Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5444

Search results for: personal theories of practice

5444 Bangladeshi English Teachers’ Understanding of Teacher Autonomy

Authors: Rubaiyat Jahan

Abstract:

This paper reports some findings of a study on the issues related to teacher autonomy in the Bangladeshi school contexts, and data of this research was collected from fourteen practicing English teachers of Bangladesh through semi structured interviews. The theoretical underpinning of teacher autonomy, on an apparent note, focuses on the behavioral aspects of teacher autonomy hence emphasizing mostly on the teachers’ capacity for self-directed acts of teaching and self-directed acts of professional development. Yet, a contemporary literature survey of teacher autonomy seems to be concerned more on the political interpretations of teacher autonomy. Thus, autonomous teachers are expected to generate their personal theories of teaching from their practices. The idea of personal theories of practice upholds the view that along with the teaching, teachers need to engage themselves in various classroom based research with a view to theorising from their practices. The findings of this research indicate enormous evidence of behavioral aspects of teacher autonomy. As the data of this research suggests, the participant teachers’ understanding of classroom situations, their reflections on the situational realities and opting for classroom decisions on the basis of those realizations are some good examples of teacher autonomy. Also, a few teachers’ stated teaching practices seem to reflect, though in a subtle way, their effort of outlining context embedded personal theories of teaching. This paper has got one significant pedagogical implication for the teacher education. Any teacher education must promote the conditions and capabilities for the present and prospective teachers for the role of theorisers in addition to develop their professional, procedural, and personal knowledge base.

Keywords: personal theories of practice, self-directed acts of professional development, self-directed acts of teaching, teacher autonomy

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5443 Investigating Transformative Practices in the Bangladeshi Classroom

Authors: Rubaiyat Jahan, Nasreen Sultana Mitu

Abstract:

This paper examines the theoretical construct of transformative practices, and reports some evidence of transformative practices from a couple of Bangladeshi English teachers. The idea of transformative practices calls for teachers’ capabilities to invest their intellectual labor in teaching with an assumption that along with the academic advancement of the learners, it aims for the personal transformation for both the learners as well for themselves. Following an ethnographic research approach, data for this study were collected through in-depth interviews, informal talks and classroom observations for a period of one year. In relevance to the English classroom of the Bangladeshi context, from this study, references of transformative practices have been underlined from the participant teachers’ views on English language teaching as well as from their actual practices. According to data of this research, some evidence of transformative practices in the form of critical language awareness and personal theories of practices emerge from the participants’ articulation of the beliefs on teaching; and from the participant teachers’ classroom practices evidence of self-directed acts of teaching, self-directed acts of professional development, and liberatory autonomy have been highlighted as the reflections of transformative practices. The implication of this paper refers to the significance of practicing teachers’ articulation of beliefs and views on teaching along with their orientation to critical pedagogical relations.

Keywords: critical language awareness, personal theories of practice, teacher autonomy, transformative practices

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5442 Organisational Disclosure: Threats to Individuals' Privacy

Authors: N. A. Badrul

Abstract:

People are concerned that they are vulnerable as a result of what is exposed about them on the internet. Users are increasingly aware of their privacy and are making various efforts to protect their personal information. However, besides individuals themselves, organisations are also exposing personal information of their staff to the general public by publishing it on their official website. This practice may put individuals at risk and particularly vulnerable to threats. This preliminary study explores explicitly the amount and types of personal information disclosure from organisational websites. Threats and risks related to the disclosures are discussed. In general, all the examined organisational websites discloses personal information with varies identifiable degree of data.

Keywords: personal information, privacy, e-government, information disclosure

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5441 Edward Said and the Dislocation of the Exiled Self

Authors: Majed Alobudi

Abstract:

Edward Said is considered among the most prominent figures in postcolonial theoretical studies and his work has largely influenced critical discussion for many decades. And in the globalized world of today where immigration and dislocation are intense and thoroughly discussed, Said`s views on these issues seem more relevant than ever. This paper will endeavor to bring together Said`s theoretical texts and other writings on immigration and exile in parallel. The aim is to try to find a better understanding of Said`s theories on dislocation and exile theoretically and personally. The combination of these two strands of narrative will eventually shed more light on self location in postcolonial theories and further the understanding of Said's theories and personal life narratives. The paper propose the difficulty dislocation poses in counter colonial narratives such as those written by Said. As an exile, the mission of defining the self and the other becomes obscure when place becomes impossible or prohibited. The clear result becomes a self which proclaims rather than inhabits reality, a treat Said criticized in colonial representation. The self becomes trapped between the worlds of distant reality of dislocation and the estranged world of exile. The outcome would reveal a more weakened attempt at defining the self and countering the postcolonial narrative. The reason for such confusion and contradiction is directly connected to place and dis-location. To summarize, the paper proposes to examine and investigate the implications exile and dislocation have inflected on Said as a prominent postcolonial figure and how that affects his theories and personal life. The outcome, it is argued, would be a vast and lasting effect which such colonial and postcolonial phenomenon have on personal and theoretical narratives written by Said.

Keywords: Edward Said, exile, postcolonialism, dislocation

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5440 Meaning and Cultivating Factors of Mindfulness as Experienced by Thai Females Who Practice Dhamma

Authors: Sukjai Charoensuk, Penphan Pitaksongkram, Michael Christopher

Abstract:

Preliminary evidences supported the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing symptoms associated with a variety of medical and psychological conditions. However, the measurements of mindfulness are questionable since they have not been developed based-on Buddhist experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe meaning and cultivating factors of mindfulness as experienced by Thai females who practice Dhamma. Participants were purposively selected to include 2 groups of Thai females who practice Dhamma. The first group consisted of 6 female Buddhist monks, and the second group consisted of 7 female who practice Dhamma without ordaining. Data were collected using in-depth interview. The instruments used were demographic data questionnaire and guideline for in-depth interview developed by researchers. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The results revealed that Thai women who practice Dhamma described their experience in 2 themes, which were meaning and cultivating factors of mindfulness. The meaning composed of 4 categories; 1) Being Present, 2) Self-awareness, 3) Contemplation, and 4) Neutral. The cultivating factors of mindfulness composed of 2 categories; In-personal factors and Ex-personal factors. The In-personal cultivating factors included 4 sub-categories; Faith and Love, the Five Precepts, Sound body, and Practice. The Ex-personal cultivating factors included 2 sub-categories; Serenity, and Learning. These findings increase understanding about meaning of mindfulness and its cultivating factors. These could be used as a guideline to promote mental health and develop nursing interventions using mindfulness based, as well as, develop the instrument for assessing mindfulness in Thai context.

Keywords: cultivating factor, meaning of mindfulness, practice Dhamma, Thai women

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5439 Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education: Aligning Core Values and the Community of Practice for Today’s Educational Practitioners

Authors: Jessica Bogunovich, Kimberly Greene

Abstract:

As a grounded theory, Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education (PRAE) offers an empowering means of understanding how the predominant motivator of those entering the teaching profession, altruism, serves as a shared value to inspire the individual’s personal practice beyond a siloed experience and into one of authentic engagement within the Community of Practice (CoP) of professional educators. The process of aligning one’s personal values, attitudes, and preconceived cultural constructs with those of the CoP, affords the alignment of the authentic and professional self; thus, continuously fostering one’s intrinsic motivation to remain engaged in their individual continuous process of growth and development for their students, community, profession, and themselves.

Keywords: altruism, Community of Practice. cultural constructs, teacher attrition, reciprocal altruism, value congruence

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5438 The Effect of Teachers' Personal Values on the Perceptions of the Effective Principal and Student in School

Authors: Alexander Zibenberg, Rima’a Da’As

Abstract:

According to the author’s knowledge, individuals are naturally inclined to classify people as leaders and followers. Individuals utilize cognitive structures or prototypes specifying the traits and abilities that characterize the effective leader (implicit leadership theories) and effective follower in an organization (implicit followership theories). Thus, the present study offers insights into understanding how teachers' personal values (self-enhancement and self-transcendence) explain the preference for styles of effective leader (i.e., principal) and assumptions about the traits and behaviors that characterize effective followers (i.e., student). Beyond the direct effect on perceptions of effective types of leader and follower, the present study argues that values may also interact with organizational and personal contexts in influencing perceptions. Thus authors suggest that teachers' managerial position may moderate the relationships between personal values and perception of the effective leader and follower. Specifically, two key questions are addressed in the present research: (1) Is there a relationship between personal values and perceptions of the effective leader and effective follower? and (2) Are these relationships stable or could they change across different contexts? Two hundred fifty-five Israeli teachers participated in this study, completing questionnaires – about the effective student and effective principal. Results of structural equations modeling (SEM) with maximum likelihood estimation showed: first: the model fit the data well. Second: researchers found a positive relationship between self-enhancement and anti-prototype of the effective principal and anti-prototype of the effective student. The relationship between self-transcendence value and both perceptions were found significant as well. Self-transcendence positively related to the way the teacher perceives the prototype of the effective principal and effective student. Besides, authors found that teachers' managerial position moderates these relationships. The article contributes to the literature both on perceptions and on personal values. Although several earlier studies explored issues of implicit leadership theories and implicit followership theories, personality characteristics (values) have garnered less attention in this matter. This study shows that personal values which are deeply rooted, abstract motivations that guide justify or explain attitudes, norms, opinions and actions explain differences in perception of the effective leader and follower. The results advance the theoretical understanding of the relationship between personal values and individuals’ perceptions in organizations. An additional contribution of this study is the application of the teacher's managerial position to explain a potential boundary condition of the translation of personal values into outcomes. The findings suggest that through the management process in the organization, teachers acquire knowledge and skills which augment their ability (beyond their personal values) to predict perceptions of ideal types of principal and student. The study elucidates the unique role of personal values in understanding an organizational thinking in organization. It seems that personal values might explain the differences in individual preferences of the organizational paradigm (mechanistic vs organic).

Keywords: implicit leadership theories, implicit followership theories, organizational paradigms, personal values

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5437 Linking Theory to Practice: An Analysis of Papers Submitted by Participants in a Teacher Mentoring Course

Authors: Varda Gil, Ella Shoval, Tussia Mira

Abstract:

Teacher mentoring is a complex practical profession whose unique characteristic is the teacher-mentors' commitment to helping teachers link theory with teaching practice in the process of decision-making and in their reflections on teaching. The aim of this research is to examine the way practicing teacher-mentors participating in a teacher mentoring course made the connection between theory and practice. The researchers analyzed 20 final papers submitted by participants in a course to train teacher mentors. The participants were all veteran high-school teachers. The course comprised 112 in-class hours in addition to mentoring novices in the field. The course covered the following topics: The teacher-mentors' perception of their role; formative and summative evaluation of the novices; tutoring strategies and tools; types of learners; and ways of communicating and dealing with novice teachers' resistance to counseling. The course participants were required to write a 4-5 page reflective summary of their field mentoring practice. In addition, they were required to link theories explicitly learned in the course to their practice in the field. A qualitative analysis of the papers led to the creation of the taxonomy of the link between theory and practice relating to four topics: The kinds of links made between theory and practice, the quality of these links, the links made between private teaching theories and official teaching theory, and the qualities of these links. This taxonomy may prove to be a useful tool in the teacher-mentor training processes.

Keywords: taxonomy, teacher-mentors, theory, practice, teacher-mentor training

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5436 The 1st Personal Pronouns as Evasive Devices in the 2016 Taiwanese Presidential Debate

Authors: Yan-Chi Chen

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the 1st personal pronouns as evasive devices used by presidential candidates in the 2016 Taiwanese Presidential Debate within the framework of critical discourse analysis (CDA). This study finds that the personal pronoun ‘I’ is the highest frequent personal pronoun in the 2016 Taiwanese Presidential Debate. Generally speaking, the first personal pronouns were used most in the presidential debate, compared with the second and the third personal pronouns. Hence, a further quantitative analysis is conducted to explore the correlation between the frequencies of the two 1st personal pronouns and the other pronouns. Results show that the number of the personal pronoun ‘I’ increases from 26 to 49, with the personal pronoun ‘we’ decreases from 43 to 15 during the debate. Though it seems the personal pronoun ‘I’ has a higher tendency in pronominal choice, statistical evidence demonstrated that the personal pronoun ‘we’ has the greater statistical significance (p<0.0002), compared with that of ‘I’ (p<0.0116). The comparatively small p-value of the personal pronoun ‘we’ means it ‘has a stronger correlation with the overall pronominal choice, and the personal pronoun ‘we’ is more likely to be used than the personal pronoun ‘I’. Therefore, this study concludes that the pronominal choice varies with different evasive strategies. The ingrained functions of these personal pronouns are mainly categorized as ‘agreement’ and ‘justification’. The personal pronoun ’we’ is preferred in the agreement evasive strategies, and ‘I’ is used for justifying oneself. In addition, the personal pronoun ‘we’ can be defined as both ‘inclusive’ and ‘exclusive’ personal pronoun, which rendered ‘we’ more functions not limited to agreement evasive strategies. In conclusion, although the personal pronoun ‘I’ has the highest occurrences, the personal pronoun ‘we’ is more related to the first pronoun choices.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis (CDA), evasive devices, the 1st personal pronouns, the 2016 Taiwanese Presidential Debate

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5435 The Impact of Personal Identity on Self-Esteem among Muslim Adolescents

Authors: Nadia Ayub

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to explore the impact of personal identity on self-esteem among adolescents. Two hypotheses were tested in the study, i.e., personal identity effects on self-esteem; and gender difference in the variables of personal identity and self-esteem. The total of 300 (150 female; 150 male) adolescents participated in the study. Personal identity scale (Ayub, N., In Press), and self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1985) were administered. The findings of the study suggest that positive personal identity impact on self-esteem and gender difference was found on the variables of personal identity and self-esteem. In conclusion, the results of the study are beneficial for researchers, policymakers, psychologists. The strong positive personal identity and self-esteem help in healthy mental development not only in adolescence but throughout the life of individuals.

Keywords: personal identity, self-esteem, adolescents, positive psychology

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5434 Analysis of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma in the Aerospace Industry

Authors: Masimuddin Mohd Khaled

Abstract:

From the past couple of years, focus has been done on the quality management theories and has been pertained to various firms. The core quality management theories are Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma where a number of documents have already been presented regarding these theories. The purpose of this paper is to study in detail about these theories and how the theories are applied in the aerospace industry. A methodical literature review, comparison of TQM and Six Sigma as well as a case study of each has been carried out in this paper thus providing a clear understanding of the theories.

Keywords: total quality management, six sigma, aerospace, research, innovation

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5433 The Effects of Ethnicity, Personality and Religiosity on Desire for Personal Space

Authors: Ioanna Skoura

Abstract:

Past research shows that personal space has been investigated since the 1950s. Also, personality traits have been found to have a significant relationship with personal space. However, some of these studies have been criticized for being ethically inappropriate. In an attempt to avoid ethical issues, a new scale measuring desire for personal space has been created. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of ethnicity on desire for personal space. Additionally, extraversion and neuroticism are expected to predict significantly desire for personal space. Furthermore, the study is looking for any impact of religiosity on desire for personal space. In order to test the previous hypotheses, 115 participants from three cultural groups (English, Greeks in Greece and Greeks in the UK) are recruited online. Results indicate that only extraversion and religiosity are significant predictors of desire for personal space. Implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

Keywords: ethnicity, religiosity, personality, personal space

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5432 Implications of Creating a 3D Vignette as a Reflective Practice for Continuous Professional Development of Foreign Language Teachers

Authors: Samiah H. Ghounaim

Abstract:

The topic of this paper is significant because of the increasing need for intercultural training for foreign language teachers due to the continuous challenges they face in their diverse classrooms. First, the structure of the intercultural training program designed will be briefly described, and the structure of a 3D vignette and its intended purposes will be elaborated on. This was the first stage where the program was designed and implemented on the period of three months with a group of local and expatriate foreign language teachers/practitioners at a university in the Middle East. After that, a set of primary data collected during the first stage of this research on the design and co-construction process of a 3D vignette will be reviewed and analysed in depth. Each practitioner designed a personal incident into a 3D vignette where each dimension of the vignette viewed the same incident from a totally different perspective. Finally, the results and the implications of having participant construct their personal incidents into a 3D vignette as a reflective practice will be discussed in detail as well as possible extensions for the research. This process proved itself to be an effective reflective practice where the participants were stimulated to view their incidents in a different light. Co-constructing one’s own critical incidents –be it a positive experience or not– into a structured 3D vignette encouraged participants to decentralise themselves from the incidents and, thus, creating a personal reflective space where they had the opportunity to see different potential outcomes for each incident, as well as prepare for the reflective discussion of their vignette with their peers. This provides implications for future developments in reflective writing practices and possibilities for educators’ continuous professional development (CPD).

Keywords: 3D vignettes, intercultural competence training, reflective practice, teacher training

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5431 Gravitational Wave Solutions in Modified Gravity Theories

Authors: Hafiza Rizwana Kausar

Abstract:

In this paper, we formulate the wave equation in modified theories, particularly in f(R) theory, scalar-tensor theory, and metric palatine f(X) theory. We solve the wave equation in each case and try to find maximum possible solutions in the form polarization modes. It is found that modified theories present at most six modes however the mentioned metric theories allow four polarization modes, two of which are tensor in nature and other two are scalars.

Keywords: gravitational waves, modified theories, polariozation modes, scalar tensor theories

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5430 Principles of Teaching for Successful Intelligence

Authors: Shabnam

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to see importance of successful intelligence in education which can enhance achievement. There are a number of researches which have tried to apply psychological theories of education and many researches emphasized the role of thinking and intelligence. While going through the various researches, it was found that many students could learn more effectively than they do, if they were taught in a way that better matched their patterns of abilities. Attempts to apply psychological theories to education can falter on the translation of the theory into educational practice. Often, this translation is not clear. Therefore, when a program does not succeed, it is not clear whether the lack of success was due to the inadequacy of the theory or the inadequacy of the implementation of the theory. A set of basic principles for translating a theory into practice can help clarify just what an educational implementation should (and should not) look like. Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence; analytical, creative and practical intelligence provides a way to create such a match. The results suggest that theory of successful intelligence provides successful interventions in classrooms and provides a proven model for gifted education. This article presents principles for translating a triarchic theory of successful intelligence into educational practice.

Keywords: successful intelligence, analytical, creative and practical intelligence, achievement, success, resilience

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5429 Teacher Professional Development with Collaborative Action Research: Teachers' Responses to Research

Authors: Sumaya Saqr

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Although many teachers regard academic research as the inclusive domain of academic researchers, teachers should contribute to the body of research guiding their own practice. Drawing on the qualitative analysis of 20 teachers’ reflection journals and interviews, this case study sheds light on the personal and professional benefits of teachers’ applications of collaborative action research in English language teaching context. The findings reveal that several aspects of teacher identity and classroom practice were changed. The present paper aspires to reveal the way in which collaborative action research process, as a learner-centered approach to staff development, would help teachers to become more independent and professionally autonomous and hence effecting change that is far greater than its initial purpose.

Keywords: change, collaborative action research, personal and professional benefits, professional development

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5428 The Indebtedness of Men and Women: A Study of Personal Bankruptcies in the Czech Republic

Authors: Zuzana Fišerová, Marie Paseková

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Debt relief (also labelled personal bankruptcy) is a bankruptcy settlement method which was implemented into Czech legislation by the Insolvency Act (Act No. 182/2006 Coll. on Insolvency and its Resolution) on 1 January 2008. The need to implement the institute of personal bankruptcy arose from the excessive over-indebtedness of many inhabitants of the Czech Republic after the crisis that arose around 2008 and 2009. The contribution analyses the development in the manner in which households approach personal bankruptcy and assesses and surveys the differences between indebtedness among men and women. The first section analyses the development in numbers of filed personal bankruptcy petitions and the successfulness thereof; it likewise analyses the impact of other economic influences (regional differences, unemployment etc.). The differences between debtors in dependency to gender are also surveyed. A survey of insolvency proceedings for 664 persons whose insolvency proceedings were commenced in 2008 was conducted, whilst the data were acquired from the publicly accessible insolvency register. The hypothesis on the equality of the average debt level of men and women was tested when comparing indebtedness in dependency to debtor gender. At a significance level of 0.05, the test confirmed that the mean value of debt level for women is lower than the mean value of debt level for men. Through analysis of further results, it was found that the average level of debt among women was CZK 537 thousand, while the average level of creditor satisfaction reached 46.2%. Men in the monitored sample had an average level of reported receivables of CZK 652 thousand, satisfaction of their creditors reached 58.8%. The main changes in the institute of personal bankruptcy are then evaluated in the closing discussion, and the impacts of these changes for households are assessed. The development of legislation in the Czech Republic and practice are shifting towards broader usage of personal bankruptcy, especially insofar as it can now also be used by entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the amendment of the Insolvency Act has enabled married couples to apply for joint debt relief, which has improved the position of the marriage partner with lower income and who would not get permission for debt relief on his/her own (mostly women are at issue). In current practice, the condition of adequate income is also solved by the fact that another person (usually a family member) undertakes to donate a certain monthly sum throughout the duration of the debt relief. Personal bankruptcy can thus be completed also by individuals to whom it would previously have been denied by the court.

Keywords: debtor, households, insolvency act, over-indebtedness, personal bankruptcy

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5427 A Case Study on EFL Teachers’ Experience with Reflective Practice in a Professional Development Course in Kuwait

Authors: Maaly Jarrah

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There is no doubt that reflective practice has become a stable component in continuous professional development (CPD) courses around the world for the purpose of promoting teacher development, meaningful learning, and deliberate teacher personal and professional growth. However, while there is much research on the benefits of integrating reflective practice in teacher CPD courses, not enough research explores EFL teachers’ experiences with engagement in reflective practice in the CPD from their own perspectives. This research employed a case study approach to explore the experience of 7 EFL teachers with engaging in reflective practice in a CPD course that took place in Kuwait.The participating EFL teachers engaged in collaborative dialogue reflections and completed reflection journal entries as part of the course. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed thematically. Findings indicate that the participating teachers’ positive experience with reflective practice is associated with their engagement in collaborative dialogue reflections, while challenges and negative feelings are associated with writing their reflection journal entries. Accordingly, the study offers recommendations for CPD courses to help improve EFL teachers’ experiences with engagement in reflective practice.

Keywords: Collaborative dialogue reflections, continuous professional development, EFL teachers, reflection journals, teacher reflective practice

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5426 Reform of the Law Relating to Personal Property Security

Authors: Ji Lian Yap

Abstract:

This paper will critically consider developments in 2014 in relation to the law relating to security over personal property in Hong Kong. The rules governing the registration of charges under the Hong Kong Companies Ordinance will be examined. Case law relating to personal property security will also be discussed. The transplantation of the floating charge into China’s Property Law will also be considered.

Keywords: personal property, security law, reform of the law, law

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5425 Imposing Personal Liability on Shareholder's/Partner's in a Corporate Entity; Implementation of UK’s Personal Liability Institutions in Georgian Corporate Law: Content and Outcomes

Authors: Gvantsa Magradze

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The paper examines the grounds for the imposition of a personal liability on shareholder/partner, mainly under Georgian and UK law’s comparative analysis. The general emphasis was made on personal responsibility grounds adaptation in practice and presents the analyze of court decisions. On this base, reader will be capable to find a difference between the dogmatic and practical grounds for imposition personal liability. The first chapter presents the general information about discussed issue and notion of personal liability. The second chapter is devoted to an explanation the concept – ‘the head of the corporation’ to make it clear who is the subject of responsibility in the article and not to remain individuals beyond the attention, who do not hold the position of director but are participating in governing activities and, therefore, have to have fiduciury duties. After short comparative analysis of personal responsibility, the Georgian Corporate law reality is further discussed. Here, the problem of determining personal liability is a problematic issue, thus a separate chapter is devoted to the issue, which explains the grounds for personal liability imposition in details. Within the paper is discussed the content and the purpose of personal liability institutions under UK’s corporate law and an attempt to implement them, and especially ‘Alter Ego’ doctrine in Georgian corporate Law reality and the outcomes of the experiment. For the research purposes will be examined national case law in regard to personal liability imposition, as well as UK’s experience in that regard. Comparative analyze will make it clear, wherein the Georgian statute, are gaps and how to fill them up. The articles major finding as stated, is that Georgian Corporate law does not provide any legally consolidated grounds for personal liability imposition, which in fact, leads to unfaithful, unlawful actions on partners’/shareholders’ behalf. In order to make business market fair, advancement of a national statute is inevitable, and for that, the experience sharing from developed countries is an irreplaceable gift. Overall, the article analyses, how discussed amendments might influence case law and if such amendments were made years ago, how the judgments could look like (before and after amendments).

Keywords: alter ego doctrine, case law, corporate law, good faith, personal liability

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5424 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

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Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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5423 The Representation of Female Characters by Women Directors in Surveillance Spaces in Turkish Cinema

Authors: Berceste Gülçin Özdemir

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The representation of women characters in cinema has been discussed for centuries. In cinema where dominant narrative codes prevail and scopophilic views exist over women characters, passive stereotypes of women are observed in the representation of women characters. In films shot from a woman’s point of view in Turkish Cinema and even in the films outside the main stream in which the stories of women characters are told, the fact that women characters are discussed on the basis of feminist film theories triggers the question: ‘Are feminist films produced in Turkish Cinema?’ The spaces that are used in the representation of women characters are observed to be used as spaces that convert characters into passive subjects on the basis of the space factor in the narrative. The representation of women characters in the possible surveillance spaces integrates the characters and compresses them in these spaces. In this study, narrative analysis was used to investigate women characters representation in the surveillance spaces. For the study framework, firstly a case study films are selected, and in the second level, women characters representations in surveillance spaces are argued by narrative analysis using feminist film theories. Two questions are argued with feminist film theories: ‘Why do especially women directors represent their female characters to viewers by representing them in surveillance spaces?’ and ‘Can this type of presentation contribute to the feminist film practice and become important with regard to feminist film theories?’ The representation of women characters in a passive and observed way in surveillance spaces of the narrative reveals the questioning of also the discourses of films outside of the main stream. As films that produce alternative discourses and reveal different cinematic languages, those outside the main stream are expected to bring other points of view also to the representation of women characters in spaces. These questionings are selected as the baseline and Turkish films such as Watch Tower and Mustang, directed by women, were examined. This examination paves the way for discussions regarding the women characters in surveillance spaces. Outcomes can be argued from the viewpoint of representation in the genre by feminist film theories. In the context of feminist film theories and feminist film practice, alternatives should be found that can corporally reveal the existence of women in both the representation of women characters in spaces and in the usage of the space factor.

Keywords: feminist film theory, representation, space, women directors

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5422 Knowledge and Preventive Practice of Occupational Health Hazards among Nurses Working in Various Hospitals in Kathmandu

Authors: Sabita Karki

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Occupational health hazards are recognized as global problems for health care workers, it is quiet high in developing countries. It is increasing day by day due to change in science and technology. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of occupational health hazards among the nurses. A descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out among 339 nurses working in three different teaching hospitals of the Kathmandu from February 28, 2016 to March 28, 2016. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The study findings revealed that out of 339 samples of all 80.5% were below 30 years; 51.6% were married; 57.5% were graduates and above; 91.4% respondents were working as staff nurse; 56.9% were working in general ward; 56.9% have work experience of 1 to 5 years; 79.1% respondents were immunized against HBV; only 8.6% have received training/ in-service education related to OHH and 35.4% respondents have experienced health hazards. The mean knowledge score was 26.7 (SD=7.3). The level of knowledge of occupational health hazards among the nurses was 68.1% (adequate knowledge). The knowledge was statistically significant with education OR = 0.288, CI: 0.17-0.46 and p value 0.00 and immunization against HBV OR= 1.762, CI: 0.97-0.17 and p value 0.05. The mean practice score was 7.6 (SD= 3.1). The level of practice on prevention of OHH was 74.6% (poor practice). The practice was statistically significant with age having OR=0.47, CI: 0.26-0.83 and p value 0.01; designation OR= 0.32, CI: 0.14-0.70 and p value 0.004; working department OR=0.61, CI: 0.36-1.02 and p value 0.05; work experience OR=0.562, CI: 0.33-0.94 and p value 0.02; previous in-service education/ training OR=2.25; CI: 1.02-4.92 and p value 0.04. There was no association between knowledge and practice on prevention of occupational health hazards which is not statistically significant. Overall, nurses working in various teaching hospitals of Kathmandu had adequate knowledge and poor practice of occupational health hazards. Training and in-service education and availability of adequate personal protective equipments for nurses are needed to encourage them adhere to practice.

Keywords: occupational health hazard, nurses, knowledge, preventive practice

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5421 Psychology of Terrorism: Psychology of War

Authors: Saeed Wahass

Abstract:

Terrorism is a universal phenomenon. It is an enemy to the world and humanity, representing the most essential challenges facing developing and developed societies of the world. Terrorism is traumatically a major cause for death and disability. Developing societies are catastrophically suffering more in comparing to developed ones. Importantly, the terrorism may have been emigrated from developing societies; therefore, it cannot be appropriately explained/understood elsewhere. Developing societies have attempts for solutions. These attempts may have contributed somehow to either overcoming temporally terrorism or at least waterless its fountains. It appears these attempts are fallen on personal experiences/local endeavours related to the nature of those societies and cultures. The missing issue is the involvement of the applications of psychological theories for understanding terrorism as a phenomenon. However, terrorism is behaviour, like other behaviours, it can be explained, analysed and predicted while psychology is involved as the science of behaviour and mental process. Later than, solutions whatever they are (intervention/prevention) have to be born from the womb of psychological theories explaining/understanding terrorism. This paper is an endeavour to shed light on psychological theories which may present an explanation for terrorism, as a behavioural phenomenon, looking for the effective evidence-based interventions/prevention. An emphasis will be on the experiences of developing countries which may have made/incubated terrorism.

Keywords: psychology, terrorism, humanity, developing societies

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5420 Meaning beyond Pleasure in Leisure: Comparison between Korea and France

Authors: Joane Adeclas, Yoonyoung Kim, Taekyun Hur

Abstract:

This study investigates individual’s intrinsic motivation to practice their leisure activities, as well as, how the cultural environment may influence their motivation to practice their activities. Focused on the positive psychology, the present study proposed redefinition of leisure activities considering two factors. First, leisure activities could be as any activities that provide pleasure or meaning to individuals. Second, they can be practiced alone or in groups. In fact, based on this definition, a four-dimensional model of leisure activities was developed, to measure individual’s perception of their leisure experience, based on four factors that are: personal pleasure, social pleasure, personal meaning and social meaning. Furthermore, recent studies have argued that leisure activities can be interpreted and understood differently across cultures. Therefore, the present study proposed to examine the possible role of the cultural context of individual’s leisure practices. To do so, two cultural groups (Koreans vs. French) were compared in terms of the four-dimensional model of leisure activities. Three hundred Koreans and three hundred French participants were asked to answer an online survey about their leisure activities. Participants had to respond to questions related to several aspects of leisure practices as followed: the reason why their practice their leisure activities, the reason why they fail to practice their leisure, and their obsession relate to their leisure activities. Factor analyses based on participant’s responses proposed a moderate fit of the four-dimensional model of leisure activities. Furthermore, significant cultural differences were also found. As a result, the cultural context seems to influence the reason why individuals practice their leisure activities based on our model. In fact, Koreans explained more than French, the practice of their leisure activities with social-pleasurable reasons. At a contrary, French explained more than Koreans, the practice of their leisure activities with social-meaningful reasons. The two cultural groups also significantly differ on their perception of failure. The results showed that French participants used more meaningful social factors to explain why they failed to practice their leisure activities than did Koreans participants. Finally, Koreans and French significantly differed regarding their obsession on their leisure activities. In general, French tend to have more obsession than Koreans about their leisure activities. Those results validated the four-dimensional model of leisure, as well as, the cultural differences in leisure practices. However, further studies are needed to validate this model at an individual and cultural level.

Keywords: culture, leisure, meaning, pleasure

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5419 Transformation of the Business Model in an Occupational Health Care Company Embedded in an Emerging Personal Data Ecosystem: A Case Study in Finland

Authors: Tero Huhtala, Minna Pikkarainen, Saila Saraniemi

Abstract:

Information technology has long been used as an enabler of exchange for goods and services. Services are evolving from generic to personalized, and the reverse use of customer data has been discussed in both academia and industry for the past few years. This article presents the results of an empirical case study in the area of preventive health care services. The primary data were gathered in workshops, in which future personal data-based services were conceptualized by analyzing future scenarios from a business perspective. The aim of this study is to understand business model transformation in emerging personal data ecosystems. The work was done as a case study in the context of occupational healthcare. The results have implications to theory and practice, indicating that adopting personal data management principles requires transformation of the business model, which, if successfully managed, may provide access to more resources, potential to offer better value, and additional customer channels. These advantages correlate with the broadening of the business ecosystem. Expanding the scope of this study to include more actors would improve the validity of the research. The results draw from existing literature and are based on findings from a case study and the economic properties of the healthcare industry in Finland.

Keywords: ecosystem, business model, personal data, preventive healthcare

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5418 Personal Characteristics and Personality Traits as Predictors of Compassion Fatigue among Counselors from Dominican Schools in the Philippines

Authors: Neil Jordan M. Uy, Fe Pelilia V. Hernandez

Abstract:

A counselor is always regarded as a professional who embodies the willingness to help others through the process of counseling. He is knowledgeable and skillful of the different theories, tools, and techniques that are useful in aiding the client to cope with their dilemmas. The negative experiences of the clients that are shared during the counseling session can affect the professional counselor. Compassion fatigue, a professional impairment, is characterized by the decline of one’s productivity and the feeling of anxiety and stress brought about as the counselor empathizes, listens, and cares for others. This descriptive type of research aimed to explore variables that are predictors of compassion fatigue utilizing three research instruments; Demographic Profile Sheet, Professional Quality of Life Scale, and Neo-Pi-R. The 52 respondents of this study were counselors from the different Dominican schools in the Philippines. Generally, the counselors have low level of compassion fatigue across personal characteristics (age, gender, years of service, highest educational attainment, and professional status) and personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism). ANOVA validated the findings of this that among the personal characteristics and personality traits, extraversion with f-value of 3.944 and p-value of 0.026, and conscientiousness, with f-value of 4.125 and p-value of 0.022 were found to have significant difference in the level of compassion fatigue. A very significant difference was observed with neuroticism with f-value of 6.878 and p-value 0.002. Among the personal characteristics and personal characteristics, only neuroticism was found to predict compassion fatigue. The computed r2 value of 0.204 using multiple regression analysis suggests that 20.4 percent of compassion fatigue can be predicted by neuroticism. The predicting power of neuroticism can be computed from the regression model Y=0.156x+26.464; where x is the number of neuroticism.

Keywords: big five personality traits, compassion fatigue, counselors, professional quality of life scale

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5417 Resilient Environments vs. Resilient Architects: Creativity, Practice and Education

Authors: Y. Perera, M. Pathiraja

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Within the paradigm of 'Resilient Built-environments,' in order for architecture to be resilient, 'Resilience' should be identified as an essential component of the architect’s notion of creativity. In much simpler terms, 'Resilient Built-Environment' should necessarily be a by-product of the 'Resilient Architect.' The inherent influence of individualistic notions of creativity upon the practice had intensified the dichotomy between theory and practice unless the notion of 'Resilience' is identified as an integral component of the architect’s notion of creativity. Analysing the architectural position is an ideal way of understanding the architect’s notion of creativity, therefore, in exploring the notion of 'Resilience' and the 'Resilient Architect' within the Sri Lankan platform, the architectural positions of two renowned architects; Geoffrey Bawa and Valentine Gunasekara were explored and analysed. The architectural positions of both the architects asserted specific rules and methodologies adopted within the process of problem solving that had subsequently led to a traceable language / pattern within their architecture. The dominance of such rules within the practice could be detrimental to adaptation of theories / notions, such as 'Resilience' and the formation of the 'Resilient Architect', unless methodologies itself are flexible, robust, despite rigidity, or else the notion of 'Resilience' exist in the form of a methodological rule.

Keywords: architectural position, creativity, education, practice, resilience, theory

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5416 Social Work in Rehabilitation: Improving Practice Through Action Research

Authors: Poglajen Andrej, Malečihar Špela

Abstract:

Social work in rehabilitation needs constant development and embetterment of its practitioners. This became even more evident during the covid pandemic at times when outside sources of help, care and support were non-existent, or the access to such sources was severely limited. Social workers are, at our core, researchers of the rehabilitated world – from a personal and intrapersonal to a systematic perspective. This is also why a method of research was used in order to see if clinical social work practice can be further improved. The first stage of research showcased how action research and social work practice share many of the core values, whereas the Implementation of the new behaviour principle was severely lacking and thus became the main focus of the follow-up research. Twenty randomly selected case files of clinical social work practice in rehabilitation were qualitatively analyzed and potential benefits of action research on practice were assessed in the process of intervention while also getting feedback of the usefulness by the patients themselves using pre and post evaluation forms where a mixed-method approach was used. Implementation of new behaviour principle was recognized as a potential, improving factor of clinical social work practice in most analyzed cases, while it wasn’t deemed necessary in all of them. Potential improvements of newly implemented behaviour span across different areas of life and were also noted in the feedback from the rehabilitates. Despite the benefits of practice embetterment, the inclusion and focus on Implementation of new behaviour principle also caused additional workload, lack of time and stressful situations for the practitioners, which showcased the need to address certain systemic obstacles in the context of social work in healthcare in Slovenia.

Keywords: action research, practice, rehabilitation, social work

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5415 Interface between Personal Values and Social Entrepreneurship in Social Projects That Develop Sports Practice

Authors: Leticia Lengler, Jefferson Oliveira, Vania Estivalete, Jordana Marques Kneipp

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The context of social, economic and environmental transformations has driven innumerable changes in the organizational environment, influencing the social interactions that occur in this scenario. In this sense, social entrepreneurship emerges as a unique opportunity to challenge, question, rethink certain concepts and traditional theories widely discussed in relation to entrepreneurship. Therefore, the interest in studying personal values has been based on the idea that they might be predictors of the behavior of individuals. As an attempt to relate personal values with the characteristics of social entrepreneurs, this study aims to investigate the salient values and the social entrepreneurship perceptions that occur in two social projects responsible for developing sports skills among the students. For purposes of analysis, it is intended to consider: (i) a description of both Social Projects and their respective institutions, considering their history and relevance in the context; (ii) analysis of the personal values of the idealizers and teachers responsible for the projects, (iii) identification of the characteristics of social entrepreneurship manifested in the two projects, and (iv) discussion of similarities and disparities of the categories identified among the participants of the projects. Therefore, this study will carry a qualitative analysis from the interviews with 10 participants of each social project (named Projeto Remar/ASENA and Projeto Mãos Dadas/JUDÔ SANTA MARIA): 2 projects coordinators, 2 students, 2 parents of students, 2 physical education internships and 2 businessmen who stablished a partnership with each project. The data collection will be done through semi-structured interviews that are going to last around 30 minutes each, being recorded, transcribed and later analyzed, through the categorical analysis. The option for categorical analysis is supported by the fact that it is the best alternative when one wants to study values, opinions, attitudes and beliefs, through qualitative ones. In the present research, the pre-analysis phase consisted of an organization of the material collected during the research with Remar and Mãos Dadas Project, and a dynamic reading of this material, seeking to identify the characteristics of social entrepreneurship and values addressed in the study. In the analytical description phase, a more in-depth analysis of the material collected in the research will be carried out. The third phase, referred to as referential interpretation or treatment of results obtained will allow to verify the homogeneity and the heterogeneity among the participants' perceptions of the projects. Some preliminary results coming from the first interviews revealed the projects are guided by values such as cooperation, respect, well-being and nature preservation. These values are linked to the social entrepreneurship perception of the projects managers, who established their activities in behalf of the local community.

Keywords: personal values, social entrepreneurship, social projects, sports participants

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