Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 3

Search results for: R. Saidur

3 Heat Transfer Studies on CNT Nanofluids in a Turbulent Flow Heat Exchanger

Authors: W. Rashmi, M. Khalid, O. Seiksan, R. Saidur, A. F. Ismail

Abstract:

Nanofluids have received much more attention since its discovery. They are believed to be promising coolants in heat transfer applications due to their enhanced thermal conductivity and heat transfer characteristics. In this study, the enhancement in heat transfer of CNT-nanofluids under turbulent flow conditions is investigated experimentally. Carbon nanotube (CNTs) concentration was varied between 0.051-0.085 wt%. The nanofluid suspension was stabilized by gum arabic (GA) through a process of homogenisation and sonication. The flow rates of cold fluid (water) is varied from 1.7-3 L/min and flow rates of the hot fluid is varied between 2-3.5 L/min. Thermal conductivity, density and viscosity of the nanofluids were also measured as a function of temperature and CNT concentration. The experimental results are validated with theoretical correlations for turbulent flow available in the literature. Results showed an enhancement in heat transfer range between 9-67% as a function of temperature and CNT concentration.

Keywords: nanofluids, carbon nanotubes (CNT), heat transfer enhancement, heat transfer

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2 Angiographic Evaluation of ETT (Treadmill) Positive Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Saidur Rahman Khan, Farzana Islam

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the factors which predetermine the coronary artery disease in patients having positive Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) that is treadmill results and coronary artery findings. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute,Dhaka,Bangladesh from 1st January, 2014 to 31st August, 2014. All patients who had done ETT (treadmill) for chest pain diagnosis were studied. One hundred and four patients underwent coronary angiogram after positive treadmill result. Patients were divided into two groups depending upon the angiographic findings, i.e. true positive and false positive. Positive treadmill test patients who have coronary artery involvement these are called true positive and who have no involvement they are called false positive group. Both groups were compared with each other. Results: Out of 104 patients, 81 (77.9%) patients had true positive ETT and 23 (22.1%) patients had false positive ETT. The mean age of patients in positive ETT was 53.46± 8.06 years and male mean age was 53.63±8.36 years and female was 52.87 ± 7.0 years. Sixty nine (85.19%) male patients and twelve (14.81%) female patients had true positive ETT, whereas 15 (65.21%) males and 8 (34.79%) females had false positive ETT, this was statistically significant (p<0.032)difference in the two groups(sex) in comparison of true and false positive ETT. The risk factors of these patients like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history and smoking were seen among these patients. Hypertensive patients having true positive which were statically significant (p<0.004) and diabetic, dyslipidaemic patients having true positive which were statically significant (p < 0.032 & 0.030).True positive patients had family history were 68 (83.95%) and smoking were 52 (64.20%), where family history patients had statistically significant(p<0.017) between two groups of patients and smokers were significant (p<0.012). 46 true positive patients achieved THR which was not statistically significant (P<0.138)and 79 true patients had abnormal resting ECG whether it was significant (p<0.036). Amongst the vessels involvement the most common was LAD 55 (67.90%), followed by LCX 42 (51.85%), RCA 36 (44.44%) and the LMCA was 9 (11.11%), .40 patients (49.38%) had SVD, 26 (30.10%) had DVD, 15(18.52%) had TVD and 23 had normal coronary arteries. Conclusion: It can be concluded that among the female patients who have positive ETT with normal resting ECG, who had achieved target heart rate are likely to have a false positive test result. Conversely male patients,resting abnormal ECG who had not achieved THR, symptom limited ETT, have a hypertension, diabetis, dyslipidaemic, family history and smoking are likely to have a true positive treadmill test result.

Keywords: exercise tolerance test, coronary artery disease, coronary angiography, true positive, false positive

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1 Recycling Waste Product for Metal Removal from Water

Authors: Saidur R. Chowdhury, Mamme K. Addai, Ernest K. Yanful

Abstract:

The research was performed to assess the potential of nickel smelter slag, an industrial waste, as an adsorbent in the removal of metals from aqueous solution. An investigation was carried out for Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) adsorption from aqueous solution. Smelter slag was obtain from Ni ore at the Vale Inco Ni smelter in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The batch experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of smelter slag. The slag was characterized by surface analytical techniques. The slag contained different iron oxides and iron silicate bearing compounds. In this study, the effect of pH, contact time, particle size, competition by other ions, slag dose and distribution coefficient were evaluated to measure the optimum adsorption conditions of the slag as an adsorbent for As, Cu, Pb and Cd. The results showed 95-99% removal of As, Cu, Pb, and almost 50-60% removal of Cd, while batch experimental studies were conducted at 5-10 mg/L of initial concentration of metals, 10 g/L of slag doses, 10 hours of contact time and 170 rpm of shaking speed and 25oC condition. The maximum removal of Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) was achieved at pH 5 while the maximum removal of Cd was found after pH 7. The column experiment was also conducted to evaluate adsorption depth and service time for metal removal. This study also determined adsorption capacity, adsorption rate and mass transfer rate. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 3.84 mg/g for As, 4 mg/g for Pb, and 3.86 mg/g for Cu. The adsorption capacity of nickel slag for the four test metals were in decreasing order of Pb > Cu > As > Cd. Modelling of experimental data with Visual MINTEQ revealed that saturation indices of < 0 were recorded in all cases suggesting that the metals at this pH were under- saturated and thus in their aqueous forms. This confirms the absence of precipitation in the removal of these metals at the pHs. The experimental results also showed that Fe and Ni leaching from the slag during the adsorption process was found to be very minimal, ranging from 0.01 to 0.022 mg/L indicating the potential adsorbent in the treatment industry. The study also revealed that waste product (Ni smelter slag) can be used about five times more before disposal in a landfill or as a stabilization material. It also highlighted the recycled slags as a potential reactive adsorbent in the field of remediation engineering. It also explored the benefits of using renewable waste products for the water treatment industry.

Keywords: adsorption, industrial waste, recycling, slag, treatment

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