Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 219

Search results for: specification

219 Implementing a Database from a Requirement Specification

Authors: M. Omer, D. Wilson


Creating a database scheme is essentially a manual process. From a requirement specification, the information contained within has to be analyzed and reduced into a set of tables, attributes and relationships. This is a time-consuming process that has to go through several stages before an acceptable database schema is achieved. The purpose of this paper is to implement a Natural Language Processing (NLP) based tool to produce a from a requirement specification. The Stanford CoreNLP version 3.3.1 and the Java programming were used to implement the proposed model. The outcome of this study indicates that the first draft of a relational database schema can be extracted from a requirement specification by using NLP tools and techniques with minimum user intervention. Therefore, this method is a step forward in finding a solution that requires little or no user intervention.

Keywords: information extraction, natural language processing, relation extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
218 An Encapsulation of a Navigable Tree Position: Theory, Specification, and Verification

Authors: Nicodemus M. J. Mbwambo, Yu-Shan Sun, Murali Sitaraman, Joan Krone


This paper presents a generic data abstraction that captures a navigable tree position. The mathematical modeling of the abstraction encapsulates the current tree position, which can be used to navigate and modify the tree. The encapsulation of the tree position in the data abstraction specification avoids the use of explicit references and aliasing, thereby simplifying verification of (imperative) client code that uses the data abstraction. To ease the tasks of such specification and verification, a general tree theory, rich with mathematical notations and results, has been developed. The paper contains an example to illustrate automated verification ramifications. With sufficient tree theory development, automated proving seems plausible even in the absence of a special-purpose tree solver.

Keywords: automation, data abstraction, maps, specification, tree, verification

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
217 Nonparametric Specification Testing for the Drift of the Short Rate Diffusion Process Using a Panel of Yields

Authors: John Knight, Fuchun Li, Yan Xu


Based on a new method of the nonparametric estimator of the drift function, we propose a consistent test for the parametric specification of the drift function in the short rate diffusion process using observations from a panel of yields. The test statistic is shown to follow an asymptotic normal distribution under the null hypothesis that the parametric drift function is correctly specified, and converges to infinity under the alternative. Taking the daily 7-day European rates as a proxy of the short rate, we use our test to examine whether the drift of the short rate diffusion process is linear or nonlinear, which is an unresolved important issue in the short rate modeling literature. The testing results indicate that none of the drift functions in this literature adequately captures the dynamics of the drift, but nonlinear specification performs better than the linear specification.

Keywords: diffusion process, nonparametric estimation, derivative security price, drift function and volatility function

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
216 GRCNN: Graph Recognition Convolutional Neural Network for Synthesizing Programs from Flow Charts

Authors: Lin Cheng, Zijiang Yang


Program synthesis is the task to automatically generate programs based on user specification. In this paper, we present a framework that synthesizes programs from flow charts that serve as accurate and intuitive specification. In order doing so, we propose a deep neural network called GRCNN that recognizes graph structure from its image. GRCNN is trained end-to-end, which can predict edge and node information of the flow chart simultaneously. Experiments show that the accuracy rate to synthesize a program is 66.4%, and the accuracy rates to recognize edge and node are 94.1% and 67.9%, respectively. On average, it takes about 60 milliseconds to synthesize a program.

Keywords: program synthesis, flow chart, specification, graph recognition, CNN

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215 [Keynote Talk]: Formal Specification and Description Language and Message Sequence Chart to Model and Validate Session Initiation Protocol Services

Authors: Sa’ed Abed, Mohammad H. Al Shayeji, Ovais Ahmed, Sahel Alouneh


Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling layer protocol for building, adjusting and ending sessions among participants including Internet conferences, telephone calls and multimedia distribution. SIP facilitates user movement by proxying and forwarding requests to the present location of the user. In this paper, we provide a formal Specification and Description Language (SDL) and Message Sequence Chart (MSC) to model and define the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) SIP protocol and its sample services resulted from informal SIP specification. We create an “Abstract User Interface” using case analysis so that can be applied to identify SIP services more explicitly. The issued sample SIP features are then used as case scenarios; they are revised in MSCs format and validated to their corresponding SDL models.

Keywords: modeling, MSC, SDL, SIP, validating

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
214 A Comprehensive Procedure of Spatial Panel Modelling with R, A Study of Agricultural Productivity Growth of the 38 East Java’s Regencies/Municipalities

Authors: Rahma Fitriani, Zerlita Fahdha Pusdiktasari, Herman Cahyo Diartho


Spatial panel model is commonly used to specify more complicated behavior of economic agent distributed in space at an individual-spatial unit level. There are several spatial panel models which can be adapted based on certain assumptions. A package called splm in R has several functions, ranging from the estimation procedure, specification tests, and model selection tests. In the absence of prior assumptions, a comprehensive procedure which utilizes the available functions in splm must be formed, which is the objective of this study. In this way, the best specification and model can be fitted based on data. The implementation of the procedure works well. It specifies SARAR-FE as the best model for agricultural productivity growth of the 38 East Java’s Regencies/Municipalities.

Keywords: spatial panel, specification, splm, agricultural productivity growth

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213 Survey to Assess the Feasibility of Executing the Web-Based Collaboration Process Using WBCS

Authors: Mohamed A. Sullabi


The importance of the formal specification in the software life cycle is barely concealing to anyone. Formal specifications use mathematical notation to describe the properties of information system precisely, without unduly constraining the way in how these properties are achieved. Having a correct and quality software specification is not easy task. This study concerns with how a group of rectifiers can communicate with each other and work to prepare and produce a correct formal software specification. WBCS has been implemented based mainly in the proposed supported cooperative work model and a survey conducted on the existing Webbased collaborative writing tools. This paper aims to assess the feasibility of executing the web-based collaboration process using WBCS. The purpose of conducting this test is to test the system as a whole for functionality and fitness for use based on the evaluation test plan.

Keywords: formal methods, formal specifications, collaborative writing, usability testing

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212 Formal Specification of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Services of Library Information System

Authors: Magaji Zainab Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily Aida Jusoh


This paper discusses the formal specification of web services applications for digital reference services (WSDRS). Digital reference service involves a user requesting for help from a reference librarian and a reference librarian responding to the request of a user all by electronic means. In most cases users do not get satisfied while using digital reference service due to delay of response of the librarians. Another may be due to no response or due to librarian giving an irrelevant solution to the problem submitted by the user. WDSRS is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient way of satisfying users’ need in the reference section of libraries. But informal model is in natural language which is inconsistent and ambiguous that may cause difficulties to the developers of the system. In order to solve this problem we decided to convert the informal specifications into formal specifications. This is supposed to reduce the overall development time and cost. Formal specification can be used to provide an unambiguous and precise supplement to natural language descriptions. It can be rigorously validated and verified leading to the early detection of specification errors. We use Z language to develop the formal model and verify it with Z/EVES theorem prover tool.

Keywords: formal, specifications, web services, digital reference services

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
211 Modeling and Analyzing the WAP Class 2 Wireless Transaction Protocol Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi


This paper presents an incremental formal development of the Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) in Event-B. WTP is part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) architectures and provides a reliable request-response service. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps. As result, verification of WTP allows us to find some deficiencies in the current specification.

Keywords: event-B, wireless transaction protocol, proof obligation, refinement, Rodin, ProB

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
210 VeriFy: A Solution to Implement Autonomy Safely and According to the Rules

Authors: Michael Naderhirn, Marco Pavone


Problem statement, motivation, and aim of work: So far, the development of control algorithms was done by control engineers in a way that the controller would fit a specification by testing. When it comes to the certification of an autonomous car in highly complex scenarios, the challenge is much higher since such a controller must mathematically guarantee to implement the rules of the road while on the other side guarantee aspects like safety and real time executability. What if it becomes reality to solve this demanding problem by combining Formal Verification and System Theory? The aim of this work is to present a workflow to solve the above mentioned problem. Summary of the presented results / main outcomes: We show the usage of an English like language to transform the rules of the road into system specification for an autonomous car. The language based specifications are used to define system functions and interfaces. Based on that a formal model is developed which formally correctly models the specifications. On the other side, a mathematical model describing the systems dynamics is used to calculate the systems reachability set which is further used to determine the system input boundaries. Then a motion planning algorithm is applied inside the system boundaries to find an optimized trajectory in combination with the formal specification model while satisfying the specifications. The result is a control strategy which can be applied in real time independent of the scenario with a mathematical guarantee to satisfy a predefined specification. We demonstrate the applicability of the method in simulation driving scenarios and a potential certification. Originality, significance, and benefit: To the authors’ best knowledge, it is the first time that it is possible to show an automated workflow which combines a specification in an English like language and a mathematical model in a mathematical formal verified way to synthesizes a controller for potential real time applications like autonomous driving.

Keywords: formal system verification, reachability, real time controller, hybrid system

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
209 Functional and Stimuli Implementation and Verification of Programmable Peripheral Interface (PPI) Protocol

Authors: N. N. Joshi, G. K. Singh


We present the stimuli implementation and verification of a Programmable Peripheral Interface (PPI) 8255. It involves a designing and verification of configurable intellectual property (IP) module of PPI protocol using Verilog HDL for implementation part and System Verilog for verification. The overview of the PPI-8255 presented then the design specification implemented for the work following the functional description and pin configuration of PPI-8255. The coverage report of design shows that our design and verification environment covered 100% functionality in accordance with the design specification generated by the Questa Sim 10.0b.

Keywords: Programmable Peripheral Interface (PPI), verilog HDL, system verilog, questa sim

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
208 Bayesian Analysis of Change Point Problems Using Conditionally Specified Priors

Authors: Golnaz Shahtahmassebi, Jose Maria Sarabia


In this talk, we introduce a new class of conjugate prior distributions obtained from conditional specification methodology. We illustrate the application of such distribution in Bayesian change point detection in Poisson processes. We obtain the posterior distribution of model parameters using a general bivariate distribution with gamma conditionals. Simulation from the posterior is readily implemented using a Gibbs sampling algorithm. The Gibbs sampling is implemented even when using conditional densities that are incompatible or only compatible with an improper joint density. The application of such methods will be demonstrated using examples of simulated and real data.

Keywords: change point, bayesian inference, Gibbs sampler, conditional specification, gamma conditional distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
207 An Incremental Refinement Approach to a Development of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi


This paper presents an incremental development of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) in Event-B. DHCP is widely used communication protocol, which provides a standard mechanism to obtain configuration parameters. The specification is performed in a stepwise manner and verified through a series of refinements. The Event-B formal method uses the Rodin platform to modeling and verifying some properties of the protocol such as safety, liveness and deadlock freedom. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps.

Keywords: DHCP protocol, Event-B, refinement, proof obligation, Rodin

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
206 A Study of Different Factors Influencing Youngsters’ Mobile Device Buying Behaviors in Malaysia

Authors: Z. S. Yip, T. K. Tan, C. C. Geh, T. T. Ting


The mobile phone is an indispensable device in today’s daily living. The arising new brands in the market with different specification are targeting at the different population. The most promising market would be the younger generation who are IT savvy. Therefore, it is beneficial to find out their factors of consideration in purchasing a mobile phone. A survey is carried out in Malaysia to discover the current youngster’s mobile phone buying behavior. This study has found that the most influencing factor of consideration is Price, followed by Feature, and Battery Lifespan. Gender and Income have no relationship with certain factors of consideration. It is important to discover the factors of consideration in order to provide industry insight into the current trend of smartphone in Malaysia.

Keywords: buying behavior, smart phone, mobile brand, mobile operating system, specification, battery lifespan

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
205 Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption and Organizational Structure

Authors: George Nyori Makari


Data on 92 industrial organizations point to the existence of relationships between advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) adoption and some aspects of organizational structure, including the number of specialized sub-units, the number of levels of authority, span of control, degree of role programming specification, degree of communication programming specification and the degree of output programming. Primary finding is that as the investments and integration of AMTs increases, the more likely the foregoing aspects of structure increase. The findings hold with size and a number of other organizational variables controlled. The results indicate that a company’s capacity to assimilate technology depends on its organizational capabilities. The study encapsulates the need for companies to increase their organizational capabilities during investment and integration of AMTs.

Keywords: advanced manufacturing technology, adoption, organizational structure, Kenya

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
204 Stealth Laser Dicing Process Improvement via Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

Authors: Pongchanun Luangpaiboon, Wanwisa Sarasang


In this paper, a performance of shuffled frog leaping algorithm was investigated on the stealth laser dicing process. Effect of problem on the performance of the algorithm was based on the tolerance of meandering data. From the customer specification it could be less than five microns with the target of zero microns. Currently, the meandering levels are unsatisfactory when compared to the customer specification. Firstly, the two-level factorial design was applied to preliminary study the statistically significant effects of five process variables. In this study one influential process variable is integer. From the experimental results, the new operating condition from the algorithm was superior when compared to the current manufacturing condition.

Keywords: stealth laser dicing process, meandering, meta-heuristics, shuffled frog leaping algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
203 A Study on Fire Safety Standards through Case Study of Performance Based Design

Authors: Kyung Hoon Park, Hyung Jun Kim, Jong Wook Song


Super-tall building, large-scale and multi-purpose underground spaces reflect changes in construction trend. As current laws and codes such as Fire Services Act and construction codes are not enough to secure the fire safety of those structures and spaces, it is required to provide systemic supplement for performance-based design to establish or revise laws and technical standards to cope with the changes flexibly. In this study, the performance-based design standards of structures designed in Korea are compared with specification based design standards in an attempt to find the ways to establish fire safety standards for structures in Korea.

Keywords: performance based design, specification based design, fire safety design, life safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
202 Weibull Cumulative Distribution Function Analysis with Life Expectancy Endurance Test Result of Power Window Switch

Authors: Miky Lee, K. Kim, D. Lim, D. Cho


This paper presents the planning, rationale for test specification derivation, sampling requirements, test facilities, and result analysis used to conduct lifetime expectancy endurance tests on power window switches (PWS) considering thermally induced mechanical stress under diurnal cyclic temperatures during normal operation (power cycling). The detail process of analysis and test results on the selected PWS set were discussed in this paper. A statistical approach to ‘life time expectancy’ was given to the measurement standards dealing with PWS lifetime determination through endurance tests. The approach choice, within the framework of the task, was explained. The present task was dedicated to voltage drop measurement to derive lifetime expectancy while others mostly consider contact or surface resistance. The measurements to perform and the main instruments to measure were fully described accordingly. The failure data from tests were analyzed to conclude lifetime expectancy through statistical method using Weibull cumulative distribution function. The first goal of this task is to develop realistic worst case lifetime endurance test specification because existing large number of switch test standards cannot induce degradation mechanism which makes the switches less reliable. 2nd goal is to assess quantitative reliability status of PWS currently manufactured based on test specification newly developed thru this project. The last and most important goal is to satisfy customer’ requirement regarding product reliability.

Keywords: power window switch, endurance test, Weibull function, reliability, degradation mechanism

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201 Analog Input Output Buffer Information Specification Modelling Techniques for Single Ended Inter-Integrated Circuit and Differential Low Voltage Differential Signaling I/O Interfaces

Authors: Monika Rawat, Rahul Kumar


Input output Buffer Information Specification (IBIS) models are used for describing the analog behavior of the Input Output (I/O) buffers of a digital device. They are widely used to perform signal integrity analysis. Advantages of using IBIS models include simple structure, IP protection and fast simulation time with reasonable accuracy. As design complexity of driver and receiver increases, capturing exact behavior from transistor level model into IBIS model becomes an essential task to achieve better accuracy. In this paper, an improvement in existing methodology of generating IBIS model for complex I/O interfaces such as Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) is proposed. Furthermore, the accuracy and computational performance of standard method and proposed approach with respect to SPICE are presented. The investigations will be useful to further improve the accuracy of IBIS models and to enhance their wider acceptance.

Keywords: IBIS, signal integrity, open-drain buffer, low voltage differential signaling, behavior modelling, transient simulation

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200 Improvement of Water Distillation Plant by Using Statistical Process Control System

Authors: Qasim Kriri, Harsh B. Desai


Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is portrayed by difficulties and accomplishments. One of the fundamental difficulties is water shortage. With a specific end goal to beat water shortage, significant ventures have been attempted in sea water desalination, water circulation, sewerage, and wastewater treatment. The motivation behind Statistical Process Control (SPC) is to decide whether the execution of a procedure is keeping up an acceptable quality level [AQL]. SPC is an analytical decision-making method. A fundamental apparatus in the SPC is the Control Charts, which follow the inconstancy in the estimations of the item quality attributes. By utilizing the suitable outline, administration can decide whether changes should be made with a specific end goal to keep the procedure in charge. The two most important quality factors in the distilled water which were taken into consideration were pH (Potential of Hydrogen) and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). There were three stages at which the quality checks were done. The stages were as follows: (1) Water at the source, (2) water after chemical treatment & (3) water which is sent for packing. The upper specification limit, central limit and lower specification limit are taken as per Saudi water standards. The procedure capacity to accomplish the particulars set for the quality attributes of Berain water Factory chose to be focused by the proposed SPC system.

Keywords: acceptable quality level, statistical quality control, control charts, process charts

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199 Cloud Support for Scientific Workflow Execution: Prototyping Solutions for Remote Sensing Applications

Authors: Sofiane Bendoukha, Daniel Moldt, Hayat Bendoukha


Workflow concepts are essential for the development of remote sensing applications. They can help users to manage and process satellite data and execute scientific experiments on distributed resources. The objective of this paper is to introduce an approach for the specification and the execution of complex scientific workflows in Cloud-like environments. The approach strives to support scientists during the modeling, the deployment and the monitoring of their workflows. This work takes advantage from Petri nets and more pointedly the so-called reference nets formalism, which provides a robust modeling/implementation technique. RENEWGRASS is a tool that we implemented and integrated into the Petri nets editor and simulator RENEW. It provides an easy way to support not experienced scientists during the specification of their workflows. It allows both modeling and enactment of image processing workflows from the remote sensing domain. Our case study is related to the implementation of vegetation indecies. We have implemented the Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) workflow. Additionally, we explore the integration possibilities of the Cloud technology as a supplementary layer for the deployment of the current implementation. For this purpose, we discuss migration patterns of data and applications and propose an architecture.

Keywords: cloud computing, scientific workflows, petri nets, RENEWGRASS

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198 Experimental Investigation for the Overtopping Wave Force of the Vertical Breakwater

Authors: Jin Song Gui, Han Li, Rui Jin Zhang, Heng Jiang Cai


There is a large deviation between the measured wave power at the vertical breast wall and the calculated one according to current specification in the case of overtopping. In order to investigate the reasons for the deviation, the wave forces of vertical breast wall under overtopping conditions have been measured through physical model experiment and compared with the calculated results. The effect of water depth, period and the wave height on the wave forces of the vertical breast wall have been also investigated. The distribution of wave pressure under different wave actions was tested based on the force sensor which is installed in the vertical breakwater. By comparing and analyzing the measured values and norms calculated values, the applicability of the existing norms recommended method were discussed and a reference for the design of vertical breakwater was provided. Experiment results show that with the decrease of the water depth, the gap is growing between the actual wave forces and the specification values, and there are no obvious regulations between these two values with the variation of period while wave force greatly reduces with the overtopping reducing. The amount of water depth and wave overtopping has a significant impact on the wave force of overtopping section while the period has no obvious influence on the wave force. Finally, some favorable recommendations for the overtopping wave force design of the vertical breakwater according to the model experiment results are provided.

Keywords: overtopping wave, physical model experiment, vertical breakwater, wave forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
197 Specification Requirements for a Combined Dehumidifier/Cooling Panel: A Global Scale Analysis

Authors: Damien Gondre, Hatem Ben Maad, Abdelkrim Trabelsi, Frédéric Kuznik, Joseph Virgone


The use of a radiant cooling solution would enable to lower cooling needs which is of great interest when the demand is initially high (hot climate). But, radiant systems are not naturally compatibles with humid climates since a low-temperature surface leads to condensation risks as soon as the surface temperature is close to or lower than the dew point temperature. A radiant cooling system combined to a dehumidification system would enable to remove humidity for the space, thereby lowering the dew point temperature. The humidity removal needs to be especially effective near the cooled surface. This requirement could be fulfilled by a system using a single desiccant fluid for the removal of both excessive heat and moisture. This task aims at providing an estimation of the specification requirements of such system in terms of cooling power and dehumidification rate required to fulfill comfort issues and to prevent any condensation risk on the cool panel surface. The present paper develops a preliminary study on the specification requirements, performances and behavior of a combined dehumidifier/cooling ceiling panel for different operating conditions. This study has been carried using the TRNSYS software which allows nodal calculations of thermal systems. It consists of the dynamic modeling of heat and vapor balances of a 5m x 3m x 2.7m office space. In a first design estimation, this room is equipped with an ideal heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification system so that the room temperature is always maintained in between 21C and 25C with a relative humidity in between 40% and 60%. The room is also equipped with a ventilation system that includes a heat recovery heat exchanger and another heat exchanger connected to a heat sink. Main results show that the system should be designed to meet a cooling power of 42W.m−2 and a desiccant rate of 45 gH2O.h−1. In a second time, a parametric study of comfort issues and system performances has been achieved on a more realistic system (that includes a chilled ceiling) under different operating conditions. It enables an estimation of an acceptable range of operating conditions. This preliminary study is intended to provide useful information for the system design.

Keywords: dehumidification, nodal calculation, radiant cooling panel, system sizing

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196 A Process of Forming a Single Competitive Factor in the Digital Camera Industry

Authors: Kiyohiro Yamazaki


This paper considers a forming process of a single competitive factor in the digital camera industry from the viewpoint of product platform. To make product development easier for companies and to increase product introduction ratios, development efforts concentrate on improving and strengthening certain product attributes, and it is born in the process that the product platform is formed continuously. It is pointed out that the formation of this product platform raises product development efficiency of individual companies, but on the other hand, it has a trade-off relationship of causing unification of competitive factors in the whole industry. This research tries to analyze product specification data which were collected from the web page of digital camera companies. Specifically, this research collected all product specification data released in Japan from 1995 to 2003 and analyzed the composition of image sensor and optical lens; and it identified product platforms shared by multiple products and discussed their application. As a result, this research found that the product platformation was born in the development of the standard product for major market segmentation. Every major company has made product platforms of image sensors and optical lenses, and as a result, this research found that the competitive factors were unified in the entire industry throughout product platformation. In other words, this product platformation brought product development efficiency of individual firms; however, it also caused industrial competition factors to be unified in the industry.

Keywords: digital camera industry, product evolution trajectory, product platform, unification of competitive factors

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195 The Security Trade-Offs in Resource Constrained Nodes for IoT Application

Authors: Sultan Alharby, Nick Harris, Alex Weddell, Jeff Reeve


The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) has received much attention over the last five years. It is predicted that the IoT will influence every aspect of our lifestyles in the near future. Wireless Sensor Networks are one of the key enablers of the operation of IoTs, allowing data to be collected from the surrounding environment. However, due to limited resources, nature of deployment and unattended operation, a WSN is vulnerable to various types of attack. Security is paramount for reliable and safe communication between IoT embedded devices, but it does, however, come at a cost to resources. Nodes are usually equipped with small batteries, which makes energy conservation crucial to IoT devices. Nevertheless, security cost in terms of energy consumption has not been studied sufficiently. Previous research has used a security specification of 802.15.4 for IoT applications, but the energy cost of each security level and the impact on quality of services (QoS) parameters remain unknown. This research focuses on the cost of security at the IoT media access control (MAC) layer. It begins by studying the energy consumption of IEEE 802.15.4 security levels, which is followed by an evaluation for the impact of security on data latency and throughput, and then presents the impact of transmission power on security overhead, and finally shows the effects of security on memory footprint. The results show that security overhead in terms of energy consumption with a payload of 24 bytes fluctuates between 31.5% at minimum level over non-secure packets and 60.4% at the top security level of 802.15.4 security specification. Also, it shows that security cost has less impact at longer packet lengths, and more with smaller packet size. In addition, the results depicts a significant impact on data latency and throughput. Overall, maximum authentication length decreases throughput by almost 53%, and encryption and authentication together by almost 62%.

Keywords: energy consumption, IEEE 802.15.4, IoT security, security cost evaluation

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194 Service Interactions Coordination Using a Declarative Approach: Focuses on Deontic Rule from Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules Models

Authors: Nurulhuda A. Manaf, Nor Najihah Zainal Abidin, Nur Amalina Jamaludin


Coordinating service interactions are a vital part of developing distributed applications that are built up as networks of autonomous participants, e.g., software components, web services, online resources, involve a collaboration between a diverse number of participant services on different providers. The complexity in coordinating service interactions reflects how important the techniques and approaches require for designing and coordinating the interaction between participant services to ensure the overall goal of a collaboration between participant services is achieved. The objective of this research is to develop capability of steering a complex service interaction towards a desired outcome. Therefore, an efficient technique for modelling, generating, and verifying the coordination of service interactions is developed. The developed model describes service interactions using service choreographies approach and focusing on a declarative approach, advocating an Object Management Group (OMG) standard, Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules (SBVR). This model, namely, SBVR model for service choreographies focuses on a declarative deontic rule expressing both obligation and prohibition, which can be more useful in working with coordinating service interactions. The generated SBVR model is then be formulated and be transformed into Alloy model using Alloy Analyzer for verifying the generated SBVR model. The transformation of SBVR into Alloy allows to automatically generate the corresponding coordination of service interactions (service choreography), hence producing an immediate instance of execution that satisfies the constraints of the specification and verifies whether a specific request can be realised in the given choreography in the generated choreography.

Keywords: service choreography, service coordination, behavioural modelling, complex interactions, declarative specification, verification, model transformation, semantics of business vocabulary and rules, SBVR

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193 Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Some Injectable Gentamicin Generics Used in Veterinary Practice in Nigeria

Authors: F. A. Gberindyer, M. O.Abatan, A. B. Saba


Background: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative aerobic bacteria organisms in human and animals. In Nigeria, there are arrays of multisource generic versions of injectable gentamicin sulphate in the drug markets. There is a high prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs in the third world countries with consequent effect on their therapeutic efficacy and safety. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate pharmaceutical equivalence of some of these generics used in veterinary practice in Nigeria. Methodology: About 20 generics of injectable gentamicin sulphate were sampled randomly across Nigeria but 15 were analyzed for identity and potency. Identity test was done using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy and the spectral for each product compared with that of the USP reference standard for similarity. Microbiological assay using agar diffusion method with E. coli as a test organism on nutrient agar was employed and the respective diameters of bacterial inhibition zones obtained after 24 hour incubation at 37°C. The percent potency for each product was thereafter calculated and compared with the official specification. Result And Discussion: None of the generics is produced in any African country. About 75 % of the products are imported from China whereas 60 % of the veterinary generics are manufactured in Holland. Absorption spectra for the reference and test samples were similar. Percent potencies of all test products were within the official specification of 95-115 %. Nigeria relies solely on imported injectable gentamicin sulphate products. All sampled generic versions passed both identity and potency tests. Clinicians should ensure that drugs are used rationally since the converse could be contributing to the therapeutic failures reported for most of these generics. Bioequivalence study is recommended to ascertain their interchangeability when parenteral extra venous routes are indicated.

Keywords: generics, gentamicin, identity, multisource, potency

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192 The Impact of Model Specification Decisions on the Teacher ValuE-added Effectiveness: Choosing the Correct Predictors

Authors: Ismail Aslantas


Value-Added Models (VAMs), the statistical methods for evaluating the effectiveness of teachers and schools based on student achievement growth, has attracted decision-makers’ and researchers’ attention over the last decades. As a result of this attention, many studies have conducted in recent years to discuss these statistical models from different aspects. This research focused on the importance of conceptual variables in VAM estimations; therefor, this research was undertaken to examine the extent to which value-added effectiveness estimates for teachers can be affected by using context predictions. Using longitudinal data over three years from the international school context, value-added teacher effectiveness was estimated by ordinary least-square value-added models, and the effectiveness of the teachers was examined. The longitudinal dataset in this study consisted of three major sources: students’ attainment scores up to three years and their characteristics, teacher background information, and school characteristics. A total of 1,027 teachers and their 35,355 students who were in eighth grade were examined for understanding the impact of model specifications on the value-added teacher effectiveness evaluation. Models were created using selection methods that adding a predictor on each step, then removing it and adding another one on a subsequent step and evaluating changes in model fit was checked by reviewing changes in R² values. Cohen’s effect size statistics were also employed in order to find out the degree of the relationship between teacher characteristics and their effectiveness. Overall, the results indicated that prior attainment score is the most powerful predictor of the current attainment score. 47.1 percent of the variation in grade 8 math score can be explained by the prior attainment score in grade 7. The research findings raise issues to be considered in VAM implementations for teacher evaluations and make suggestions to researchers and practitioners.

Keywords: model specification, teacher effectiveness, teacher performance evaluation, value-added model

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191 Effect of Cement Amount on California Bearing Ratio Values of Different Soil

Authors: Ayse Pekrioglu Balkis, Sawash Mecid


Due to continued growth and rapid development of road construction in worldwide, road sub-layers consist of soil layers, therefore, identification and recognition of type of soil and soil behavior in different condition help to us to select soil according to specification and engineering characteristic, also if necessary sometimes stabilize the soil and treat undesirable properties of soils by adding materials such as bitumen, lime, cement, etc. If the soil beneath the road is not done according to the standards and construction will need more construction time. In this case, a large part of soil should be removed, transported and sometimes deposited. Then purchased sand and gravel is transported to the site and full depth filled and compacted. Stabilization by cement or other treats gives an opportunity to use the existing soil as a base material instead of removing it and purchasing and transporting better fill materials. Classification of soil according to AASHTOO system and USCS help engineers to anticipate soil behavior and select best treatment method. In this study soil classification and the relation between soil classification and stabilization method is discussed, cement stabilization with different percentages have been selected for soil treatment based on NCHRP. There are different parameters to define the strength of soil. In this study, CBR will be used to define the strength of soil. Cement by percentages, 0%, 3%, 7% and 10% added to soil for evaluation effect of added cement to CBR of treated soil. Implementation of stabilization process by different cement content help engineers to select an economic cement amount for the stabilization process according to project specification and characteristics. Stabilization process in optimum moisture content (OMC) and mixing rate effect on the strength of soil in the laboratory and field construction operation have been performed to see the improvement rate in strength and plasticity. Cement stabilization is quicker than a universal method such as removing and changing field soils. Cement addition increases CBR values of different soil types by the range of 22-69%.

Keywords: California Bearing Ratio, cement stabilization, clayey soil, mechanical properties

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190 A Temporal QoS Ontology For ERTMS/ETCS

Authors: Marc Sango, Olimpia Hoinaru, Christophe Gransart, Laurence Duchien


Ontologies offer a means for representing and sharing information in many domains, particularly in complex domains. For example, it can be used for representing and sharing information of System Requirement Specification (SRS) of complex systems like the SRS of ERTMS/ETCS written in natural language. Since this system is a real-time and critical system, generic ontologies, such as OWL and generic ERTMS ontologies provide minimal support for modeling temporal information omnipresent in these SRS documents. To support the modeling of temporal information, one of the challenges is to enable representation of dynamic features evolving in time within a generic ontology with a minimal redesign of it. The separation of temporal information from other information can help to predict system runtime operation and to properly design and implement them. In addition, it is helpful to provide a reasoning and querying techniques to reason and query temporal information represented in the ontology in order to detect potential temporal inconsistencies. Indeed, a user operation, such as adding a new constraint on existing planning constraints can cause temporal inconsistencies, which can lead to system failures. To address this challenge, we propose a lightweight 3-layer temporal Quality of Service (QoS) ontology for representing, reasoning and querying over temporal and non-temporal information in a complex domain ontology. Representing QoS entities in separated layers can clarify the distinction between the non QoS entities and the QoS entities in an ontology. The upper generic layer of the proposed ontology provides an intuitive knowledge of domain components, specially ERTMS/ETCS components. The separation of the intermediate QoS layer from the lower QoS layer allows us to focus on specific QoS Characteristics, such as temporal or integrity characteristics. In this paper, we focus on temporal information that can be used to predict system runtime operation. To evaluate our approach, an example of the proposed domain ontology for handover operation, as well as a reasoning rule over temporal relations in this domain-specific ontology, are given.

Keywords: system requirement specification, ERTMS/ETCS, temporal ontologies, domain ontologies

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