserted.

Keywords: acculturation levels, Dutch-Turkish youngsters, integration, transnational migrants, identity conflicts

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23 Exploring Barriers and Pathways to Wellbeing and Sources of Resilience of Refugee Mothers in Calgary during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)

Authors: Chloe Zivot, Natasha Vattikonda, Debbie Bell


We conducted interviews with refugee mothers (n=28) participating in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program in Calgary to explore experiences of wellbeing and resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disruptions to education and increased isolation, and parental duties contributed to decreased wellbeing. Mothers identified tangible protective factors at the micro, meso, and macro levels. HIPPY played a substantial role in pandemic resilience, speaking to the potential of home-based intervention models in mitigating household adversity.

Keywords: refugee resettlement, family wellbeing, COVID-19, motherhood, resilience, gender, health

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22 Administrative Determinants of Students' Sports Participation in Private and Public Secondary Schools in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Danjuma Moudu Momoh


Participation in sports is of immense benefit to the soundness of individual mental and social wellness, particularly among youngsters. The 1980’s and 1990’s compared to 2000’s witnessed great involvement of youngsters in school games arising from the high administrative supports attached to sports. Previous studies in an attempt to increase youngster’s participation in sports had focused more on other factors rather than on administrative factors. This study, therefore, investigated the importance of administrative factors (availability of facilities, availability of equipment, funding, scheduling of sports programme and administrative style of school principals) on students’ sports participation in private and public secondary schools in Kwara State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design using validated and structured questionnaire, was adopted. Stratified random sampling technique was used to pick the students both male and female. A total of two thousand five hundred and sixty participants were involved in the study. A reliable coefficient of r=0.82 was obtained for the instruments using Cronbach Alpha. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions to test the hypotheses at 00.5 significant levels. At the end of the study, it was discovered that the relative contributions of administrative factors among the students were: availability of facilities (β=0.314), availability of equipment (β=0.444), funding (β=0.301), scheduling of sports programme (β=0.447), made relative contributions to the dependent variable, administrative style of school principal (β=0.077) did not make significant but minimal contribution to the student’s sports participation.

Keywords: administrative determinants, secondary school students, physical activity, sports participation

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21 Questioning the Relationship Between Young People and Fake News Through Their Use of Social Media

Authors: Marion Billard


This paper will focus on the question of the real relationship between young people and fake news. Fake news is one of today’s main issues in the world of information and communication. Social media and its democratization helped to spread false information. According to traditional beliefs, young people are more inclined to believe what they read through social media. But, the individuals concerned, think that they are more inclined to make a distinction between real and fake news. This phenomenon is due to their use of the internet and social media from an early age. During the 2016 and 2017 French and American presidential campaigns, the term fake news was in the mouth of the entire world and became a real issue in the field of information. While young people were informing themselves with newspapers or television until the beginning of the ’90s, Gen Z (meaning people born between 1997 and 2010), has always been immersed in this world of fast communication. They know how to use social media from a young age and the internet has no secret for them. Today, despite the sporadic use of traditional media, young people tend to turn to their smartphones and social networks such as Instagram or Twitter to stay abreast of the latest news. The growth of social media information led to an “ambient journalism”, giving access to an endless quantity of information. Waking up in the morning, young people will see little posts with short texts supplying the essential of the news, without, for the most, many details. As a result, impressionable people are not able to do a distinction between real media, and “junk news” or Fake News. This massive use of social media is probably explained by the inability of the youngsters to find connections between the communication of the traditional media and what they are living. The question arises if this over-confidence of the young people in their ability to distinguish between accurate and fake news would not make it more difficult for them to examine critically the information. Their relationship with media and fake news is more complex than popular opinion. Today’s young people are not the master in the quest for information, nor inherently the most impressionable public on social media.

Keywords: fake news, youngsters, social media, information, generation

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20 A Cross-Cultural Validation of the Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (Smiley) among Filipino Pediatric Lupus Patients

Authors: Jemely M. Punzalan, Christine B. Bernal, Beatrice B. Canonigo, Maria Rosario F. Cabansag, Dennis S. Flores, Paul Joseph T. Galutira, Remedios D. Chan


Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the most common autoimmune disorders predominates in women of childbearing age. Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY) is the only health specific quality of life tool for pediatric SLE, which has been translated to different languages except in Filipino. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to develop a Filipino translation of the SMILEY and to examine the validity and reliability of this translation. Methodology: The SMILEY was translated into Filipino by a bilingual individual and back-translated by another bilingual individual blinded from the original English version. The translation was evaluated for content validity by a panel of experts and subjected to pilot testing. The pilot-tested translation was used in the validity and reliability testing proper. The SMILEY, together with the previously validated PEDSQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale was administered to lupus pediatric patients and their parent at two separate occasions: a baseline and a re-test seven to fourteen days apart. Tests for convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were performed. Results: A total of fifty children and their parent were recruited. The mean age was 15.38±2.62 years (range 8-18 years), mean education at high school level. The mean duration of SLE was 28 months (range 1-81 months). Subjects found the questionnaires to be relevant, easy to understand and answer. The validity of the SMILEY was demonstrated in terms of content validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Age, socioeconomic status and educational attainment did not show a significant effect on the scores. The difference between scores of child and parent report was showed to be significant with SMILEY total (p=0.0214), effect on social life (p=0.0000), and PEDSQL physical function (p=0.0460). Child reports showed higher scores for the following domains compared to their parent. Conclusion: SMILEY is a brief, easy to understand, valid and reliable tool for assessing pediatric SLE specific HRQOL. It will be useful in providing better care, understanding and may offer critical information regarding the effect of SLE in the quality of life of our pediatric lupus patients. It will help physician understands the needs of their patient not only on treatment of the specific disease but as well as the impact of the treatment on their daily lives.

Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus, pediatrics, quality of life, Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY)

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19 Socializing Young Females towards Sports

Authors: Mohinder Kumar


Sports are considered as the very prominent social institution in almost every society because it reflects the mores, values, and general culture of a society. Sports activity tend to pave the foundation for learning acceptable values and beliefs and for acquiring desirable character traits such as self-discipline, sportsmanship, and an appreciation for hard work, fairness, self-respect, leadership, followership, justice, perseverance, competition, and goal attainment. The present study focuses on ideal ways of socializing youngsters into sports. Influences of some socializing agents (e.g. family, school, community) are reviewed and suggestions made as to how these socializing agents can be oriented and made effective in carrying out functional processes toward target ends.

Keywords: sports, socializing, family, community, society

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18 An Analysis of Telugu Proverbs in the Light of Endangerment

Authors: Esther, Queeny


The main goal of this paper is to reflect on the overwhelming, rich folklore of Telugu people through their proverbs, which are assumed to be in a state of endangerment. In order to prove the statement made that the proverbs in Telugu are endangered, we have to delve deeper. We hardly found two or three papers related to Telugu proverbs. So, though the process was weary of sorting out the different proverbs in Telugu, to translate them etc. we found it necessary to do a survey in the form of a questionnaire and draw conclusions so that we could address this issue to the readers. We began with a basic assumption that the older generation may have a wider knowledge of their folklore when compared to the younger generation. The results obtained are quite remarkable, which strengthened our assumptions. Statistical analysis was adopted for quantitative analysis. Through this paper, we hope to kindle cultural awareness among the youngsters regarding the use of one’s own mother tongue.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, Telugu proverbs, folklore, endangerment

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17 A Study of Different Factors Influencing Youngsters’ Mobile Device Buying Behaviors in Malaysia

Authors: Z. S. Yip, T. K. Tan, C. C. Geh, T. T. Ting


The mobile phone is an indispensable device in today’s daily living. The arising new brands in the market with different specification are targeting at the different population. The most promising market would be the younger generation who are IT savvy. Therefore, it is beneficial to find out their factors of consideration in purchasing a mobile phone. A survey is carried out in Malaysia to discover the current youngster’s mobile phone buying behavior. This study has found that the most influencing factor of consideration is Price, followed by Feature, and Battery Lifespan. Gender and Income have no relationship with certain factors of consideration. It is important to discover the factors of consideration in order to provide industry insight into the current trend of smartphone in Malaysia.

Keywords: buying behavior, smart phone, mobile brand, mobile operating system, specification, battery lifespan

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16 The End Justifies the Means: Using Programmed Mastery Drill to Teach Spoken English to Spanish Youngsters, without Relying on Homework

Authors: Robert Pocklington


Most current language courses expect students to be ‘vocational’, sacrificing their free time in order to learn. However, pupils with a full-time job, or bringing up children, hardly have a spare moment. Others just need the language as a tool or a qualification, as if it were book-keeping or a driving license. Then there are children in unstructured families whose stressful life makes private study almost impossible. And the countless parents whose evenings and weekends have become a nightmare, trying to get the children to do their homework. There are many arguments against homework being a necessity (rather than an optional extra for more ambitious or dedicated students), making a clear case for teaching methods which facilitate full learning of the key content within the classroom. A methodology which could be described as Programmed Mastery Learning has been used at Fluency Language Academy (Spain) since 1992, to teach English to over 4000 pupils yearly, with a staff of around 100 teachers, barely requiring homework. The course is structured according to the tenets of Programmed Learning: small manageable teaching steps, immediate feedback, and constant successful activity. For the Mastery component (not stopping until everyone has learned), the memorisation and practice are entrusted to flashcard-based drilling in the classroom, leading all students to progress together and develop a permanently growing knowledge base. Vocabulary and expressions are memorised using flashcards as stimuli, obliging the brain to constantly recover words from the long-term memory and converting them into reflex knowledge, before they are deployed in sentence building. The use of grammar rules is practised with ‘cue’ flashcards: the brain refers consciously to the grammar rule each time it produces a phrase until it comes easily. This automation of lexicon and correct grammar use greatly facilitates all other language and conversational activities. The full B2 course consists of 48 units each of which takes a class an average of 17,5 hours to complete, allowing the vast majority of students to reach B2 level in 840 class hours, which is corroborated by an 85% pass-rate in the Cambridge University B2 exam (First Certificate). In the past, studying for qualifications was just one of many different options open to young people. Nowadays, youngsters need to stay at school and obtain qualifications in order to get any kind of job. There are many students in our classes who have little intrinsic interest in what they are studying; they just need the certificate. In these circumstances and with increasing government pressure to minimise failure, teachers can no longer think ‘If they don’t study, and fail, its their problem’. It is now becoming the teacher’s problem. Teachers are ever more in need of methods which make their pupils successful learners; this means assuring learning in the classroom. Furthermore, homework is arguably the main divider between successful middle-class schoolchildren and failing working-class children who drop out: if everything important is learned at school, the latter will have a much better chance, favouring inclusiveness in the language classroom.

Keywords: flashcard drilling, fluency method, mastery learning, programmed learning, teaching English as a foreign language

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15 Personality Traits of Students Effecting Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Aamir Sohail, Umair Malik


Research in entrepreneurship has gained much attention in current academic environment. Youngsters are taking interest to start their own business in spite of risk matter. The objective of the study is to explain how various personality traits (personal attitude, locus of control, instrumental readiness and perceived behavioral control) are affecting entrepreneurial intention of students. The theory of planned behavior supports out study which explains that personal attractiveness, social norms and feasibility are the main factors that affect intentions of an individual. The sample data of 120 is collected from graduating batch of three reputed universities of Islamabad through questionnaires. Our results support the hypothesis that personality traits positively influence the entrepreneurial intention. We conclude from the study that many graduating students are willing to start a new venture, but most of them are likely to do a job in their respective fields. Risk factor also exists in their minds because in our country most people are risk-averse and they do not want to lose their money in case of loss.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, instrumental readiness, locus of control, personal attitude

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14 Android Based Game Intervention for Enhancing the Face Reputation Abilities in Youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Arun Khosla, Mamta Khosla, Yogeswara Rao M.


Multimedia devices have received repute in the special desires community. The wide display screen makes it appealing and easy to use, specifically for the ones who've susceptible pleasant motor skill. This paper highlights how an Android-based game named as 'KIDDY' can be used to enhance confront face perceiving capacities in adults with autism and aid the children to develop social interaction capabilities. This game improved concentration and imagination via repetitive movement and visual commentary. Four students with autism, diverse in the historic period, social behavior and communiqué ability had been enrolled in the program and provided an opportunity to recognize new faces thrilling way. This paper offers resultant role based on 'Social Skills Rating System' that shows how cellular generation used as an academician intervention to decorate studying and communiqué among children with autism and additionally proven the tremendous behavior toward cell primarily based game.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, screen-based technology, mobile phone-based intercession

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13 Causes of Terrorism: Perceptions of University Students of Teacher Training Institutions

Authors: Saghir Ahmad, Abid Hussain Ch, Misbah Malik, Ayesha Batool


Terrorism is the marvel in which dreadful circumstance is made by a gathering of individuals who view themselves as abused by society. Terrorism is the unlawful utilization of power or viciousness by a man or a sorted out gathering by the general population or property with the aim of intimidation or compulsion of social orders or governments frequently for ideological or political reasons. Terrorism is as old as people. The main aim of the study was to find out the causes of terrorism through the perceptions of the universities students of teacher training institutions. This study was quantitative in nature. Survey method was used to collect data. A sample of two hundred and sixty seven students was selected from public universities. A five point Likert scale was used to collect data. Mean, Standard deviation, independent sample t-test, and One Way ANOVA were applied to analyze the data. The major findings of the study indicated that students perceived the main causes of terrorism are poverty, foreign interference, wrong concept of Islamization, and social injustice. It is also concluded that mostly, students think that drone attacks are promoting the terrorist activities. The education is key to eliminate the terrorism. There is need to educate the people and specially youngsters to bring the peace in the world.

Keywords: dreadful circumstance, governments, power, students, terrorism

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12 The Application of Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching EFL Students to Understand Spoken Coinages: Based on an Experiment with Speakers of Russian

Authors: Ekaterina Lukianchenko


The present article addresses the nuances of teaching English vocabulary to Russian-speaking students. The experiment involving 39 participants aged 17 to 21 proves that the key to understanding spoken coinages is not only the knowledge of their constituents, but rather the understanding of the context and co-text. The volunteers who took part knew the constituents, but did not know the meaning of the words. The assumption of the authors consists in the fact that the structure of the concept has a direct relation with the form of the particular vocabulary unit, but its form is secondary to its meaning, if the word is a spoken coinage, which is partly proved by the fact that in modern slang words have multiple meanings, as well as one notion can have various embodiments that have virtually nothing in common. The choice of vocabulary items that youngsters use is not exactly arbitrary, but, even if complex nominals are taken into consideration, whose meaning seems clear, as it looks like a sum of their constituents’ meanings, they are still impossible to understand without any context or co-text, as a lot of them are idiomatic, non-transparent. It is further explained what methods might be effective in teaching students how to deal with new words they encounter in real-life situations and how student’s knowledge of vocabulary might be enhanced.

Keywords: spoken language, cognitive linguistics, complex nominals, nominals with the incorporated object, concept, EFL, communicative language teaching

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11 Traditional versus New Media: Creating Awareness on Environment Protection in Pakistan

Authors: Hafsah Javed


Environment protection is a major issue grabbing widespread attention of policymakers, both, locally and globally. Pakistan is among the countries most affected by global climate changes; media, besides governments, have a prime responsibility to create awareness among people about its hazards, and managing strategies. Advances in Information Communication Technologies have eased people's access to information and created an interactive space to discuss environment related issues and influence the policy decisions on the issue. This study, therefore, aims to examine, from the perspective of the audience, the contribution of Pakistani traditional and social media in creating awareness about Environment Protection and its implications. The objectives are achieved through quantitative survey method. Young university students are selected as ‘audience’ for the study. The findings show lack of awareness among people regarding environment protection. Neither traditional media outlets like radio, TV and newspapers prioritize the issue on their agenda, nor audience pull information about the issue from social media. A stark indifference and non-serious attitude is being exercised towards the issue from two quarters. People do not know much about local and international laws on environment; media are used more than a source of entertainment than awareness. The study implicates that there is an exigency to launch a nationwide awareness campaign on the issue, and for that media need to be on the driving seat.

Keywords: awareness, climate change, environment protection, new media, role of media, youngsters

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10 DH-Students Promoting Underage Asylum Seekers' Oral Health in Finland

Authors: Eeva Wallenius-Nareneva, Tuula Toivanen-Labiad


Background: Oral health promotion event was organised for forty Afghanistan, Iraqi and Bangladeshi underage asylum seekers in Finland. The invitation to arrange this coaching occasion was accepted in the Degree Programme in Oral Hygiene in Metropolia. The personnel in the reception center found the need to improve oral health among the youngsters. The purpose was to strengthen the health literacy of the boys in their oral self-care and to reduce dental fears. The Finnish studies, especially the terminology of oral health was integrated to coaching with the help of interpreters. Cooperative learning was applied. Methods: Oral health was interactively discussed in four study group sessions: 1. The importance of healthy eating habits; - Good and bad diets, - Regular meals, - Acid attack o Xylitol. 2. Oral diseases − connection to general health; - Aetiology of gingivitis, periodontitis and caries, - Harmfulness of smoking 3. Tools and techniques for oral self-care; - Brushing and inter dental cleaning. 4. Sharing earlier dental care experiences; - Cultural differences, - Dental fear, - Regular check-ups. Results: During coaching deficiencies appeared in brushing and inter dental cleaning techniques. Some boys were used to wash their mouth with salt justifying it by salt’s antiseptic properties. Many brushed their teeth by vertical movements. The boys took feedback positively when a demonstration with model jaws revealed the inefficiency of the technique. The advantages of fluoride tooth paste were advised. Dental care procedures were new and frightening for many boys. Finnish dental care system was clarified. The safety and indolence of the treatments and informed consent were highlighted. Video presentations and the dialog lowered substantially the threshold to visit dental clinic. The occasion gave the students means for meeting patients from different cultural and language backgrounds. The information hidden behind the oral health problems of the asylum seekers was valuable. Conclusions: Learning dental care practices used in different cultures is essential for dental professionals. The project was a good start towards multicultural oral health care. More experiences are needed before graduation. Health education themes should be held simple regardless of the target group. The heterogeneity of the group does not pose a problem. Open discussion with questions leading to the theme works well in clarifying the target group’s knowledge level. Sharing own experiences strengthens the sense of equality among the participants and encourages them to express own opinions. Motivational interview method turned out to be successful. In the future coaching occasions must confirm active participation of everyone. This could be realized by dividing the participants to even smaller groups. The different languages impose challenges but they can be solved by using more interpreters. Their presence ensures that everyone understands the issues properly although the use of plain and sign languages are helpful. In further development, it would be crucial to arrange a rehearsal occasion to the same participants in two/three months’ time. This would strengthen the adaption of self-care practices and give the youngsters opportunity to pose more open questions. The students would gain valuable feedback regarding the effectiveness of their work.

Keywords: cooperative learning, interactive methods, motivational interviewing, oral health promotion, underage asylum seekers

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9 Prevalence of Hinglish on the Indian English News Channels and Its Impact on the New Language Learners: A Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Swatantra


Hinglish, a blended version of Hindi and English, emerged due to the lack of the competence and command of the speakers over the foreign language, i., e., English. But, amazingly, the trend has gained wide acceptance. In India, this acceptance has gone up to the extent that popular news anchors at the prime time shows are frequently using it. At the moment, instead of being considered a flaw of their presentation Hinglish is emerging as a trendy genre. Its pervasive usage and extensive acceptance is motivating youngsters to opt for the similar kind of patterns. The current study is an endeavour to assess the impact of this trend on the new language learners. With the help of semi-structured interviews, the researcher has tried to gauge the level of comfort and desire to be at par with the other fluent English speakers. The results clearly depict a substantiated boost in the confidence level of learners because they are able to use the vocabulary and sentence patterns of their own choice and convenience. The prevalence and acceptance of the trend in the main stream media have really served as a catalyst and the desire to be at par with the other fluent speakers is also fading away. The users of Hinglish find this trend to be closer to their heart as in the earlier times in the absence of exact translation they had to compromise with the meaning or spirit of the word/phrase / sentence. But now enhanced flexibility is leaving them more comfortable and confident.

Keywords: Hinglish, language learners, linguistic trends, media

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8 Impact of Adolescent Smoking on the Behaviour, Academic and Health Aspects in Qatar

Authors: Abdelsalam Gomaa, Mahjabeen Ramzan, Tooba Ali Akbar, Huma Nadeem


The use of tobacco and the health risks linked to it are well known in this day and age due to the presence of easily available information through the internet. The media is a powerful platform that is used by many anti-smoking awareness campaigns to reach their target audience; yet, it has been found that adolescents are taking up smoking every passing day. Half of this smoking population of youngsters resides in Asia alone, which includes Qatar, the focus country of this study. As smoking happens to be one of the largest avoidable causes of serious diseases like cancers and heart problems, children are taking up smoking at an alarming rate everywhere including Qatar. Importance of the health of the citizens of Qatar is one of the pillars of the Qatar vision 2030, which is to ensure a healthy population, both physically and mentally. Since the youth makes up a significant percentage of the population and in order to achieve the health objectives of the Qatar vision 2030, it is essential to ensure the health and well-being of this part of the population of the country as they are the future of Qatar. Children, especially boys who tend to be more aggressive by nature, are highly likely to develop behavioral and health issues due to smoking at an early age. Research conducted around the world has also emphasized on this association between the smokers developing a bad behaviour as well as poor social communication skills. However, due to lack of research into this association, very little is known about the extent to which smoking impacts the children’s academics, health and behaviour. Moreover, a study of this nature has not yet been conducted in Qatar previously as most of the studies focus on adult smokers and ways to minimize the number of smoking habits in universities and workplaces. This study solely focuses on identifying a relationship between smoking and its impacts on the adolescents by conducting a research on different schools across Qatar.

Keywords: adolescents, modelling techniques, Qatar, smoking

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7 Soccer, a Major Social Changing Factor: Kosovo Case

Authors: Armend Kelmendi, Adnan Ahmeti


The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of soccer in the overall wealth fare (education, health, and economic prosperity) of youth in Kosovo (age: 7-18). The research conducted measured a number of parameters (training methodologies, conditions, community leadership impact) in a sample consisting of 6 different football clubs’ academies across the country. Fifty (50) male and female football youngsters volunteered in this study. To generate more reliable results, the analysis was conducted with the help of a set of effective project management tools and techniques (Gantt chart, Logic Network, PERT chart, Work Breakdown Structure, and Budgeting Analysis). The interviewees were interviewed under a specific lens of categories (impact in education, health, and economic prosperity). A set of questions were asked i.e. what has football provided to you and the community you live in?; Did football increase your confidence and shaped your life for better?; What was the main reason you started training in football? The results generated explain how a single sport, namely that of football in Kosovo can make a huge social change, improving key social factors in a society. There was a considerable difference between the youth clubs as far as training conditions are concerned. The study found out that despite financial constraints, two out of six clubs managed to produce twice as more talented players that were introduced to professional primary league teams in Kosovo and Albania, including other soccer teams in the region, Europe, and Asia. The study indicates that better sports policy must be formulated and associated with important financial investments in soccer for it to be considered fruitful and beneficial for players of 18 plus years of age, namely professionals.

Keywords: youth, prosperity, conditions, investments, growth, free movement

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6 Tender Systems and Processes within the Mauritian Construction Industry: Investigating the Predominance of International Firms and the Lack of Absorptive Capacity in Local Firms

Authors: K. Appasamy, P. Paul


Mauritius, a developing small-island-state, is facing a recession which is having a considerable economic impact particularly on its construction sector. Further, the presence of foreign entities, both as companies and workers, within this sector is creating a very competitive environment for local firms. This study investigates the key drivers that allow foreign firms to participate in this sector, in particular looking at the international and local tender processes, and the capacity of local industry to participate. This study also looks at how the current set up may hinder the latter’s involvement. The methodology used included qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with established foreign companies, local companies, and public bodies. Study findings indicate: there is an adequate availability of professional skills and expertise within the Mauritian construction industry but a lack of skilled labour especially at the operative level; projects awarded to foreign firms are either due to their uniqueness and hence lack of local knowledge, or due to foreign firms having lower tender bids; tendering systems and processes are weak, including monitoring and enforcement, which encourages corruption and favouritism; a high level of ignorance of this sector’s characteristics and opportunities exists amongst the local population; local entities are very profit oriented and have short term strategies that discourage long term investment in workforce training and development; but most importantly, stakeholders do not grasp the importance of encouraging youngsters to join this sector, they have no long term vision, and there is a lack of mutual involvement and collaboration between them. Although local industry is highly competent, qualified and experienced, the tendering and procurement systems in Mauritius are not conducive enough to allow for effective strategic planning and an equitable allocation of projects during an economic downturn so that the broadest spread of stakeholders’ benefit. It is of utmost importance that all sector and government entities collaborate to formulate strategies and reforms on tender processes and capacity building to ensure fairness and continuous growth of this sector in Mauritius.

Keywords: construction industry, tender process, international firms, local capacity, Mauritius

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5 Generation Z: Insights into Travel Behavior

Authors: Joao Ferreira Do Rosario, Nuno Gustavo, Ana Machado, Lurdes Calisto, Luisa Carvalho, Georgette Andraz


Currently, tourism small and medium enterprises (TSMEs) face serious economic and financial problems, making recovery efforts difficult. How the pandemic will affect tourists' behavior is still to be known. Will tourists be even more cautious regarding their choices or, on the contrary, will they be more adventurers with an enormous desire to travel in search of the lost freedom? Tourists may become even more demanding when traveling, more austere, or less concerned and eager to socialize. Adjusting to this "new tourist" is an added challenge for tourism service providers. Generation Z made up of individuals born in 1995 and following years, currently tends to assume a particular role and meaning in the present and future economic and social context, considering that we are facing the youngest workforce as well as tomorrow's consumers. This generation is distinguished from others as it is the first generation to combine a high level of education and technological knowledge and to fully experience the digital world. These young people are framed by a new value system that can explain new behaviours and consumption, namely, in the context of tourism. All these considerations point to the importance of investigating this target group as it is essential to understand how these individuals perceive, understand, act, and can be involved in a new environment built around a society regulated by new priorities and challenges of a sustainable nature. This leads not only to a focus on short-term market choices but mainly to predict future choices from a longer-term perspective. Together with the social background of a person, values are considered a stable antecedent of behavior and might therefore predict not just immediate, but also future choices. Furthermore, the meaning attributed to travel has a general connotation and goes beyond a specific travel choice or experience. In other words, values and travel's meaning form a chain of influences on the present and future travel behavior. This study explores the social background and values of Generation Z travelers vs the meaning these tourists give to travel. The aim is to discover in their present behavior cues to predict travel choices so that the future of tourism can be secured. This study also provides data for predicting the tourism choices of youngsters in the more immediate future. Methodologically, a quantitative approach was adopted based on the collection of data through a survey. Since academic research on Generation Z of tourists is still scarce, it is expected to contribute to deepening scientific knowledge in this area. Furthermore, it is expected that this research will support tourism professionals in defining differentiated marketing strategies and adapted to the requirements of this target, in a new time.

Keywords: Generation Z, travel behavior, travel meaning, Generation Z Values

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4 Identifying the Effects of the Rural Demographic Changes in the Northern Netherlands: A Holistic Approach to Create Healthier Environment

Authors: A. R. Shokoohi, E. A. M. Bulder, C. Th. van Alphen, D. F. den Hertog, E. J. Hin


The Northern region of the Netherlands has beautiful landscapes, a nice diversity of green and blue areas, and dispersed settlements. However, some recent population changes can become threats to health and wellbeing in these areas. The rural areas in the three northern provinces -Groningen, Friesland, and Drenthe, see youngsters leave the region for which reason they are aging faster than other regions in the Netherlands. As a result, some villages have faced major population decline that is leading to loss of facilities/amenities and a decrease in accessibility and social cohesion. Those who still live in these villages are relatively old, low educated and have low-income. To develop a deeper understanding of the health status of the people living in these areas, and help them to improve their living environment, the GO!-Method is being applied in this study. This method has been developed by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) of the Netherlands and is inspired by the broad definition of health by Machteld Huber: the ability to adapt and direct control, in terms of the physical, emotional and social challenges of life, while paying extra attention to vulnerable groups. A healthy living environment is defined as an environment that residents find it pleasant and encourages and supports healthy behavior. The GO!-method integrates six domains that constitute a healthy living environment: health and lifestyle, facilities and development, safety and hygiene, social cohesion and active citizens, green areas, and air and noise pollution. First of all, this method will identify opportunities for a healthier living environment using existing information and perceptions of residents and other local stakeholders in order to strengthen social participation and quality of life in these rural areas. Second, this approach will connect identified opportunities with available and effective evidence-based interventions in order to develop an action plan from the residents and local authorities perspective which will help them to design their municipalities healthier and more resilient. This method is being used for the first time in rural areas to our best knowledge, in close collaboration with the residents and local authorities of the three provinces to create a sustainable process and stimulate social participation. Our paper will present the outcomes of the first phase of this project in collaboration with the municipality of Westerkwartier, located in the northwest of the province of Groningen. And will describe the current situation, and identify local assets, opportunities, and policies relating to healthier environment; as well as needs and challenges to achieve goals. The preliminary results show that rural demographic changes in the northern Netherlands have negative impacts on service provisions and social cohesion, and there is a need to understand this complicated situation and improve the quality of life in those areas.

Keywords: population decline, rural areas, healthy environment, Netherlands

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3 External Program Evaluation: Impacts and Changes on Government-Assisted Refugee Mothers

Authors: Akiko Ohta, Masahiro Minami, Yusra Qadir, Jennifer York


The Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) is a home instruction program for mothers of children 3 to 5 years old. Using role-play as a method of teaching, the participating mothers work with their home visitors and learn how to deliver the HIPPY curriculum to their children. Applying HIPPY, Reviving Hope and Home for High-risk Refugee Mothers Program (RHH) was created to provide more personalized peer support and to respond to ongoing settlement challenges for isolated and vulnerable Government Assisted Refugee (GAR) mothers. GARs often have greater needs and vulnerabilities than other refugee groups. While the support is available, they often face various challenges and barriers in starting their new lives in Canada, such as inadequate housing, low first-language literacy levels, low competency in English or French, and social isolation. The pilot project was operated by Mothers Matter Centre (MMC) from January 2019 to March 2021 in partnership with the Immigrant Services Society of BC (ISSofBC). The formative evaluation was conducted by a research team at Simon Fraser University. In order to provide more suitable support for GAR mothers, RHH intended to offer more flexibility in HIPPY delivery, supported by a home visitor, to meet the need of refugee mothers facing various conditions and challenges; to have a pool of financial resources to be used for the RHH families when necessitated during the program period; to have another designated staff member, called a community navigator, assigned to facilitate the support system for the RHH families in their settlement; to have a portable device available for each RHH mother to navigate settlement support resources; and to provide other variations of the HIPPY curriculum as an option for the RHH mothers, including a curriculum targeting pre-HIPPY age children. Reflections on each program component was collected from RHH mothers and staff members of MMC and ISSofBC, including frontline workers and management staff, through individual interviews and focus group discussions. Each of the RHH program components was analyzed and evaluated by applying Moore’s four domains framework to identify key information and generate new knowledge (data). To capture RHH mothers’ program experience more in depth based on their own reflections, the photovoice method was used. Some photos taken by the mothers will be shared to illustrate their RHH experience as part of their life stories. Over the period of the program, this evaluation observed how RHH mothers became more confident in various domains, such as communicating with others, taking public transportations alone, and teaching their own child(ren). One of the major factors behind the success was their home visitors’ flexibility and creativity to create a more meaningful and tailored approach for each mother, depending on her background and personal situation. The role of the community navigator was tested out and improved during the program period. The community navigators took the key role to assess the needs of the RHH families and connect them with community resources. Both the home visitors and community navigators were immigrant mothers themselves and owing to their dedicated care for the RHH mothers; they were able to gain trust and work closely and efficiently with RHH mothers.

Keywords: refugee mothers, settlement support, program evaluation, Canada

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2 An Anthropological Insight into Farming Practices and Cultural Life of Farmers in Sarawan Village, District Faridkot, Punjab

Authors: Amandeep Kaur


Farming is one of the most influential traditions which started around 10000 BC and has revolutionized human civilization. It is believed that farming originated at a separate location. Thus it has a great impact on local culture, which in turn gave rise to diversified farming practices. Farming activities are influenced by the culture of a particular region or community as local people have their own knowledge and belief system about soil and crops. With the inception of the Green Revolution, 'a high tech machinery model' in Punjab, various traditional farming methods and techniques changed. The present research concentrates on the local knowledge of farmers and local farming systems from an anthropological perspective. In view of the prevailing agrarian crisis in Punjab, this research is focused on farmer’s experiences and their perception regarding farming practices. Thus an attempt has to be made to focus on the local knowledge, perception, and experience of farmers for eco-friendly and sustainable agricultural development. Farmers voices are used to understand the relationship between farming practices and socio-cultural life of farmers in Faridkot district, Punjab. The research aims to comprehend the nature of changes taking place in the socio-cultural life of people with the development of capitalism and agricultural modernization. The study is based on qualitative methods of ethnography in Sarawan village of Faridkot District. Inferences drawn from in-depth case studies collected from 60 agricultural households lead to the concept of the process of diffusion, innovation, and adoption of farming technology, a variety of crops and the dissemination of agricultural skills regarding various cultural farming practices. The data is based on random sampling; the respondents were both males and females above the age of 18 years to attain a holistic understanding across the generations. A Quasi-participant observation related to lifestyle, the standard of living, and various farming practices performed by them were done. Narratives derived from the fieldwork depicts that farmers usually oppose the restrictions imposed by the government on certain farming practices, especially ban on stubble burning. This paper presents the narratives of farmers regarding the dissemination of awareness about the use of new varieties of seeds, technology, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The study reveals that farming systems have developed in ways reflecting the activities and choices of farmers influenced by environmental, socio-cultural, economic, and political situations. Modern farming practices have forced small farmers into debt as farmers feel pride in buying new machinery. It has also led to the loss of work culture and excessive use of drugs among youngsters. Even laborers did not want to work on the land with cultivating farmers primarily for social and political reasons. Due to lack of proper marketing of crops, there is a continuum of the wheat-rice cycle instead of crop diversification in Punjab. Change in the farming system also affects the social structure of society. Agricultural modernization has commercialized the socio-cultural relations in Punjab and is slowly urbanizing the rural landscape revolutionizing the traditional social relations to capitalistic relations.

Keywords: agricultural modernization, capitalism, farming practices, narratives

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1 Obesity and Lifestyle of Students in Roumanian Southeastern Region

Authors: Mariana Stuparu-Cretu, Doina-Carina Voinescu, Rodica-Mihaela Dinica, Daniela Borda, Camelia Vizireanu, Gabriela Iordachescu, Camelia Busila


Obesity is involved in the etiology or acceleration of progression of important non-communicable diseases, such as: metabolic, cardiovascular, rheumatological, oncological and depression. It is a need to prevent the obesity occurrence, like a key link in disease management. From this point of view, the best approach is to early educate youngsters upon the need for a healthy nutrition lifestyle associated with constant physical activities. The objective of the study was to assess correlations between weight condition, physical activities and food preferences of students from South East Romania. Questionnaires were applied on high school students in Galati: 1006 girls and 880 boys, aged between 14 and 19 years (being approved by Local School Inspectorate and the Ethics Committee of the 'Dunarea de Jos' University of Galati). The collected answers have been statistically processed by using the multivariate regression method (PLS2) by Unscramble X program (Camo, Norway). Multiple variables such as age group, body mass index, nutritional habits and physical activities were separately analysed, depending on gender and general mathematical models were proposed to explain the obesity trend at an early age. The study results show that overweight and obesity are present in less than a fifth of the adolescents who were surveyed. With a very small variation and a strong correlation of over 86% for 99% of the cases, a general preference for sweet foods, nocturnal eating associated with computer work and a reduced period of physical activity is noticed for girls. In addition, the overweight girls consume sweet juices and alcohol, although a percentage of them also practice the gym. There is also a percentage of the normoponderal girls that consume high caloric foods which predispose this group to turn into overweight cases in time. Within the studied group, statistics for the boys show a positive correlation of almost 87% for over 96% of cases. They prefer high calories foods, fast food, and sweet juices, and perform medium physical activities. Both overweight and underweight boys are more sedentary. Over 15% of girls and over a quarter of boys consume alcohol. All these bad eating habits seem to increase with age, for both sexes. To conclude, obesity and overweight assessed in adolescents in S-E Romania reveal nonsignificant percentage differences between boys and girls. However, young people in this area of the country are sedentary in general; a significant percentage prefers sweets / sweet juices / fast-food and practice computer nourishing. The authors consider that at this age, it is very useful to adapt nutritional education by new methods of food processing and market supply. This would require an early understanding of the difference among foods and nutrients and the benefits of physical activities integrated into the healthy current lifestyle, as a measure for preventing and managing non-communicable chronic diseases related to nutritional errors and sedentarism. Acknowledgment— This study has been partial founded by the Francophone University Agency, Project Réseau régional dans le domaine de la santé, la nutrition et la sécurité alimentaire (SaIN), no.21899/ 06.09.2017.

Keywords: adolescents, body mass index, nutritional habits, obesity, physical activity

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