Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 323

Search results for: rectangular fin

323 Existence and Construction of Maximal Rectangular Duals

Authors: Krishnendra Shekhawat


Given a graph G = (V, E), a rectangular dual of G represents the vertices of G by a set of interior-disjoint rectangles such that two rectangles touch if and only if there is an edge between the two corresponding vertices in G. Rectangular duals do not exist for every graph, so we can define maximal rectangular duals. A maximal rectangular dual is a rectangular dual of a graph G such that there exists no graph G ′ with a rectangular dual where G is a subgraph of G ′. In this paper, we enumerate all maximal rectangular duals (or, to be precise, the corresponding planar graphs) up to six nodes and presents a necessary condition for the existence of a rectangular dual. This work allegedly has applications in integrated circuit design and architectural floor plans.

Keywords: adjacency, degree sequence, dual graph, rectangular dual

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
322 Investigating the Capacity of Cracking Torsion of Rectangular and Cylindrical RC Beams with Spiral and Normal Stirrups

Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei, Saeed Eskanderzadeh


In this paper, the capacity of cracking torsion on rectangular and cylindrical beams with spiral and normal stirrups in similar properties are investigated. Also, in the beams with spiral stirrups, stirrups are not wrapping and spiral stirrups similar to normal stirrups in ACI code. Therefore, models of above-mentioned beams have been numerically analyzed under various loads using ANSYS software. In this research, the behavior of rectangular reinforced concrete beams is compared with the cylindrical reinforced concrete beams. The capacity of cracking torsion of rectangular and cylindrical RC beams with spiral and normal stirrups are same. In the other words, the behavior of rectangular RC beams is similar to cylindrical beams.

Keywords: cracking torsion, RC beams, spiral stirrups, normal stirrups

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
321 Thermohydraulic Performance Comparison of Artificially Roughened Rectangular Channels

Authors: Narender Singh Thakur, Sunil Chamoli


The use of roughness geometry in the rectangular channel duct is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to the working fluid. The present research concentrates on the performance comparison of a rectangular channel with different roughness geometry of the test plate. The performance enhancement is compared by considering the statistical correlations developed by the various investigators for Nusselt number and friction factor. Among all the investigated geometries multiple v-shaped rib roughened rectangular channel found thermo hydraulically better than other investigated geometries under similar current and operating conditions.

Keywords: nusselt number, friction factor, thermohydraulic, performance parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
320 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency

Authors: Hamed Sanei, Mohammad Bagher Ayani


Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.

Keywords: Chevron corrugated plate heat exchanger, heat transfer, friction factor, Reynolds numbers

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
319 An Analytical Method for Bending Rectangular Plates with All Edges Clamped Supported

Authors: Yang Zhong, Heng Liu


The decoupling method and the modified Naiver method are combined for accurate bending analysis of rectangular thick plates with all edges clamped supported. The basic governing equations for Mindlin plates are first decoupled into independent partial differential equations which can be solved separately. Using modified Navier method, the analytic solution of rectangular thick plate with all edges clamped supported is then derived. The solution method used in this paper leave out the complicated derivation for calculating coefficients and obtain the solution to problems directly. Numerical comparisons show the correctness and accuracy of the results at last.

Keywords: Mindlin plates, decoupling method, modified Navier method, bending rectangular plates

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
318 Active Noise Cancellation in the Rectangular Enclosure Systems

Authors: D. Shakirah Shukor, A. Aminudin, Hashim U. A., Waziralilah N. Fathiah, T. Vikneshvaran


The interior noise control is essential to be explored due to the interior acoustic analysis is significant in the systems such as automobiles, aircraft, air-handling system and diesel engine exhausts system. In this research, experimental work was undertaken for canceling an active noise in the rectangular enclosure. The rectangular enclosure was fabricated with multiple speakers and microphones inside the enclosure. A software program using digital signal processing is implemented to evaluate the proposed method. Experimental work was conducted to obtain the acoustic behavior and characteristics of the rectangular enclosure and noise cancellation based on active noise control in low-frequency range. Noise is generated by using multispeaker inside the enclosure and microphones are used for noise measurements. The technique for noise cancellation relies on the principle of destructive interference between two sound fields in the rectangular enclosure. One field is generated by the original or primary sound source, the other by a secondary sound source set up to interfere with, and cancel, that unwanted primary sound. At the end of this research, the result of output noise before and after cancellation are presented and discussed. On the basis of the findings presented in this research, an active noise cancellation in the rectangular enclosure is worth exploring in order to improve the noise control technologies.

Keywords: active noise control, digital signal processing, noise cancellation, rectangular enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
317 Effect of Ionized Plasma Medium on the Radiation of a Rectangular Microstrip Antenna on Ferrite Substrate

Authors: Ayman Al Sawalha


This paper presents theoretical investigations on the radiation of rectangular microstrip antenna printed on a magnetized ferrite substrate Ni0.62Co0.02Fe1.948O4 in the presence of ionized plasma medium. The theoretical study of rectangular microstrip antenna in free space is carried out by applying the transmission line model combining with potential function techniques while hydrodynamic theory is used for it is analysis in plasma medium. By taking the biased and unbiased ferrite cases, far-field radiation patterns in free space and plasma medium are obtained which in turn are applied in computing radiated power, directivity, quality factor and bandwidth of antenna. It is found that the presence of plasma medium affects the performance of rectangular microstrip antenna structure significantly.

Keywords: ferrite, microstrip antenna, plasma, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
316 Some Results on the Generalized Higher Rank Numerical Ranges

Authors: Mohsen Zahraei


‎In this paper, ‎the notion of ‎rank-k numerical range of rectangular complex matrix polynomials‎ ‎are introduced. ‎Some algebraic and geometrical properties are investigated. ‎Moreover, ‎for ε>0 the notion of Birkhoff-James approximate orthogonality sets for ε-higher ‎rank numerical ranges of rectangular matrix polynomials is also introduced and studied. ‎The proposed definitions yield a natural generalization of the standard higher rank numerical ranges.

Keywords: ‎‎Rank-k numerical range‎, ‎isometry‎, ‎numerical range‎, ‎rectangular matrix polynomials

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
315 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Protruded Rectangular Fin

Authors: Tarique Jamil Khan, Swapnil Pande


The investigation deals with the study of heat transfer enhancement using protruded square fin. This study is enough to determine whether protrusion in forced convection is enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. It includes the results after performing experiments by using a plane rectangular fin of aluminum material and the same dimension rectangular fin of the same material but having protruded circular shape extended normally. The fins made by a sand casting method. The results clearly mentioned that the protruded surface is effective enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. This research investigates a modern fin topologies heat transfer characteristics that will clearly outdated the conventional fin to increase the rate of heat transfer. Protruded fins improve the rate of heat transfer compared to solid fin by varying shape of the protrusion in diameter and height.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, forced convection, protruted fin, rectangular fin

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
314 Free Vibration and Buckling of Rectangular Plates under Nonuniform In-Plane Edge Shear Loads

Authors: T. H. Young, Y. J. Tsai


A method for determining the stress distribution of a rectangular plate subjected to two pairs of arbitrarily distributed in-plane edge shear loads is proposed, and the free vibration and buckling of such a rectangular plate are investigated in this work.  The method utilizes two stress functions to synthesize the stress-resultant field of the plate with each of the stress functions satisfying the biharmonic compatibility equation. The sum of stress-resultant fields due to these two stress functions satisfies the boundary conditions at the edges of the plate, from which these two stress functions are determined. Then, the free vibration and buckling of the rectangular plate are investigated by the Galerkin method. Numerical results obtained by this work are compared with those appeared in the literature, and good agreements are observed.

Keywords: stress analysis, free vibration, plate buckling, nonuniform in-plane edge shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
313 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct

Authors: Nur Irmawati, H. A. Mohammed


In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics were studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2×106≤Ra≤2×107 and Reynolds number in the range of 100≤Re≤1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It was also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.

Keywords: numerical simulation, mixed convection, horizontal rectangular duct, nanofluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
312 Suitable Die Shaping for a Rectangular Shape Bottle by Application of FEM and AI Technique

Authors: N. Ploysook, R. Rugsaj, C. Suvanjumrat


The characteristic requirement for producing rectangular shape bottles was a uniform thickness of the plastic bottle wall. Die shaping was a good technique which controlled the wall thickness of bottles. An advance technology which was the finite element method (FEM) for blowing parison to be a rectangular shape bottle was conducted to reduce waste plastic from a trial and error method of a die shaping and parison control method. The artificial intelligent (AI) comprised of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm was selected to optimize the die gap shape from the FEM results. The application of AI technique could optimize the suitable die gap shape for the parison blow molding which did not depend on the parison control method to produce rectangular bottles with the uniform wall. Particularly, this application can be used with cheap blow molding machines without a parison controller therefore it will reduce cost of production in the bottle blow molding process.

Keywords: AI, bottle, die shaping, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
311 Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ

Authors: R. Saini, R. Lal


The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.

Keywords: rectangular, non-homogeneous, bilinear thickness, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ)

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
310 The Pressure Distribution on the Rectangular and Trapezoidal Storage Tanks' Perimeters Due to Liquid Sloshing Impact

Authors: Hassan Saghi, Gholam Reza Askarzadeh Garmroud, Seyyed Ali Reza Emamian


Sloshing phenomenon is a complicated free surface flow problem that increases the dynamic pressure on the sidewalls and the bottom of the storage tanks. When the storage tanks are partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on the tank’s perimeter. In this paper, a numerical code was developed to determine the pressure distribution on the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact. Assuming the fluid to be inviscid, the Laplace equation and the nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled BEM-FEM. The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data. Finally, this code is used for partially filled rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks and the pressure distribution on the tanks’ perimeters due to liquid sloshing impact is estimated. The results show that the maximum pressure on the perimeter of the rectangular and trapezoidal storage tanks was decreased along the sidewalls from the top to the bottom. Furthermore, the period of the pressure distribution is different for different points on the tank’s perimeter and it is bigger in the trapezoidal tanks compared to the rectangular ones.

Keywords: pressure distribution, liquid sloshing impact, sway motion, trapezoidal storage tank, coupled BEM-FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
309 Vibration Response of Soundboards of Classical Guitars

Authors: Meng Koon Lee, Mohammad Hosseini Fouladi, Satesh Narayana Namasivayam


Research is focused on the response of soundboards of Classical guitars at frequencies up to 5 kHz as the soundboard is a major contributor to acoustic radiation at high frequencies when compared to the bridge and sound hole. A thin rectangular plate of variable thickness that is simply-supported on all sides is used as an analytical model of the research. This model is used to study the response of the guitar soundboard as the latter can be considered as a modified form of a rectangular plate. Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is selected as a mathematical method to obtain an analytical solution of the 4th-order parabolic partial differential equation of motion of the rectangular plate of constant thickness viewed as a linear problem. This procedure is generalized to the nonlinear problem of the rectangular plate with variable thickness and an analytical solution can also be obtained. Sound power is used as a parameter to investigate the acoustic radiation of soundboards made from spruce using various bracing patterns. The sound power of soundboards made from Malaysian softwood such as damar minyak, sempilor or podo are investigated to determine the viability of replacing spruce as future materials for soundboards of Classical guitars.

Keywords: rectangular plates, analytical solution, homotopy perturbation, natural frequencies

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
308 Anchorage Effect on Axial Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymers Confined Rectangular Columns

Authors: Yavuz Yardim


FRP systems have been largely used to improve the performance of structural members, due to their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Application of this strengthening procedure in circular columns has resulted quite beneficial in increasing their seismic and axial capacity. Whereas in the rectangular ones, strength enhancement was considerably less due to stress concentration in the corner. In this work three anchorage configurations are tested for their efficiency in increasing the uniformity of confinement pressure in the CFRP strengthened non-circular sections. There is a slight increase in the axial strength of specimens as a general trend. More specifically fan anchorage reached an increase of 17.5% compared to the unanchored specimens. The study shows that uniformity of confining pressure has increased by adding anchorage.

Keywords: rectangular columns, FRP, confinement, anchorage

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
307 Optimization of Dual Band Antenna on Silicon Substrate

Authors: Syrine lahmadi, Jamel Bel Hadj Tahar


In this paper, a rectangular antenna with slots integrated on silicon substrate operating in 60GHz, is studied and optimized. The effect of different parameter of the antenna (width, length, the position of the microstrip-feed line...) and the parameter of the substrate (the thickness, the dielectric constant) on gain, frequency is presented. Also, the paper presents a solution to ameliorate the bandwidth. The maximum simulated radiation gain of this rectangular dual band antenna is 5, 38 dB around 60GHz. The simulation studied id developed based on advanced design system tools. It is found that the designed antenna is 19 % smaller than a rectangular antenna with the same dimensions. This antenna with dual band can function for many communication systems as automobile or radar.

Keywords: dual band, enlargement of bandwidth, miniaturized antennas, printed antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
306 Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete by Rectangular Reinforcement

Authors: Mizam Dogan, Hande Gökdemir


In reinforced concrete elements, reinforcement steel bars are placed in concrete both longitudinal and lateral directions. The lateral reinforcement (called as confinement) which is used for confining circular RC elements is in a spiral shape. If the cross section of RC element is rectangular, stirrups should be rectangular too. At very high compressive stresses concrete will reach its limit strain value and therefore concrete outside the lateral reinforcement, which is not confined, will crush and start to spell. At this stage, concrete core of the RC element tries to expand laterally as a reason of high Poisson’s ratio value of concrete. Such a deformation is prevented by the lateral reinforcement which applies lateral passive pressure on concrete. At very high compressive stresses, the strength of reinforced column member rises to four times σ 2. This increase in strength of member is related to the properties of rectangular stirrups. In this paper, effect of stirrup step spacing to column behavior is calculated and presented confined concrete model is proved by numerical solutions.

Keywords: confined concrete, concrete column, stress-strain, stirrup, solid, frame

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305 Effect of the Cross-Sectional Geometry on Heat Transfer and Particle Motion of Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser for CO2 Capture

Authors: Seungyeong Choi, Namkyu Lee, Dong Il Shim, Young Mun Lee, Yong-Ki Park, Hyung Hee Cho


Effect of the cross-sectional geometry on heat transfer and particle motion of circulating fluidized bed riser for CO2 capture was investigated. Numerical simulation using Eulerian-eulerian method with kinetic theory of granular flow was adopted to analyze gas-solid flow consisting in circulating fluidized bed riser. Circular, square, and rectangular cross-sectional geometry cases of the same area were carried out. Rectangular cross-sectional geometries were analyzed having aspect ratios of 1: 2, 1: 4, 1: 8, and 1:16. The cross-sectional geometry significantly influenced the particle motion and heat transfer. The downward flow pattern of solid particles near the wall was changed. The gas-solid mixing degree of the riser with the rectangular cross section of the high aspect ratio was the lowest. There were differences in bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient according to rectangular geometry with different aspect ratios.

Keywords: bed geometry, computational fluid dynamics, circulating fluidized bed riser, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
304 Free Vibration of Orthotropic Plate with Four Clamped Edges

Authors: Yang Zhong, Meijie Xu


The explicit solutions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the orthotropic rectangular plate with four clamped edges are presented by the double finite cosine integral transform method. In the analysis procedure, the classical orthotropic rectangular thin plate is considered. Because only are the basic dynamic elasticity equations of the orthotropic thin plate adopted, it is not need prior to select the deformation function arbitrarily. Therefore, the solution developed by this paper is reasonable and theoretical. Finally, an illustrative example is given and the results are compared with those reported earlier. This method is found to be easier and effective. The results show reasonable agreement with other available results, but with a simpler and practical approach.

Keywords: rectangular orthotropic plate, four clamped edges, natural frequencies and mode shapes, finite integral transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
303 Compact, Lightweight, Low Cost, Rectangular Core Power Transformers

Authors: Abidin Tortum, Kubra Kocabey


One of the sectors where the competition is experienced at the highest level in the world is the transformer sector, and sales can be made with a limited profit margin. For this reason, manufacturers must develop cost-cutting designs to achieve higher profits. The use of rectangular cores and coils in transformer design is one of the methods that can be used to reduce costs. According to the best knowledge we have obtained, we think that we are the first company producing rectangular core power transformers in our country. BETA, to reduce the cost of this project, more compact products to reveal, as we know it to increase the alleviate and competitiveness of the product, will perform cored coil design and production rectangle for the first-time power transformers in Turkey. The transformer to be designed shall be 16 MVA, 33/11 kV voltage level. With the rectangular design of the transformer core and windings, no-load losses can be reduced. Also, the least costly transformer type is rectangular. However, short-circuit forces on rectangular windings do not affect every point of the windings in the same way. Whereas more force is applied inwards to the mid-points of the low-voltage winding, the opposite occurs in the high-voltage winding. Therefore, the windings tend to deteriorate in the event of a short circuit. While trying to reach the project objectives, the difficulties in the design should be overcome. Rectangular core transformers to be produced in our country offer a more compact structure than conventional transformers. In other words, both height and width were smaller. Thus, the reducer takes up less space in the center. Because the transformer boiler is smaller, less oil is used, and its weight is lower. Biotemp natural ester fluid is used in rectangular transformer and the cooling performance of this oil is analyzed. The cost was also reduced with the reduction of dimensions. The decrease in the amount of oil used has also increased the environmental friendliness of the developed product. Transportation costs have been reduced by reducing the total weight. The amount of carbon emissions generated during the transportation process is reduced. Since the low-voltage winding is wound with a foil winding technique, a more resistant structure is obtained against short circuit forces. No-load losses were lower due to the use of a rectangular core. The project was handled in three phases. In the first stage, preliminary research and designs were carried out. In the second stage, the prototype manufacturing of the transformer whose designs have been completed has been started. The prototype developed in the last stage has been subjected to routine, type and special tests.

Keywords: rectangular core, power transformer, transformer, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
302 Predicting Trapezoidal Weir Discharge Coefficient Using Evolutionary Algorithm

Authors: K. Roushanger, A. Soleymanzadeh


Weirs are structures often used in irrigation techniques, sewer networks and flood protection. However, the hydraulic behavior of this type of weir is complex and difficult to predict accurately. An accurate flow prediction over a weir mainly depends on the proper estimation of discharge coefficient. In this study, the Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) approach was used for predicting trapezoidal and rectangular sharp-crested side weirs discharge coefficient. Three different performance indexes are used as comparing criteria for the evaluation of the model’s performances. The obtained results approved capability of GEP in prediction of trapezoidal and rectangular side weirs discharge coefficient. The results also revealed the influence of downstream Froude number for trapezoidal weir and upstream Froude number for rectangular weir in prediction of the discharge coefficient for both of side weirs.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, genetic expression programming, trapezoidal weir

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
301 Efficiency Improvement for Conventional Rectangular Horn Antenna by Using EBG Technique

Authors: S. Kampeephat, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan


The conventional rectangular horn has been used for microwave antenna a long time. Its gain can be increased by enlarging the construction of horn to flare exponentially. This paper presents a study of the shaped woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) to improve its gain for conventional horn without construction enlargement. The gain enhancement synthesis method for shaped woodpile EBG that has to transfer the electromagnetic fields from aperture of a horn antenna through woodpile EBG is presented by using the variety of shaped woodpile EBGs such as planar, triangular, quadratic, circular, gaussian, cosine, and squared cosine structures. The proposed technique has the advantages of low profile, low cost for fabrication and light weight. The antenna characteristics such as reflection coefficient (S11), radiation patterns and gain are simulated by utilized A Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. With the proposed concept, an antenna prototype was fabricated and experimented. The S11 and radiation patterns obtained from measurements show a good impedance matching and a gain enhancement of the proposed antenna. The gain at dominant frequency of 10 GHz is 25.6 dB, application for X- and Ku-Band Radar, that higher than the gain of the basic rectangular horn antenna around 8 dB with adding only one appropriated EBG structures.

Keywords: conventional rectangular horn antenna, electromagnetic band gap, gain enhancement, X- and Ku-band radar

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
300 Exact Vibration Analysis of a Rectangular Nano-Plate Using Nonlocal Modified Sinusoidal Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: Korosh Khorshidi, Mohammad Khodadadi


In this paper, exact close form solution for out of plate free flexural vibration of moderately thick rectangular nanoplates are presented based on nonlocal modified trigonometric shear deformation theory, with assumptions of the Levy's type boundary conditions, for the first time. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of small-scale parameters on the frequency parameters of the moderately thick rectangular nano-plates. To describe the effects of small-scale parameters on vibrations of rectangular nanoplates, the Eringen theory is used. The Levy's type boundary conditions are combination of six different boundary conditions; specifically, two opposite edges are simply supported and any of the other two edges can be simply supported, clamped or free. Governing equations of motion and boundary conditions of the plate are derived by using the Hamilton’s principle. The present analytical solution can be obtained with any required accuracy and can be used as benchmark. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to other methods reported in the literature. Finally, the effect of boundary conditions, aspect ratios, small scale parameter and thickness ratios on nondimensional natural frequency parameters and frequency ratios are examined and discussed in detail.

Keywords: exact solution, nonlocal modified sinusoidal shear deformation theory, out of plane vibration, moderately thick rectangular plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
299 General Formula for Water Surface Profile over Side Weir in the Combined, Trapezoidal and Exponential, Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman


A side weir is a hydraulic structure set into the side of a channel. This structure is used for water level control in channels, to divert flow from a main channel into a side channel when the water level in the main channel exceeds a specific limit and as storm overflows from urban sewerage system. Computation of water surface over the side weirs is essential to determine the flow rate of the side weir. Analytical solutions for water surface profile along rectangular side weir are available only for the special cases of rectangular and trapezoidal channels considering constant specific energy. In this paper, a rectangular side weir located in a combined (trapezoidal with exponential) channel was considered. Expanding binominal series of integer and fraction powers and the using of reduction formula of cosine function integrals, a general analytical formula was obtained for water surface profile along a side weir in a combined (trapezoidal with exponential) channel. Since triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal and parabolic cross-sections are special cases of the combined cross section, the derived formula, is applicable to triangular, rectangular, trapezoidal cross-sections as analytical solution and semi-analytical solution to parabolic cross-section with maximum relative error smaller than 0.76%. The proposed solution should be a useful engineering tool for the evaluation and design of side weirs in open channel.

Keywords: analytical solution, combined channel, exponential channel, side weirs, trapezoidal channel, water surface profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
298 An Experimental Study on the Effects of Aspect Ratio of a Rectangular Microchannel on the Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop

Authors: J. A. Louw Coetzee, Josua P. Meyer


The thermodynamic properties of different refrigerants in combination with the variation in geometrical properties (hydraulic diameter, aspect ratio, and inclination angle) of a rectangular microchannel determine the two-phase frictional pressure gradient. The effect of aspect ratio on frictional pressure drop had not been investigated enough during adiabatic two-phase flow and condensation in rectangular microchannels. This experimental study was concerned with measurement of the frictional pressure gradient in a rectangular microchannel, with hydraulic diameter of 900 μm. The aspect ratio of this microchannel was varied over a range that stretched from 0.3 to 3 in order to capture the effect of aspect ratio variation. A commonly used refrigerant, R134a, was used in the tests that spanned over a mass flux range of 100 to 1000 kg m-2 s-1 as well as the whole vapour quality range. This study formed part of a refrigerant condensation experiment and was therefore conducted at a saturation temperature of 40 °C. The study found that there was little influence of the aspect ratio on the frictional pressure drop at the test conditions. The data was compared to some of the well known micro- and macro-channel two-phase pressure drop correlations. Most of the separated flow correlations predicted the pressure drop data well at mass fluxes larger than 400 kg m-2 s-1 and vapour qualities above 0.2.

Keywords: aspect ratio, microchannel, two-phase, pressure gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
297 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee


Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
296 Semi Empirical Equations for Peak Shear Strength of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Walls

Authors: Ali Kezmane, Said Boukais, Mohand Hamizi


This paper presents an analytical study on the behavior of reinforced concrete walls with rectangular cross section. Several experiments on such walls have been selected to be studied. Database from various experiments were collected and nominal shear wall strengths have been calculated using formulas, such as those of the ACI (American), NZS (New Zealand), Mexican (NTCC), and Wood and Barda equations. Subsequently, nominal shear wall strengths from the formulas were compared with the ultimate shear wall strengths from the database. These formulas vary substantially in functional form and do not account for all variables that affect the response of walls. There is substantial scatter in the predicted values of ultimate shear strength. Two new semi empirical equations are developed using data from tests of 57 walls for transitions walls and 27 for slender walls with the objective of improving the prediction of peak strength of walls with the most possible accurate.

Keywords: shear strength, reinforced concrete walls, rectangular walls, shear walls, models

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
295 Analytical Study of Flexural Strength of Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beams

Authors: Maru R., Singh V. P.


In this research, analytical study of the flexural strength of Concrete Filled Steel Tube (CFST) beams is carried out based on wide-range finite element models to obtain the better perspective for flexural strength achievement with the use of ABAQUS finite element program. This work adopts concrete damaged plasticity model to get the actual simulation of CFST under bending. To get the decent interaction between concrete and steel, normal and tangential surface interaction provided by ABAQUS is used with hard contact for normal surface interaction and for 0.65 friction coefficient for tangential surface interactions. In this study, rectangular and square CFST beam model cross-sections are adopted with its limits pertained to Eurocode specifications. To get the visualization for flexural strength of CFST beams, total of 74 rectangular CFST beams and 86 square CFST beams are used with four-point bending test setup and the length of the beam model as 1000mm. The grades of concrete and grades of steel are used as 30 MPa & 35MPa and 235 MPa and 275MPa respectively for both sections to get the confinement factor 0.583 to 2.833, steel ratio of 0.069 to 0.236 and length to depth ratio of 4.167 to 16.667. It was found based on this study that flexural strength of CFST beams falls around strain of 0.012. Eurocode provides the results harmonically with finite elemental results. It was also noted for square sections that reduction of steel ratio is not useful as compared to rectangular section although it increases moment capacity up to certain limits because for square sectional area similar to that of rectangular, it possesses lesser depth than rectangular sections. Also It can be said that effect of increment of grade of concrete can be achieved when thicker steel tube is present. It is observed that there is less increment in moment capacity initially but after D/b ratio 1.2, moment capacity of CFST beam rapidly.

Keywords: ABAQUS, CFST beams, flexural strength, four-point bending, rectangular and square sections

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
294 Numerical Verification of a Backfill-Rectangular Tank-Fluid System

Authors: Ramazan Livaoğlu, Tufan Çakır


The performance of rectangular tanks during earthquakes has been observed to depend significantly on the existence of water in the container and the presence of the backfill acting on tank wall. Therefore, in design of rectangular tanks, the topics of fluid-structure-backfill interactions and determination of modal characteristics of the interaction system have traditionally been one of the great theoretical and practical controversy. Although finite element method has been and will continue to be used to a significant extent in treating the response of the system, experimental verification of numerical models remains prerequisite for their adoption and reliable application in practice. Thus, in this study, the numerical and experimental investigations were performed on the backfill-exterior wall-fluid interaction system. Firstly, three dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM) was developed to acquire modal frequencies and mode shapes of the system by means of ANSYS. Secondly, a series of in-situ tests were fulfilled to define modal characteristics of same system to determine the applicability of the FEM to a real physical situation under field conditions. Finally, comparing the theoretical predictions from the model to results from experimental measurement, a close agreement was found between theory and experiment. Thus, it can be easily stated that experimental verification provides strong support for the use of proposed model in further investigations.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, modal analysis, rectangular tank, soil structure interaction

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