Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: sensations

23 Rational Memory Therapy: The Counselling Technique to Control Psychological and Psychosomatic Illnesses

Authors: Sachin Deshmukh

Abstract:

Mind and body synchronization occurs through memory and sensation production. Sensations are the guiding language of subconscious mind for conscious mind to take a proper action. Mind-mechanism is based upon memories collected so far since intrauterine life. There are three universal triggers for memory creation; they are persons, situations and objects. Memory is created as sensations experienced by special senses. Based upon experiencing comfort or discomfort, the triggers are categorized as safe or unsafe triggers. A memory comprises of ‘safe or unsafe feeling for triggers, and actions taken for that feeling’. Memories for triggers are created slowly, thoughtfully and consciously by the conscious mind, and archived in the subconscious mind for future references. Later on, similar triggers can come in contact with the individual. Subconscious mind uses these stored feelings to decide whether these triggers are safe or unsafe. It produces comfort or discomfort sensations as emotions accordingly and reacts in the same way as has been recorded in memory. Speed of sensing and processing the triggers, and reacting by subconscious mind is that of the speed of bioelectricity. Hence, formula for human emotions has been designed in this paper as follows: Emotion (Stress or Peace) = Trigger (Person or Situation or object) x Mass of feelings (stressful or peaceful) associated with the Trigger x Speed of Light². We also establish modern medical scientific facts about relationship between reflex activity and memory. This research further develops the ‘Rational Memory Therapy’ focusing on therapeutic feelings conversion techniques, for stress prevention and management.

Keywords: memory, sensations, feelings, emotions, rational memory therapy

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22 Phantom Phenomena in Subjects after Limb Amutation Who Regularly Practice High Intensity Sports

Authors: Jolanta Uszko, Tomasz Wloch, Aneta Pirowska, Roman Nowobilski

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Introduction: Phantom phenomena are often reported by subjects who have undergone limb amputation. Mostly, patients feel the amputated part of the limb as if it was still attached to the body. Two types of phantom phenomena: painless (phantom sensation) and painful (phantom pain) were described. Triggers of phantom sensations and phantom pain, as well as fully effective treatment, have not been clearly described yet. Purpose: To assess the influence of psychosocial factors and some clinical conditions on the occurrence of phantom phenomena in amputee athletes. Subjects: 21 men (age: 31 years, SD = 7.5 years) after lower or upper extremity amputation, who regularly performed high-intensity sports (Amp Football Team Players) were included to the study. Method and equipment: In the research, the following method and tools were used: Questionnaire [Pirowska] adapted for athletes with disabilities, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) - for phantom pain assessment, McGill Pain Assessment Questionnaire (short version), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI): X-1 and X-2, shortened version of The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOLBREFF). Results: In the study group, the lower leg amputations with traumatic etiology were predominant. Phantom sensations were present in all subjects. Half of the respondents claimed to experience phantom sensations at least once a day, paroxysmally. There was a prevalence of phantom sensations characterized as incomplete, immobile limb. Phantom pain was reported by over 85% of respondents. The nature of phantom pain was frequently described as stabbing, squeezing, shooting, pulsing, tiring. There was a significant correlation between phantom pain intensity and anxiety, quality of life, depressive tendencies, perception of phantom pain as the obstacle in daily functioning and intensity of the limb pain before amputation. Conclusions: The etiology of phantom phenomena is complex. Psychological factors seem to have a significant influence on the intensity of the phantom pain. Particular attention should be paid to patients who complain about persistent limb pain before the amputation. These are patients with an increased risk of the phantom pain of relatively high intensity.

Keywords: amputation, phantom pain, phantom sensations, adaptive sports

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21 The Design of Smart Tactile Textiles for Therapeutic Applications

Authors: Karen Hong

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Smart tactile textiles are a series of textile-based products that incorporates smart embedded technology to be utilized as tactile therapeutic applications for 2 main groups of target users. The first group of users will be children with sensory processing disorder who are suffering from tactile sensory dysfunction. Children with tactile sensory issues may have difficulty tolerating the sensations generated from the touch of certain textures on the fabrics. A series of smart tactile textiles, collectively known as ‘Tactile Toys’ are developed as tactile therapy play objects, exposing children to different types of touch sensations within textiles, enabling them to enjoy tactile experiences together with interactive play which will help them to overcome fear of certain touch sensations. The second group of users will be the elderly or geriatric patients who are suffering from deteriorating sense of touch. One of the common consequences of aging is suffering from deteriorating sense of touch and a decline in motoric function. With the focus in stimulating the sense of touch for this particular group of end users, another series of smart tactile textiles, collectively known as ‘Tactile Aids’ are developed also as tactile therapy. This range of products can help to maintain touch sensitivity and at the same time allowing the elderly to enjoy interactive play to practice their hand-eye coordination and enhancing their motor skills. These smart tactile textile products are being designed and tested out by the end users and have proofed their efficacy as tactile therapy enabling the users to lead a better quality of life.

Keywords: smart textiles, embedded technology, tactile therapy, tactile aids, tactile toys

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20 Is Liking for Sampled Energy-Dense Foods Mediated by Taste Phenotypes?

Authors: Gary J. Pickering, Sarah Lucas, Catherine E. Klodnicki, Nicole J. Gaudette

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Two taste pheno types that are of interest in the study of habitual diet-related risk factors and disease are 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) responsiveness and thermal tasting. Individuals differ considerable in how intensely they experience the bitterness of PROP, which is partially explained by three major single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the TAS2R38 gene. Importantly, this variable responsiveness is a useful proxy for general taste responsiveness, and links to diet-related disease risk, including body mass index, in some studies. Thermal tasting - a newly discovered taste phenotype independent of PROP responsiveness - refers to the capacity of many individuals to perceive phantom tastes in response to lingual thermal stimulation, and is linked with TRPM5 channels. Thermal tasters (TTs) also experience oral sensations more intensely than thermal non-tasters (TnTs), and this was shown to associate with differences in self-reported food preferences in a previous survey from our lab. Here we report on two related studies, where we sought to determine whether PROP responsiveness and thermal tasting would associate with perceptual differences in the oral sensations elicited by sampled energy-dense foods, and whether in turn this would influence liking. We hypothesized that hyper-tasters (thermal tasters and individuals who experience PROP intensely) would (a) rate sweet and high-fat foods more intensely than hypo-tasters, and (b) would differ from hypo-tasters in liking scores. (Liking has been proposed recently as a more accurate measure of actual food consumption). In Study 1, a range of energy-dense foods and beverages, including table cream and chocolate, was assessed by 25 TTs and 19 TnTs. Ratings of oral sensation intensity and overall liking were obtained using gVAS and gDOL scales, respectively. TTs and TnTs did not differ significantly in intensity ratings for most stimuli (ANOVA). In a 2nd study, 44 female participants sampled 22 foods and beverages, assessing them for intensity of oral sensations (gVAS) and overall liking (9-point hedonic scale). TTs (n=23) rated their overall liking of creaminess and milk products lower than did TnTs (n=21), and liked milk chocolate less. PROP responsiveness was negatively correlated with liking of food and beverages belonging to the sweet or sensory food grouping. No other differences in intensity or liking scores between hyper- and hypo-tasters were found. Taken overall, our results are somewhat unexpected, lending only modest support to the hypothesis that these taste phenotypes associate with energy-dense food liking and consumption through differences in the oral sensations they elicit. Reasons for this lack of concordance with expectations and some prior literature are discussed, and suggestions for future research are advanced.

Keywords: taste phenotypes, sensory evaluation, PROP, thermal tasting, diet-related health risk

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19 Miracle Fruit Application in Sour Beverages: Effect of Different Concentrations on the Temporal Sensory Profile and Overall Linking

Authors: Jéssica F. Rodrigues, Amanda C. Andrade, Sabrina C. Bastos, Sandra B. Coelho, Ana Carla M. Pinheiro

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Currently, there is a great demand for the use of natural sweeteners due to the harmful effects of the high sugar and artificial sweeteners consumption on the health. Miracle fruit, which is known for its unique ability to modify the sour taste in sweet taste, has been shown to be a good alternative sweetener. However, it has a high production cost, being important to optimize lower contents to be used. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of different miracle fruit contents on the temporal (Time-intensity - TI and Temporal Dominance of Sensations - TDS) sensory profile and overall linking of lemonade, to determine the better content to be used as a natural sweetener in sour beverages. TI and TDS results showed that the concentrations of 150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg miracle fruit were effective in reducing the acidity and promoting the sweet perception in lemonade. Furthermore, the concentrations of 300 mg and 600 mg obtained similar profiles. Through the acceptance test, the concentration of 300 mg miracle fruit was shown to be an efficient substitute for sucrose and sucralose in lemonade, once they had similar hedonic values between ‘I liked it slightly’ and ‘I liked it moderately’. Therefore, 300mg miracle fruit consists in an adequate content to be used as a natural sweetener of lemonade. The results of this work will help the food industry on the efficient application of a new natural sweetener- the Miracle fruit extract in sour beverages, reducing costs and providing a product that meets the consumer desires.

Keywords: acceptance, natural sweetener, temporal dominance of sensations, time-intensity

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18 Relevance to Transformation Desire at Venetian Masks

Authors: Yoko Katsumata, Takashi Horikoshi, Noriaki Fukuzumi, Shoji Yamaguchi

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This study examined some positive sensations that caused human to experience an intense feeling or sensitivity from Venetian Masks. We surveyed 102 Japanese university students (male; 85, female; 17) about their sensitivity impressions toward Venetian Masks using sensitivity questionnaire. We used questionnaires to examine the relevance to transformation desire at Venetian masks by means of correlation analysis. The positive correlation coefficient was observed between sensitivity impressions and transformation desire.

Keywords: Venetian Masks, sensitivity impression, transformation desire, Japan

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17 A Strategy to Reduce Salt Intake: The Use of a Seasoning Obtained from Wine Pomace

Authors: María Luisa Gonzalez-SanJose, Javier Garcia-Lomillo, Raquel Del Pino, Miriam Ortega-Heras, Maria Dolores Rivero-Perez, Pilar Muñiz-Rodriguez

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One of the most preoccupant problems related to the diet of the occidental societies is the high salt intake. In Spain, salt intake is almost twice as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). A lot of negative health effects of high sodium intake have been described being the hypertension, cardiovascular and coronary diseases ones of the most important. Due to this fact, government and other institutions are working on the gradual reduction of this consumption. Intake of meat products have been described as the main processed products that bring salt to the diet, followed by snacks and savory crackers. However, fortunately, the food industry has also raised awareness of this problem and is working intensely, and in recent years attempts to reduce the salt content in processed products, and is developing special lines with low sodium content. It is important to consider that processed food are the main source of sodium in occidental countries. One of the possible strategies to reduce the salt content in food is to find substitutes that can emulate their taste properties without adding much sodium or products that mask or substitute salty sensations with other flavors and aromas. In this sense, multiple products have been proposed and used until now. Potassium salts produce similar salty sensations without bring sodium, however their intake should be also limited, by healthy reasons. Furthermore, some potassium salts shows some better notes. Other alternatives are the use of flavor enhancers, spices, aromatic herbs, sea-plant derivate products, etc. The wine pomace is rich in potassium salts, content organic acid and other flavored substances, therefore it could be an interesting raw material to obtain derived products that could be useful as alternative ‘seasonings’. Considering previous comments, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a natural seasoning, made from red wine pomace, in two different foods, crackers and burgers. The seasoning was made in the pilot plant of food technology of the University of Burgos, where the studied crackers and patties were also made. Different members of the University, students, docent and administrative personal, taste the products, and a trained panel evaluated salty intensity. The seasoning in addition to potassium contain significant levels of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, which also makes it interesting as a functional ingredient. Both burgers and crackers made with the seasoning showed better taste that those without salt. Obviously, they showed lower sodium content than normal formulation, and were richer in potassium, antioxidant and fiber. Then, they showed lower values of the relation Na/K. All these facts are correlated with more ‘healthy’ products especially to that people with hypertension and other coronary dysfunctions.

Keywords: healthy foods, low salt, seasoning, wine pomace

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16 Childhood Sensory Sensitivity: A Potential Precursor to Borderline Personality Disorder

Authors: Valerie Porr, Sydney A. DeCaro

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TARA for borderline personality disorder (BPD), an education and advocacy organization, helps families to compassionately and effectively deal with troubling BPD behaviors. Our psychoeducational programs focus on understanding underlying neurobiological features of BPD and evidence-based methodology integrating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and mentalization based therapy (MBT,) clarifying the inherent misunderstanding of BPD behaviors and improving family communication. TARA4BPD conducts online surveys, workshops, and topical webinars. For over 25 years, we have collected data from BPD helpline callers. This data drew our attention to particular childhood idiosyncrasies that seem to characterize many of the children who later met the criteria for BPD. The idiosyncrasies we observed, heightened sensory sensitivity and hypervigilance, were included in Adolf Stern’s 1938 definition of “Borderline.” This aspect of BPD has not been prioritized by personality disorder researchers, presently focused on emotion processing and social cognition in BPD. Parents described sleep reversal problems in infants who, early on, seem to exhibit dysregulation in circadian rhythm. Families describe children as supersensitive to sensory sensations, such as specific sounds, heightened sense of smell, taste, textures of foods, and an inability to tolerate various fabrics textures (i.e., seams in socks). They also exhibit high sensitivity to particular words and voice tones. Many have alexithymia and dyslexia. These children are either hypo- or hypersensitive to sensory sensations, including pain. Many suffer from fibromyalgia. BPD reactions to pain have been studied (C. Schmahl) and confirm the existence of hyper and hypo-reactions to pain stimuli in people with BPD. To date, there is little or no data regarding what comprises a normative range of sensitivity in infants and children. Many parents reported that their children were tested or treated for sensory processing disorder (SPD), learning disorders, and ADHD. SPD is not included in the DSM and is treated by occupational therapists. The overwhelming anecdotal data from thousands of parents of children who later met criteria for BPD led TARA4BPD to develop a sensitivity survey to develop evidence of the possible role of early sensory perception problems as a pre-cursor to BPD, hopefully initiating new directions in BPD research. At present, the research community seems unaware of the role supersensory sensitivity might play as an early indicator of BPD. Parents' observations of childhood sensitivity obtained through family interviews and results of an extensive online survey on sensory responses across various ages of development will be presented. People with BPD suffer from a sense of isolation and otherness that often results in later interpersonal difficulties. Early identification of supersensitive children while brain circuits are developing might decrease the development of social interaction deficits such as rejection sensitivity, self-referential processes, and negative bias, hallmarks of BPD, ultimately minimizing the maladaptive methods of coping with distress that characterizes BPD. Family experiences are an untapped resource for BPD research. It is hoped that this data will give family observations the critical credibility to inform future treatment and research directions.

Keywords: alexithymia, dyslexia, hypersensitivity, sensory processing disorder

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15 Smart Brain Wave Sensor for Paralyzed- a Real Time Implementation

Authors: U.B Mahadevswamy UBM, Siraj Ahmed Siraj

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As the title of the paper indicates about brainwaves and its uses for various applications based on their frequencies and different parameters which can be implemented as real time application with the title a smart brain wave sensor system for paralyzed patients. Brain wave sensing is to detect a person's mental status. The purpose of brain wave sensing is to give exact treatment to paralyzed patients. The data or signal is obtained from the brainwaves sensing band. This data are converted as object files using Visual Basics. The processed data is further sent to Arduino which has the human's behavioral aspects like emotions, sensations, feelings, and desires. The proposed device can sense human brainwaves and detect the percentage of paralysis that the person is suffering. The advantage of this paper is to give a real-time smart sensor device for paralyzed patients with paralysis percentage for their exact treatment. Keywords:-Brainwave sensor, BMI, Brain scan, EEG, MCH.

Keywords: Keywords:-Brainwave sensor , BMI, Brain scan, EEG, MCH

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14 Cognitive Fusion and Obstacles to Valued Living: Beyond Pain-Specific Events in Chronic Pain

Authors: Sergio A. Carvalho, Jose Pinto-Gouveia, David Gillanders, Paula Castilho

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The role of psychological processes has long been recognized as crucial factors in depressive symptoms in chronic pain (CP). Although some studies have explored the negative impact of being entangled with internal experiences (e.g., thoughts, emotions, physical sensations) – cognitive fusion, it is not extensively explored 1) whether these are pain-related or rather general difficult experiences, and 2) how they relate to experiencing obstacles in committing to valued actions. The current study followed a cross-sectional design in a sample of 231 participants with CP, in which a mediational model was tested through path analyses in AMOS software. The model presented a very good model fit (Χ²/DF = 1.161; CFI = .999; TLI = .996; RMSEA = .026, PCLOSE = .550.), and results showed that pain intensity was not directly related to depressive symptoms (β = .055; p = .239) but was mediated by cognitive fusion with both general and pain-related internal experiences (β = .181, 95%CI [.097; .271]; p = .015). Additionally, results showed that only general cognitive fusion (but not pain-specific fusion) was associated with experiencing obstacles to living a meaningful life, which mediated its impact on depressive symptoms (β = .197, 95%CI [.102; .307]; p = .001). Overall, this study adds on current literature by suggesting that psychological interventions to pain management should not be focused only on management of pain-related experiences, but also on developing more effective ways of relating to overall internal experiences.

Keywords: cognitive fusion, chronic pain, depressive symptoms, valued living

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13 A Neuroscience-Based Learning Technique: Framework and Application to STEM

Authors: Dante J. Dorantes-González, Aldrin Balsa-Yepes

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Existing learning techniques such as problem-based learning, project-based learning, or case study learning are learning techniques that focus mainly on technical details, but give no specific guidelines on learner’s experience and emotional learning aspects such as arousal salience and valence, being emotional states important factors affecting engagement and retention. Some approaches involving emotion in educational settings, such as social and emotional learning, lack neuroscientific rigorousness and use of specific neurobiological mechanisms. On the other hand, neurobiology approaches lack educational applicability. And educational approaches mainly focus on cognitive aspects and disregard conditioning learning. First, authors start explaining the reasons why it is hard to learn thoughtfully, then they use the method of neurobiological mapping to track the main limbic system functions, such as the reward circuit, and its relations with perception, memories, motivations, sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions, and sensations, as well as the brain cortex. The authors conclude explaining the major finding: The mechanisms of nonconscious learning and the triggers that guarantee long-term memory potentiation. Afterward, the educational framework for practical application and the instructors’ guidelines are established. An implementation example in engineering education is given, namely, the study of tuned-mass dampers for earthquake oscillations attenuation in skyscrapers. This work represents an original learning technique based on nonconscious learning mechanisms to enhance long-term memories that complement existing cognitive learning methods.

Keywords: emotion, emotion-enhanced memory, learning technique, STEM

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12 Factor Structure of the Korean Version of Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ)

Authors: Juyeon Lee, Sungeun You

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Experiential avoidance is one’s tendency to avoid painful internal experience, unwanted adverse thoughts, emotions, and physical sensations. The Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) is a measure of experiential avoidance, and the original scale consisted of 62 items with six subfactors including behavioral avoidance, distress aversion, procrastination, distraction/suppression, repression/denial, and distress endurance. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the MEAQ in a Korean sample. Three hundred community adults and university students aged 18 to 35 participated in an online survey assessing experiential avoidance (MEAQ and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II; AAQ-II), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disoder-7; GAD-7), negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Scale; PANAS), neuroticism (Big Five Inventory; BFI), and quality of life (Satisfaction with Life Scale; SWLS). Factor analysis with principal axis with direct oblimin rotation was conducted to examine subfactors of the MEAQ. Results indicated that the six-factor structure of the original scale was adequate. Eight items out of 62 items were removed due to insufficient factor loading. These items included 3 items of behavior avoidance (e.g., “When I am hurting, I would do anything to feel better”), 2 items of repression/denial (e.g., “I work hard to keep out upsetting feelings”), and 3 items of distress aversion (e.g., “I prefer to stick to what I am comfortable with, rather than try new activities”). The MEAQ was positively associated with the AAQ-II (r = .47, p < .001), PHQ-9 (r = .37, p < .001), GAD-7 (r = .34, p < .001), PANAS (r = .35, p < .001), and neuroticism (r = .24, p < .001), and negatively correlated with the SWLS (r = -.38, p < .001). Internal consistency was good for the MEAQ total (Cronbach’s α = .90) as well as all six subfactors (Cronbach’s α = .83 to .87). The findings of the study support the multidimensional feature of experiential avoidance and validity of the MEAQ in a sample of Korean adults.

Keywords: avoidance, experiential avoidance, factor structure, MEAQ

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11 Improved Thermal Comfort and Sensation with Occupant Control of Ceiling Personalized Ventilation System: A Lab Study

Authors: Walid Chakroun, Sorour Alotaibi, Nesreen Ghaddar, Kamel Ghali

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This study aims at determining the extent to which occupant control of microenvironment influences, improves thermal sensation and comfort, and saves energy in spaces equipped with ceiling personalized ventilation (CPV) system assisted by chair fans (CF) and desk fans (DF) in 2 experiments in a climatic chamber equipped with two-station CPV systems, one that allows control of fan flow rate and the other is set to the fan speed of the selected participant in control. Each experiment included two participants each entering the cooled space from transitional environment at a conventional mixed ventilation (MV) at 24 °C. For CPV diffuser, fresh air was delivered at a rate of 20 Cubic feet per minute (CFM) and a temperature of 16 °C while the recirculated air was delivered at the same temperature but at a flow rate 150 CFM. The macroclimate air of the space was at 26 °C. The full speed flow rates for both the CFs and DFs were at 5 CFM and 20 CFM, respectively. Occupant 1 was allowed to operate the CFs or the DFs at (1/3 of the full speed, 2/3 of the full speed, and the full speed) while occupant 2 had no control on the fan speed and their fan speed was selected by occupant 1. Furthermore, a parametric study was conducted to study the effect of increasing the fresh air flow rate on the occupants’ thermal comfort and whole body sensations. The results showed that most occupants in the CPV+CFs, who did not control the CF flow rate, felt comfortable 6 minutes. The participants, who controlled the CF speeds, felt comfortable in around 24 minutes because they were preoccupied with the CFs. For the DF speed control experiments, most participants who did not control the DFs felt comfortable within the first 8 minutes. Similarly to the CPV+CFs, the participants who controlled the DF flow rates felt comfortable at around 26 minutes. When the CPV system was either supported by CFs or DFs, 93% of participants in both cases reached thermal comfort. Participants in the parametric study felt more comfortable when the fresh air flow rate was low, and felt cold when as the flow rate increased.

Keywords: PMV, thermal comfort, thermal environment, thermal sensation

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10 Vibro-Tactile Equalizer for Musical Energy-Valence Categorization

Authors: Dhanya Nair, Nicholas Mirchandani

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Musical haptic systems can enhance a listener’s musical experience while providing an alternative platform for the hearing impaired to experience music. Current music tactile technologies focus on representing tactile metronomes to synchronize performers or encoding musical notes into distinguishable (albeit distracting) tactile patterns. There is growing interest in the development of musical haptic systems to augment the auditory experience, although the haptic-music relationship is still not well understood. This paper represents a tactile music interface that provides vibrations to multiple fingertips in synchronicity with auditory music. Like an audio equalizer, different frequency bands are filtered out, and the power in each frequency band is computed and converted to a corresponding vibrational strength. These vibrations are felt on different fingertips, each corresponding to a different frequency band. Songs with music from different spectrums, as classified by their energy and valence, were used to test the effectiveness of the system and to understand the relationship between music and tactile sensations. Three participants were trained on one song categorized as sad (low energy and low valence score) and one song categorized as happy (high energy and high valence score). They were trained both with and without auditory feedback (listening to the song while experiencing the tactile music on their fingertips and then experiencing the vibrations alone without the music). The participants were then tested on three songs from both categories, without any auditory feedback, and were asked to classify the tactile vibrations they felt into either category. The participants were blinded to the songs being tested and were not provided any feedback on the accuracy of their classification. These participants were able to classify the music with 100% accuracy. Although the songs tested were on two opposite spectrums (sad/happy), the preliminary results show the potential of utilizing a vibrotactile equalizer, like the one presented, for augmenting musical experience while furthering the current understanding of music tactile relationship.

Keywords: haptic music relationship, tactile equalizer, tactile music, vibrations and mood

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9 A Reading Attempt of the Urban Memory of Jordan University of Science and Technology Campus by Cognitive Mapping

Authors: Bsma Adel Bany Mohammad

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The University campuses are a small city containing basic city functions such as educational spaces, accommodations, services and transportation. They are spaces of functional and social life with different activities, different occupants. The campus designed and transformed like cities so both experienced and memorized in same way. Campus memory is the ability of individuals to maintain and reveal the spatial components of designed physical spaces, which form the understandings, experiences, sensations of the environment in all. ‘Cognitive mapping’ is used to decode the physical interaction and emotional relationship between individuals and the city; Cognitive maps are created graphically using geometric and verbal elements on paper by remembering the images of the Urban Environment. In this study, to determine the emotional urban identity belonging to Jordan University of science and technology Campus, architecture students Asked to identify the areas they interact with in the campus by drawing a cognitive map. ‘Campus memory items’ are identified by analyzing the cognitive maps of the campus, then the spatial identity result of such data. The analysis based on the five basic elements of Lynch: paths, districts, edges, nodes, and landmarks. As a result of this analysis, it found that Spatial Identity constructed by the shared elements of the maps. The memory of most students listed the gates structure- which is a large desirable structure, located at the main entrances within the campus defined as major landmarks, then the square spaces defined as nodes, in addition to both stairs and corridors defined as paths. Finally, the districts, edges of educational buildings and service spaces are listed correspondingly in cognitive maps. Findings suggest that the spatial identity of the campus design is related mainly to the gates structures, squares and stairs.

Keywords: cognitive maps, university campus, urban memory, identity

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8 Influence of Urban Microclimates on Human Perceptions and Behavioral Patterns: A Relational Context of Human Parameters in Urban Design

Authors: Naveed Mazhar

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Our cities are known to have significant modifying effects on the local climate. The nature of the modifications depends on a range of physical variables, usually assessed at a wide range of spatial scales. Physical spatial dimensions, such as measured parameters of microclimates and their significant influence on human sensations, are known to have far-reaching effects on human thermal comfort and by corollary a force that influences human perception. Less scholarship has thrown light on the subjective dimension and insufficiently demonstrates a relational approach between human behavior and how it is affected by the phenomenon of urban microclimates. Other than identifying gaps in the most recent scholarship and providing future research opportunities, the scope of this study will help improve urban design guidelines and raise framework standards of socially responsive urban design. This study will help equip future professionals to ameliorate the effects of urban microclimates on participant’s perceptions enabling more frequent usage of the outdoor urban spaces. However, it is informed that the physical parameters of an outdoor open space determine psychological human adaptations and is a measure of the degree to which people are willing to adapt to their surroundings. A large amount of research is available related to urban microclimates. However, very few studies are focused on the elucidation of the critical factors influencing human perceptions of the microclimates in urban spatial configurations. Based on the most recent scholarship, this study has evaluated the role urban microclimatic conditions have in the formation of human perceptions and, by extension, behavioral patterns formulating in outdoor open spaces. Furthermore, this study also defines, in the backdrop of the current scholarly literature, the socio-spatial interdependence of behavioral patterns with relationship to the built urban fabric and its resultant correlation with human perception. A comprehensive review and analysis of the recent research conducted within the scope of the study will help frame gaps, issues, current research methods and future research opportunities.

Keywords: urban design, urban microcliamate, human perception, human behavioral patterns

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7 Women’s Colours in Digital Innovation

Authors: Daniel J. Patricio Jiménez

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Digital reality demands new ways of thinking, flexibility in learning, acquisition of new competencies, visualizing reality under new approaches, generating open spaces, understanding dimensions in continuous change, etc. We need inclusive growth, where colors are not lacking, where lights do not give a distorted reality, where science is not half-truth. In carrying out this study, the documentary or bibliographic collection has been taken into account, providing a reflective and analytical analysis of current reality. In this context, deductive and inductive methods have been used on different multidisciplinary information sources. Women today and tomorrow are a strategic element in science and arts, which, under the umbrella of sustainability, implies ‘meeting current needs without detriment to future generations’. We must build new scenarios, which qualify ‘the feminine and the masculine’ as an inseparable whole, encouraging cooperative behavior; nothing is exclusive or excluding, and that is where true respect for diversity must be based. We are all part of an ecosystem, which we will make better as long as there is a real balance in terms of gender. It is the time of ‘the lifting of the veil’, in other words, it is the time to discover the pseudonyms, the women who painted, wrote, investigated, recorded advances, etc. However, the current reality demands much more; we must remove doors where they are not needed. Mass processing of data, big data, needs to incorporate algorithms under the perspective of ‘the feminine’. However, most STEM students (science, technology, engineering, and math) are men. Our way of doing science is biased, focused on honors and short-term results to the detriment of sustainability. Historically, the canons of beauty, the way of looking, of perceiving, of feeling, depended on the circumstances and interests of each moment, and women had no voice in this. Parallel to science, there is an under-representation of women in the arts, but not so much in the universities, but when we look at galleries, museums, art dealers, etc., colours impoverish the gaze and once again highlight the gender gap and the silence of the feminine. Art registers sensations by divining the future, science will turn them into reality. The uniqueness of the so-called new normality requires women to be protagonists both in new forms of emotion and thought, and in the experimentation and development of new models. This will result in women playing a decisive role in the so-called "5.0 society" or, in other words, in a more sustainable, more humane world.

Keywords: art, digitalization, gender, science

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6 Influence of Gamma-Radiation Dosimetric Characteristics on the Stability of the Persistent Organic Pollutants

Authors: Tatiana V. Melnikova, Lyudmila P. Polyakova, Alla A. Oudalova

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As a result of environmental pollution, the production of agriculture and foodstuffs inevitably contain residual amounts of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP). The special attention must be given to organic pollutants, including various organochlorinated pesticides (OCP). Among priorities, OCP is DDT (and its metabolite DDE), alfa-HCH, gamma-HCH (lindane). The control of these substances spends proceeding from requirements of sanitary norms and rules. During too time often is lost sight of that the primary product can pass technological processing (in particular irradiation treatment) as a result of which transformation of physicochemical forms of initial polluting substances is possible. The goal of the present work was to study the OCP radiation degradation at a various gamma-radiation dosimetric characteristics. The problems posed for goal achievement: to evaluate the content of the priority of OCPs in food; study the character the degradation of OCP in model solutions (with micro concentrations commensurate with the real content of their agricultural and food products) depending upon dosimetric characteristics of gamma-radiation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of OCP in food and model solutions by gas chromatograph Varian 3400 (Varian, Inc. (USA)); chromatography-mass spectrometer Varian Saturn 4D (Varian, Inc. (USA)) was carried out. The solutions of DDT, DDE, alpha- and gamma- isomer HCH (0.01, 0.1, 1 ppm) were irradiated on "Issledovatel" (60Co) and "Luch - 1" (60Co) installations at a dose 10 kGy with a variation of dose rate from 0.0083 up to 2.33 kGy/sec. It was established experimentally that OCP residual concentration in individual samples of food products (fish, milk, cereal crops, meat, butter) are evaluated as 10-1-10-4 mg/kg, the value of which depends on the factor-sensations territory and natural migration processes. The results were used in the preparation of model solutions OCP. The dependence of a degradation extent of OCP from a dose rate gamma-irradiation has complex nature. According to our data at a dose 10 kGy, the degradation extent of OCP at first increase passes through a maximum (over the range 0.23 – 0.43 Gy/sec), and then decrease with the magnification of a dose rate. The character of the dependence of a degradation extent of OCP from a dose rate is kept for various OCP, in polar and nonpolar solvents and does not vary at the change of concentration of the initial substance. Also in work conditions of the maximal radiochemical yield of OCP which were observed at having been certain: influence of gamma radiation with a dose 10 kGy, in a range of doses rate 0.23 – 0.43 Gy/sec; concentration initial OCP 1 ppm; use of solvent - 2-propanol after preliminary removal of oxygen. Based on, that at studying model solutions of OCP has been established that the degradation extent of pesticides and qualitative structure of OCP radiolysis products depend on a dose rate, has been decided to continue researches radiochemical transformations OCP into foodstuffs at various of doses rate.

Keywords: degradation extent, dosimetric characteristics, gamma-radiation, organochlorinated pesticides, persistent organic pollutants

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5 The Expression of the Social Experience in Film Narration: Cinematic ‘Free Indirect Discourse’ in the Dancing Hawk (1977) by Grzegorz Krolikiewicz

Authors: Robert Birkholc

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One of the basic issues related to the creation of characters in media, such as literature and film, is the representation of the characters' thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. This paper is devoted to the social perspective (or the focalization) expressed in film narration. The aim of the paper is to show how social point of view of the hero –conditioned by his origin and the environment from which he comes– can be created by using non-verbal, purely audiovisual means of expression. The issue will be considered on the example of the little-known polish movie The Dancing Hawk (1977) by Grzegorz Królikiewicz, based on the novel by Julian Kawalec. The thesis of the paper is that the polish director uses a narrative figure, which is somewhat analogous to literary form of free indirect discourse. In literature, free indirect discourse is formally ‘spoken’ by the external narrator, but the narration is clearly filtered through the language and thoughts of the character. According to some scholars (such as Roy Pascal), the narrator in this form of speech does not cite the character's words, but uses his way of thinking and imitates his perspective – sometimes with a deep irony. Free indirect discourse is frequently used in Julian Kawalec’s novel. Through the linguistic stylization, the author tries to convey the socially determined perspective of a peasant who migrates to the big city after the Second World War. Grzegorz Królikiewicz expresses the same social experience by pure cinematic form in the adaptation of the book. Both Kawalec and Królikiewicz show the consequences of so-called ‘social advancement’ in Poland after 1945, when the communist party took over political power. On the example of the fate of the main character, Michał Toporny, the director presents the experience of peasants who left their villages and had to adapt to new, urban space. However, the paper is not focused on the historical topic itself, but on the audiovisual form of the movie. Although Królikiewicz doesn’t use frequently POV shots, the narration of The Dancing Hawk is filtered through the sensations of the main character, who feels uprooted and alienated in the new social space. The director captures the hero's feelings through very complex audiovisual procedures – high or low points of view (representing the ‘social position’), grotesque soundtrack, expressionist scenery, and associative editing. In this way, he manages to create the world from the perspective of a socially maladjusted and internally split subject. The Dancing Hawk is a successful attempt to adapt the subjective narration of the book to the ‘language’ of the cinema. Mieke Bal’s notion of focalization helps to describe ‘free indirect discourse’ as a transmedial figure of representing of the characters’ perceptions. However, the polysemiotic medium of the film also significantly transforms this figure of representation. The paper shows both the similarities and differences between literary and cinematic ‘free indirect discourse.’

Keywords: film and literature, free indirect discourse, social experience, subjective narration

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4 The Touch Sensation: Ageing and Gender Influences

Authors: A. Abdouni, C. Thieulin, M. Djaghloul, R. Vargiolu, H. Zahouani

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A decline in the main sensory modalities (vision, hearing, taste, and smell) is well reported to occur with advancing age, it is expected a similar change to occur with touch sensation and perception. In this study, we have focused on the touch sensations highlighting ageing and gender influences with in vivo systems. The touch process can be divided into two main phases: The first phase is the first contact between the finger and the object, during this contact, an adhesive force has been created which is the needed force to permit an initial movement of the finger. In the second phase, the finger mechanical properties with their surface topography play an important role in the obtained sensation. In order to understand the age and gender effects on the touch sense, we develop different ideas and systems for each phase. To better characterize the contact, the mechanical properties and the surface topography of human finger, in vivo studies on the pulp of 40 subjects (20 of each gender) of four age groups of 26±3, 35+-3, 45+-2 and 58±6 have been performed. To understand the first touch phase a classical indentation system has been adapted to measure the finger contact properties. The normal force load, the indentation speed, the contact time, the penetration depth and the indenter geometry have been optimized. The penetration depth of a glass indenter is recorded as a function of the applied normal force. Main assessed parameter is the adhesive force F_ad. For the second phase, first, an innovative approach is proposed to characterize the dynamic finger mechanical properties. A contactless indentation test inspired from the techniques used in ophthalmology has been used. The test principle is to blow an air blast to the finger and measure the caused deformation by a linear laser. The advantage of this test is the real observation of the skin free return without any outside influence. Main obtained parameters are the wave propagation speed and the Young's modulus E. Second, negative silicon replicas of subject’s fingerprint have been analyzed by a probe laser defocusing. A laser diode transmits a light beam on the surface to be measured, and the reflected signal is returned to a set of four photodiodes. This technology allows reconstructing three-dimensional images. In order to study the age and gender effects on the roughness properties, a multi-scale characterization of roughness has been realized by applying continuous wavelet transform. After determining the decomposition of the surface, the method consists of quantifying the arithmetic mean of surface topographic at each scale SMA. Significant differences of the main parameters are shown with ageing and gender. The comparison between men and women groups reveals that the adhesive force is higher for women. The results of mechanical properties show a Young’s modulus higher for women and also increasing with age. The roughness analysis shows a significant difference in function of age and gender.

Keywords: ageing, finger, gender, touch

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3 Restless Leg Syndrome as the Presenting Symptom of Neuroendocrine Tumor

Authors: Mustafa Cam, Nedim Ongun, Ufuk Kutluana

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Introduction: Restless LegsSyndrome (RLS) is a common, under-recognized disorder disrupts sleep and diminishes quality of life (1). The most common conditions highly associated with RLS include renalfailure, iron and folic acid deficiency, peripheral neuropathy, pregnancy, celiacdisease, Crohn’sdiseaseandrarelymalignancy (2).Despite a clear relation between low peripheral iron and increased prevalence and severity of RLS, the prevalence and clinical significance of RLS in iron-deficientanemic populations is unknown (2). We report here a case of RLS due to iron deficiency in the setting of neuroendocrinetumor. Report of Case: A 35 year-old man was referred to our clinic with general weakness, weight loss (10 kg in 2 months)and 2-month history of uncomfortable sensations in his legs with urge to move, partially relieved by movement. The symptoms were presented very day, worsening in the evening; the discomfort forced the patient to getup and walk around at night. RLS was severe, with a score of 22 at the International RLS ratingscale. The patient had no past medical history. The patient underwent a complete set of blood analyses and the following ab normal values were found (normal limitswithinbrackets): hemoglobin 9.9 g/dl (14-18), MCV 70 fL (80-94), ferritin 3,5 ng/mL (13-150). Brain and spinemagnetic resonance imaging was normal. The patient consultated with gastroenterology clinic and gastointestinal systemendoscopy was performed for theetiology of the iron deficiency anemia. After the gastricbiopsy, results allowed us to reach the diagnosis of neuroen docrine tumor and the patient referred to oncology clinic. Discussion: The first important consideration from this case report is that the patient was referred to our clinic because of his severe RLS symptoms dramatically reducing his quality of life. However, our clinical study clearly demonstrated that RLS was not the primary disease. Considering the information available for this patient, we believe that the most likely possibility is that RLS was secondary to iron deficiency, a very well-known and established cause of RLS in theliterature (3,4). Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare epithelial neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation that most commonly originate in the lungs and gastrointestinal tract (5). NETs vary widely in their clinical presentation; symptoms are often nonspecific and can be mistaken for those of other more common conditions (6). 50% of patients with reported disease stage have either regional or distant metastases at diagnosis (7). Accurate and earlier NET diagnosis is the first step in shortening the time to optimal care and improved outcomes for patients (8). The most important message from this case report is that RLS symptoms can sometimes be thesign of a life-threatening condition. Conclusion: Careful and complete collection of clinical and laboratory data should be carried out in RLS patients. Inparticular, if RLS onset coincides with weight loss and iron deficieny anemia, gastricendos copy should be performed. It is known about that malignancy is a rare etiology in RLS patients and to our knowledge; it is the first case with neuro endocrine tumor presenting with RLS.

Keywords: neurology, neuroendocrine tumor, restless legs syndrome, sleep

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2 From Victim to Ethical Agent: Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol as Post-Traumatic Writing

Authors: Mona Salah El-Din Hassanein

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Faced with a sudden, unexpected, and overwhelming event, the individual's normal cognitive processing may cease to function, trapping the psyche in "speechless terror", while images, feelings and sensations are experienced with emotional intensity. Unable to master such situation, the individual becomes a trauma victim who will be susceptible to traumatic recollections like intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and repetitive re-living of the primal event in a way that blurs the distinction between past and present, and forecloses the future. Trauma is timeless, repetitious, and contagious; a trauma observer could fall prey to "secondary victimhood". Central to the process of healing the psychic wounds in the aftermath of trauma is verbalizing the traumatic experience (i.e., putting it into words) – an act which provides a chance for assimilation, testimony, and reevaluation. In light of this paradigm, this paper proposes a reading of Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol, written shortly after his release from prison, as a post-traumatic text which traces the disruptive effects of the traumatic experience of Wilde's imprisonment for homosexual offences and the ensuing reversal of fortune he endured. Post-traumatic writing demonstrates the process of "working through" a trauma which may lead to the possibility of ethical agency in the form of a "survivor mission". This paper draws on fundamental concepts and key insights in literary trauma theory which is characterized by interdisciplinarity, combining the perspectives of different fields like critical theory, psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, history, and social studies. Of particular relevance to this paper are the concepts of "vicarious traumatization" and "survivor mission", as The Ballad of Reading Gaol was written in response to Wilde's own prison trauma and the indirect traumatization he experienced as a result of witnessing the execution of a fellow prisoner whose story forms the narrative base of the poem. The Ballad displays Wilde's sense of mission which leads him to recognize the social as well as ethical implications of personal tragedy. Through a close textual analysis of The Ballad of Reading Gaol within the framework of literary trauma theory, the paper aims to: (a) demonstrate how the poem's thematic concerns, structure and rhetorical figures reflect the structure of trauma; (b) highlight Wilde's attempts to come to terms with the effects of the cataclysmic experience which transformed him into a social outcast; and (c) show how Wilde manages to transcend the victim status and assumes the role of ethical agent to voice a critique of the Victorian penal system and the standards of morality underlying the cruelties practiced against wrong doers and to solicit social action.

Keywords: ballad of reading of reading, post-traumatic writing, trauma theory, Wilde

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1 The Healing 'Touch' of Music: A Neuro-Acoustics Approach to Understand Its Therapeutic Effect

Authors: Jagmeet S. Kanwal, Julia F. Langley

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Music can heal the body, but a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. This study explores the effects of music presentation on neurologic and physiologic responses leading to metabolic changes in the human body. The mind and body co-exist in a corporeal entity and within this framework, sickness ensues when the mind-body balance goes awry. It is further hypothesized that music has the capacity to directly reset this balance. Two lines of inquiry taken together can provide a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon 1) Empirical evidence for a sound-sensitive pressure sensor system in the body, and 2) The notion of a “healing center” within the brain that is activated by specific patterns of sounds. From an acoustics perspective, music is spatially distributed as pressure waves ranging from a few cm to several meters in wavelength. These waves interact and propagate in three-dimensions in unique ways, depending on the wavelength. Furthermore, music creates dynamically changing wave-fronts. Frequencies between 200 Hz and 1 kHz generate wavelengths that range from 5'6" to 1 foot. These dimensions are in the range of the body size of most people making it plausible that these pressure waves can geometrically interact with the body surface and create distinct patterns of pressure stimulation across the skin surface. For humans, short wavelength, high frequency (> 200 Hz) sounds are best received via cochlear receptors. For low frequency (< 200 Hz), long wavelength sound vibrations, however, the whole body may act as an ideal receiver. A vast array of highly sensitive pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscles) is present just beneath the skin surface, as well as in the tendons, bones, several organs in the abdomen, and the sexual organs. Per the available empirical evidence, these receptors contribute to music perception by allowing the whole body to function as a sound receiver, and knowledge of how they function is essential to fully understanding the therapeutic effect of music. Neuroscientific studies have established that music stimulates the limbic system that can trigger states of anxiety, arousal, fear, and other emotions. These emotional states of brain activity play a crucial role in filtering top-down feedback from thoughts and bottom-up sensory inputs to the autonomic system, which automatically regulates bodily functions. Music likely exerts its pleasurable and healing effects by enhancing functional and effective connectivity and feedback mechanisms between brain regions that mediate reward, autonomic, and cognitive processing. Stimulation of pressure receptors under the skin by low-frequency music-induced sensations can activate multiple centers in the brain, including the amygdala, the cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Melodies in music in the low (< 600 Hz) frequency range may augment auditory inputs after convergence of the pressure-sensitive inputs from the vagus nerve onto emotive processing regions within the limbic system. The integration of music-generated auditory and somato-visceral inputs may lead to a synergistic input to the brain that promotes healing. Thus, music can literally heal humans through “touch” as it energizes the brain’s autonomic system for restoring homeostasis.

Keywords: acoustics, brain, music healing, pressure receptors

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