Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Dicle Aydın

31 The Analysis of Urban Part-To-Whole Relationship in Terms of Residential Areas: Example of Konya

Authors: Gevher Sayar, Dicle Aydın

Abstract:

The need for shelter which is one of the essential requirement of humanity has emerged for different type of dwelling needs depend on upon different culture and location. Almost all dwellings as an element of the public improvements effect the physical appearance of the city. Dwelling zones create part of whole in terms of urban area use. Whereas in traditional texture merger of parcels create city blocks, in new settlement area city blocks become a part, so the property of each part differs. The perspective of this study is part-to-whole relationship of residential areas and diversified residential areas are illustrated. The purpose of this study is that dwelling applications which have constructed quickly as gated community in the last 20 years in new settlement area of Konya (Turkey) have compared traditional texture in terms of part-to-whole relationship. According to the perception of traditional neighborhood in Konya, the relationship of houses between street pattern and each other are suited for city culture and location. In contrast, new settlement areas cannot become integrated another part of city, they have become restricted areas, so new settlement areas have not integrated, they have separated. The perception of part forms whole has changed, roads provide the relationship of growing parts with one another and walls of gated communities has disjunctive feature. In this study, by using visual analysis photographs and technical drawings are used. Traditional texture and current dwelling have compared.

Keywords: dwelling, residential area, urban part, urban whole

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30 Evaluation of Traditional Housing Texture in Context of Sustainability

Authors: Esra Yaldız, Dicle Aydın

Abstract:

Sustainability is a term that provides deciding about the future considering environment and investigates the harmony and balance between protection and usage of the resource. The main objective of sustainability is creating residential areas is nature compatible or providing continuance thereby adapting existing residential area to nature. In this context, historical and traditional areas must have utilized according to sustainability. Traditional housing texture are identified as a traditional architectural product has been designed based on this term. General characteristics of traditional housing within the context of sustainable architecture are their specific dynamics and components and their harmonisation of environment and nature. Owing to the fact that traditional housing texture harmonizes natural conditions of the region, topography, climate and their context, construction materials are provided from environment and traditional techniques and their forms are used and due to construction materials has natural insulation traditional housing create healthy and comfortable living environment, traditional housing is rather significant in terms of sustainable architecture. The basis of this study comprise the routers in traditional housing design in accordance with the principles of sustainability. These are, accommodating topography, climate, and geography, accessibility, structuring at the scale of human, utilization of green zones, unique to the region used construction materials, the form of construction, building envelope and space organization of dwelling. In this context, the purpose of this study is that vernacular architecture approaches of traditional housing textures which are in Central Anatolia Region Located in Anatolia are utilized with regard to sustainability.

Keywords: Anatolia, sustainability, traditional housing texture, vernacular architecture

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29 Reading the Interior Furnishings of the Houses through Turkish Films in the 1980's

Authors: Dicle Aydın, Tuba Bulbul Bahtiyar, Esra Yaldız

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Housing offers a confirmed space for individuals. In the sense of interior decoration design, housing is a kind of typology in which user’s profile and individual preferences are considered as primary determinants. In Turkish society, the transition from traditional residences to apartment buildings brings the change in interior fittings depending upon the location of houses in its wake. The social status of the users in the residence and the differences of their everyday life can be represented more evident in these interior fittings. Hence, space becomes a tool to carry the information of users and the act. From this aspect, space as a concrete tool also enables a multidirectional communication with the cinema which reflects the social, cultural and economic changes of the society. While space takes a virtual or real part of the cinema, architecture discipline has also been influenced by cinematic phenomenas in its own practice. The subject of the movie and its content commune with the space, therefore, the design of the space is formed to support the subject. The purpose of this study is to analyze the space through motion pictures that convey the information of social life with an objective perspective. In addition, this study aims to determine the space, fittings and the use of fittings with respect to the social status of users. Morever, three films in 1980s in which Kemal Sunal, protagonist of the scripts that reflect society in many ways, performed are examined in this study. Movie sets are considered in many ways. For instance, in one of these movies, different houses from an apartment are analyzed vis a vis the perspective of the study.

Keywords: housing, interior, furniture, furnishing, user

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28 Analysis of Kilistra (Gokyurt) Settlement within the Context of Traditional Residential Architecture

Authors: Esra Yaldız, Tugba Bulbul Bahtiyar, Dicle Aydın

Abstract:

Humans meet their need for shelter via housing which they structure in line with habits and necessities. In housing culture, traditional dwelling has an important role as a social and cultural transmitter. It provides concrete data by being planned in parallel with users’ life style and habits, having their own dynamics and components as well as their designs in harmony with nature, environment and the context they exist. Textures of traditional dwelling create a healthy and cozy living environment by means of adaptation to natural conditions, topography, climate, and context; utilization of construction materials found nearby and usage of traditional techniques and forms; and natural isolation of construction materials used. One of the examples of traditional settlements in Anatolia is Kilistra (Gökyurt) settlement of Konya province. Being among the important centers of Christianity in the past, besides having distinctive architecture, culture, natural features, and geographical differences (climate, geological structure, material), Kilistra can also be identified as a traditional settlement consisting of family, religious and economic structures as well as cultural interaction. The foundation of this study is the traditional residential texture of Kilistra with its unique features. The objective of this study is to assess the conformity of traditional residential texture of Kilistra with present topography, climatic data, and geographical values within the context of human scale construction, usage of green space, indigenous construction materials, construction form, building envelope, and space organization in housing.

Keywords: traditional residential architecture, Kilistra, Anatolia, Konya

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
27 Functional Dimension of Reuse: Use of Antalya Kaleiçi Traditional Dwellings as Hotel

Authors: Dicle Aydın, Süheyla Büyükşahin Sıramkaya

Abstract:

Conservation concept gained importance especially in 19th century, it found value with the change and developments lived globally. Basic values in the essence of the concept are important in the continuity of historical and cultural fabrics which have character special to them. Reuse of settlements and spaces carrying historical and cultural values in the frame of socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions is related with functional value. Functional dimension of reuse signifies interrogation of the usage potential of the building with a different aim other than its determined aim. If a building carrying historical and cultural values cannot be used with its own function because of environmental, economical, structural and functional reasons, it is advantageous to maintain its reuse from the point of environmental ecology. By giving a new function both a requirement of the society is fulfilled and a culture entity is conserved because of its functional value. In this study, functional dimension of reuse is exemplified in Antalya Kaleiçi where has a special location and importance with its natural, cultural and historical heritage characteristics. Antayla Kaleiçi settlement preserves its liveliness as a touristic urban fabric with its almost fifty thousand years of past, traditional urban form, civil architectural examples of 18th–19th century reflecting the life style of the region and monumental buildings. The civil architectural examples in the fabric have a special character formed according to Mediterranean climate with their outer sofa (open or closed), one, two or three storey, courtyards and oriels. In the study reuse of five civil architectural examples as boutique hotel by forming a whole with their environmental arrangements is investigated, it is analyzed how the spatial requirements of a boutique hotel are fulfilled in traditional dwellings. Usage of a cultural entity as a boutique hotel is evaluated under the headlines of i.functional requirement, ii.satisfactoriness of spatial dimensions, iii.functional organization. There are closed and open restaurant, kitchen, pub, lobby, administrative offices in the hotel with 70 bed capacity and 28 rooms in total. There are expansions to urban areas on second and third floors by the means of oriels in the hotel surrounded by narrow streets in three directions. This boutique hotel, formed by unique five different dwellings having similar plan scheme in traditional fabric, is different with its structure opened to outside and connected to each other by the means of courtyards, and its outside spaces which gained mobility because of the elevation differences in courtyards.

Keywords: reuse, adaptive reuse, functional dimension of reuse, traditional dwellings

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26 Assessing the Eutrophication Risk in the Suat Uğurlu Dam Lake by Evaluation of Trophic Variables

Authors: Bilge Aydın Er, Yuksel Ardalı

Abstract:

In Ayvacık village, 80-90% of the population is engaged in agriculture. The pollution was adversely affecting the properties of agricultural origin of the lake. This study is to determine pollution caused by unwanted changes in the Suat Ugurlu Dam Lake has been launched to monitor. Yesilirmak basin is located in the proximal part of the Black Sea. Therefore it was exposed to impact many pollution. In this study, sediment samples from selected points along the lake was made on the analysis. This work was supported by the results of water analyzes. It is clear that urgent measures should be taken to the area of water management

Keywords: eutrophication, Black sea, lake, pollution

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25 Why Do We Need Hierachical Linear Models?

Authors: Mustafa Aydın, Ali Murat Sunbul

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Hierarchical or nested data structures usually are seen in many research areas. Especially, in the field of education, if we examine most of the studies, we can see the nested structures. Students in classes, classes in schools, schools in cities and cities in regions are similar nested structures. In a hierarchical structure, students being in the same class, sharing the same physical conditions and similar experiences and learning from the same teachers, they demonstrate similar behaviors between them rather than the students in other classes.

Keywords: hierarchical linear modeling, nested data, hierarchical structure, data structure

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24 Water Quality in Buyuk Menderes Graben, Turkey

Authors: Tugbanur Ozen Balaban, Gultekin Tarcan, Unsal Gemici, Mumtaz Colak, I. Hakki Karamanderesi

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Buyuk Menderes Graben is located in the Western Anatolia (Turkey). The graben has become the largest industrial and agricultural area with a total population exceeding 3.000.000. There are two big cities within the study areas from west to east as Aydın and Denizli. The study area is very rich with regard to cold ground waters and thermal waters. Electrical production using geothermal potential has become very popular in the last decades in this area. Buyuk Menderes Graben is a tectonically active extensional region and is undergoing a north–south extensional tectonic regime which commenced at the latest during Early Middle Miocene period. The basement of the study area consists of Menderes massif rocks that are made up of high-to low-grade metamorphics and they are aquifer for both cold ground waters and thermal waters depending on the location. Neogene terrestrial sediments, which are mainly composed by alluvium fan deposits unconformably cover the basement rocks in different facies have very low permeability and locally may act as cap rocks for the geothermal systems. The youngest unit is Quaternary alluvium which is the shallow regional aquifer consists of Holocene alluvial deposits in the study area. All the waters are of meteoric origin and reflect shallow or deep circulation according to the 8O, 2H and 3H contents. Meteoric waters move to deep zones by fractured system and rise to the surface along the faults. Water samples (drilling well, spring and surface waters) and local seawater were collected between 2010 and 2012 years. Geochemical modeling was calculated distribution of the aqueous species and exchange processes by using PHREEQCi speciation code. Geochemical analyses show that cold ground water types are evolving from Ca–Mg–HCO3 to Na–Cl–SO4 and geothermal aquifer waters reflect the water types of Na-Cl-HCO3 in Aydın. Water types of Denizli are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4. Thermal water types reflect generally Na-HCO3-SO4. The B versus Cl rates increase from east to west with the proportion of seawater introduced into the fresh water aquifers and geothermal reservoirs. Concentrations of some elements (As, B, Fe and Ni) are higher than the tolerance limit of the drinking water standard of Turkey (TS 266) and international drinking water standards (WHO, FAO etc).

Keywords: Buyuk Menderes, isotope chemistry, geochemical modelling, water quality

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23 The Influence of Zinc Applications from Soil and Foliar at Different Levels on Some Quality Characteristics of Sultana Raisins

Authors: Harun Çoban, Aydın Akın

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In this study, the effects of different dose zinc application from soil and foliar on drying yield and some quality characters of raisins ‘Sultana’ were investigated. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four replications, zinc treatment was used at one time (before pre- bloom) and from foliar in three times (pre-bloom, fruit set, and veraison). At harvest, both soil and foliar zinc sulphate applications increased the amount of fresh grapes per vine. Fresh grapes were dried on the drying place. However, the most efficient applications for drying yield and quality of raisins were observed from foliar. Therefore, it was preferred that foliar application dosage level at 0.10 %.

Keywords: zinc, raisins, soil application, foliar application, sultana, expertise value

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22 SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy

Authors: Bahadır Aydın

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Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.

Keywords: energy efficiency, renewable energy, energy regulations, oil, international relations

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21 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome during Seed Development, and Generation of Genic-SSR Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Authors: Ozhan Simsek, Dicle Donmez, Burhanettin Imrak, Ahsen Isik Ozguven, Yildiz Aka Kacar

Abstract:

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to be one of the oldest edible fruit tree species, with a wide geographical global distribution. Fruits from the two defined varieties (Hicaznar and 33N26) were taken at intervals after pollination and fertilization at different sizes. Seed samples were used for transcriptome sequencing. Primary sequencing was produced by Illumina Hi-Seq™ 2000. Firstly, we had raw reads, and it was subjected to quality control (QC). Raw reads were filtered into clean reads and aligned to the reference sequences. De novo analysis was performed to detect genes expressed in seeds of pomegranate varieties. We performed downstream analysis to determine differentially expressed genes. We generated about 27.09 gb bases in total after Illumina Hi-Seq sequencing. All samples were assembled together, we got 59,264 Unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of Unigenes are 84.547.276 bp, 1.426 bp, 2,137 bp, and 46.20 %, respectively. Unigenes were annotated with 7 functional databases, finally, 42.681(NR: 72.02%), 39.660 (NT: 66.92%), 30.790 (Swissprot: 51.95%), 20.212 (COG: 34.11%), 27.689 (KEGG: 46.72%), 12.328 (GO: 20.80%), and 33,833 (Interpro: 57.09%) Unigenes were annotated. With functional annotation results, we detected 42.376 CDS, and 4.999 SSR distribute on 16.143 Unigenes.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, SSR, RNA-Seq, Illumina

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20 Buckling Analysis of Composite Shells under Compression and Torsional Loads: Numerical and Analytical Study

Authors: Güneş Aydın, Razi Kalantari Osgouei, Murat Emre Öztürk, Ahmad Partovi Meran, Ekrem Tüfekçi

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Advanced lightweight laminated composite shells are increasingly being used in all types of modern structures, for enhancing their structural efficiency and performance. Such thin-walled structures are susceptible to buckling when subjected to various loading. This paper focuses on the buckling of cylindrical shells under axial compression and torsional loads. Effects of fiber orientation on the maximum buckling load of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) shells are optimized. Optimum fiber angles have been calculated analytically by using MATLAB program. Numerical models have been carried out by using Finite Element Method program ABAQUS. Results from analytical and numerical analyses are also compared.

Keywords: buckling, composite, cylindrical shell, finite element, compression, torsion, MATLAB, optimization

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19 Analysis of Marketing: Frozen Fruit and Vegetables Sector in Turkey

Authors: Pınar Aydın, Şule Turhan

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Today, with the change of people's consumption habits, the importance of frozen fruit and vegetable sector has been increased. In Turkey, sector is based on export. It is growing very fast and external demand is constantly increasing. About 80% of frozen fruits and vegetables produced in Turkey are being exported. More than 90% of the exports go to European Union countries. About 49% of frozen fruits and vegetables in Turkey is being exported to Germany, England and France. In the sector which the abroad demand is continuously increasing, although it has been estimated that around 25% of the average annual growth rate, the domestic consumption is very low. Although the frozen food consumption per person in Turkey is about %2 of United States, the growing rate of the sector is higher than the United States and Europe. This situation reflects that it is such a sector that has a growing demand in both domestic and foreign markets.

Keywords: frozen food, fruit and vegetable sector, exports, Turkey

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18 Recovery of Zn from Different Çinkur Leach Residues by Acidic Leaching

Authors: Mehmet Ali Topçu, Aydın Ruşen

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Çinkur is the only plant in Turkey that produces zinc from primary ore containing zinc carbonate from its establishment until 1997. After this year, zinc concentrate coming from Iran was used in this plant. Therefore, there are two different leach residues namely Turkish leach residue (TLR) and Iranian leach residue (ILR), in Çinkur stock piles. This paper describes zinc recovery by sulphuric acid (H2SO4) treatment for each leach residue and includes comparison of blended of TLR and ILR. Before leach experiments; chemical, mineralogical and thermal analysis of three different leach residues was carried out by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), respectively. Leaching experiments were conducted at optimum conditions; 100 oC, 150 g/L H2SO4 and 2 hours. In the experiments, stirring rate was kept constant at 600 r/min which ensures complete mixing in leaching solution. Results show that zinc recovery for Iranian LR was higher than Turkish LR due to having different chemical composition from each other.

Keywords: hydrometallurgy, leaching, metal extraction, metal recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
17 Double Layer Security Model for Identification Friend or Foe

Authors: Buse T. Aydın, Enver Ozdemir

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In this study, a double layer authentication scheme between the aircraft and the Air Traffic Control (ATC) tower is designed to prevent any unauthorized aircraft from introducing themselves as friends. The method is a combination of classical cryptographic methods and new generation physical layers. The first layer has employed the embedded key of the aircraft. The embedded key is assumed to installed during the construction of the utility. The other layer is a physical attribute (flight path, distance, etc.) between the aircraft and the ATC tower. We create a mathematical model so that two layers’ information is employed and an aircraft is authenticated as a friend or foe according to the accuracy of the results of the model. The results of the aircraft are compared with the results of the ATC tower and if the values found by the aircraft and ATC tower match within a certain error margin, we mark the aircraft as a friend. In this method, even if embedded key is captured by the enemy aircraft, without the information of the second layer, the enemy can easily be determined. Overall, in this work, we present a more reliable system by adding a physical layer in the authentication process.

Keywords: ADS-B, communication with physical layer security, cryptography, identification friend or foe

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16 Lateral Heterogeneity of 1/Q in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia

Authors: Ufuk Aydın

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The Coda attenuation and frequency dependency of seismic wave are strongly dependent on the effective stresses structures within the upper crust. In this study, the data of three different stations were used to examine the lateral variation of stress. The tectonic structures of these three areas have been examined comparatively using lateral coda tomography. In the study using the single scatter method, the window length selected to be 20 second. Coda values 80 with 94 and frequency dependency values obtained between 0.69 and 1.21. The 1/QC values for the three regions ranged from 0.0012 to 0.017, highlighting the regional differences in the seismotectonic activity of the crust. The lowest absorption values obtained from Erzurum station when the highest absorption values obtained at the Kemaliye station. The low Qc and high frequency dependency values obtained Kemaliye, which indicates that it has highest tectonic activity than other two regions. The seismo-dynamics data obtained from the study found to be in agreement with the tectonic structure of the region.

Keywords: regional coda attenuation, tectonic stress, crustal deformation

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15 The Effects of Yield and Yield Components of Some Quality Increase Applications on Ismailoglu Grape Type in Turkey

Authors: Yaşar Önal, Aydın Akın

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This study was conducted Ismailoglu grape type (Vitis vinifera L.) and its vine which was aged 15 was grown on its own root in a vegetation period of 2013 in Nevşehir province in Turkey. In this research, it was investigated whether the applications of Control (C), 1/3 cluster tip reduction (1/3 CTR), shoot tip reduction (STR), 1/3 CTR + STR, TKI-HUMAS (TKI-HM) (Soil) (S), TKI-HM (Foliar) (F), TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S+F), STR + TKI-HM (S), STR + TKI-HM (F), STR + TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + STR+TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (S + F) on yield and yield components of Ismailoglu grape type. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (16.15 kg/vine) with TKI-HM (S), as the highest cluster weight (652.39 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR, as the highest 100 berry weight (419.07 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest maturity index (44.06) with 1/3 CTR, as the highest must yield (810.00 ml) with STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest intensity of L* color (42.04) with TKI-HM (S + F), as the highest intensity of a* color (2.60) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), as the highest intensity of b* color (7.16) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S) applications. To increase the fresh grape yield of Ismailoglu grape type can be recommended TKI-HM (S) application.

Keywords: 1/3 cluster tip reduction, shoot tip reduction, TKI-Humas application, yield and yield components

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14 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

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Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Coke, iron oxide wastes, recycling, reduction

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13 A Proposal of Farm-Based Tourism within the Context of Rural Tourism: Zeytinseli

Authors: Vedat Acar, Osman Eralp Çolakoğlu

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In this research, with reference to specialization of travel agencies being an important part of tourism industry, a project has been presented about a small-scale enterprise, called as Zeytinseli, contributing actively from the beginning to the end of the production process of olive and olive oil within the context of rural tourism. For this purpose in the research done, firstly, conceptual framework has been formed about travel agency, tour operatorship, specialized travel agency and rural tourism and the necessity of specialization on tourism has been emphasized in today's world. Afterwards, "olive", having an important role in both mythology and divine religions, has been handled within the scope of rural tourism. The cost of accommodation units about Zeytinseli operating in Didim, being a district of Aydın, has been calculated within the context of the project and a fifteen-day's tour to this enterprise has been presented at the end of this project. The research may be said to be an original research on account of embodying not only ecotourism, agro tourism but also cultural tourism and special interest tourism.

Keywords: agro tourism, rural tourism, specialization of travel agency, special interest tourism

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12 Optimization the Freeze Drying Conditions of Olive Seeds

Authors: Alev Yüksel Aydar, Tuncay Yılmaz, Melisa Özçeli̇k, Tuba Aydın, Elif Karabaş

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In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to obtain the optimum conditions for the freeze-drying of Gemlik variety olive seeds of to achieve the desired quality characteristics. The Box Behnken Design (BBD) was applied with three-variable and three replications in the center point. The effects of the different drying parameters including initial temperature of olive seed, pressure and time for freezing on the DPPH activity, total phenolic contents, and oleuropein absorbance value of the samples were investigated. Temperature (50 – 82 °C), pressure (0.2-0.5 mbar), time (6-10 hours) were chosen as independent variables. The analysis revealed that, while the temperature of the product prior to lyophilization and the drying time had no statistically significant effect on DPPH activity (p>0.05), the pressure was more important than the other two variables , and the quadratic effect of pressure had a significant effect on DPPH activity (p<0.05). The R2 and Adj-R2 values of the DPPH activity model were calculated to be 0.8962 and 0.7045, respectively.

Keywords: olive seed, gemlik variety, DPPH, phenolics, optimization

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11 Digital Library Evaluation by SWARA-WASPAS Method

Authors: Mehmet Yörükoğlu, Serhat Aydın

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Since the discovery of the manuscript, mechanical methods for storing, transferring and using the information have evolved into digital methods over the time. In this process, libraries that are the center of the information have also become digitized and become accessible from anywhere and at any time in the world by taking on a structure that has no physical boundaries. In this context, some criteria for information obtained from digital libraries have become more important for users. This paper evaluates the user criteria from different perspectives that make a digital library more useful. The Step-Wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis-Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment (SWARA-WASPAS) method is used with flexibility and easy calculation steps for the evaluation of digital library criteria. Three different digital libraries are evaluated by information technology experts according to five conflicting main criteria, ‘interface design’, ‘effects on users’, ‘services’, ‘user engagement’ and ‘context’. Finally, alternatives are ranked in descending order.

Keywords: digital library, multi criteria decision making, SWARA-WASPAS method

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10 Element Content in Some Wild Amantia Taxa from Marmara Region, Turkey

Authors: Hasan Hüseyin Doğan, Murad Aydın Şanda

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Element contents were analyzed in twelve wild Amanita taxa [A. caesarea (Scop.) Pers., A. citrina (Schaeff.) Pers., A. excelsa (Fr.) Bertill., A. franchetii (Boud.) Fayod, A. gemmata (Fr.) Bertill., A. mairei Foley, A. muscaria (L.) Lam., A. pantherina (DC.) Krombh., A. phalloides (Fr.) Link, A. rubescens Pers., A. vaginata (Bull.) Lam., and A. verna (Bull.) Lam.] from Marmara Region of Turkey by ICP-AES equipment. The element uptake levels were observed at different amounts in each Amanita species. The highest Pb and P concentrations were determined as 15.11 and 0.861 mg.kg-1 in A. caesarea. Fe, Co, As, Sr, Ca, Mg, Al and Na concentrations were determined as 0.832, 4.56, 15.6, 18.9, 0.44, 0.253 and 0.190 mg.kg-1 in A. gemmata respectively. A. muscaria has highest Mo, Th, Sb, V, Cr, and B concentrations as 1.45, 1.17, 1.06, 44, 75, and 7 mg.kg-1 respectively, whereas A. rubescens has highest Zn, Ba, K, S, and Se as 430.6, 65.7, 5.47, 1.16, 11.5 mg.kg-1 respectively. A. muscaria has highest Hg concentrations as 5855 µg.kg-1.The highest Mn concentration were found in A. pantherina with 1176 mg.kg-1, the highest Cd were found in A. phalloides as 10.77 mg.kg-1. In contrast to A. verna has highest Ag and Au content as 77728 and 192 µg.kg-1. Although A. citrina has only the highest Ni content as 75.9 mg.kg-1and A. vaginata has Cu content as 67.04 mg.kg-1 on the other hand A. phalloides has highest Cd concentrations as 10.77 mg.kg-1.

Keywords: amanita, element, macrofungi, Turkey

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9 The Effects of Yield and Yield Components of Some Quality Increase Applications on Razakı Grape Variety

Authors: Şehri Çınar, Aydın Akın

Abstract:

This study was conducted Razakı grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) and its vine which was aged 19 was grown on 5 BB rootstock in a vegetation period of 2014 in Afyon province in Turkey. In this research, it was investigated whether the applications of Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), Shoot Tip Reduction (STR), 1/3 CTR + STR, Boric Acid (BA), 1/3 CTR + BA, STR + BA, 1/3 CTR + STR + BA on yield and yield components of Razakı grape variety. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (7.74 kg/vine) with C application, as the highest cluster weight (244.62 g) with STR application, as the highest 100 berry weight (504.08 g) with C application, as the highest maturity index (36.89) with BA application, as the highest must yield (695.00 ml) with BA and (695.00 ml) with 1/3 CTR + STR + BA applications, as the highest intensity of L* color (46.93) with STR and (46.10) with 1/3 CTR + STR + BA applications, as the highest intensity of a* color (-5.37) with 1/3 CTR + STR and (-5.01) with STR, as the highest intensity of b* color (12.59) with STR application. The shoot tip reduction to increase cluster weight and boric acid application to increase maturity index of Razakı grape variety can be recommended.

Keywords: razakı, 1/3 cluster tip reduction, shoot tip reduction, boric acid, yield and yield components

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8 Some Metal Levels in Muscle Tissue of Seven Fish Species from the Suğla and Beyşehir Lakes, Turkey

Authors: Haluk Özparlak, Murad Aydın Şanda, Gülşin Arslan

Abstract:

Phoxinellus anatolicus, Carassius gibelio, Sander lucioperca, Vimba vimba tenella, Capoeta capoeta, Tinca tinca from Suğla Lake (Turkey) and Phoxinellus anatolicus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Tinca tinca from Beyşehir Lake (Turkey) are economically important fish species and these fish have been consumed as food by local people. P. anatolicus is also endangered and endemic species from Turkey. In this study, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in muscle tissue of these fish by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Levels of metals in the muscle tissue of all the fish specimens were compared with results of previous studies, the tolerance levels of national and international guidelines and the levels of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) limits set by FAO/WHO. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in the muscle tissue of all the fish specimens from Suğla and Beyşehir Lakes exceeded the tolerance levels of national and international guidelines. However, concentrations of Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn were below PTWI limits. Therefore, in terms of these metal levels, consumption of fresh filet of examined seven fish species (weekly up to about 300 g/person) doesn’t seem to be objectionable for human health.

Keywords: Beyşehir Lake, fish, metal levels, Suğla Lake

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7 Determining the Spatial Vulnerability Levels and Typologies of Coastal Cities to Climate Change: Case of Turkey

Authors: Mediha B. Sılaydın Aydın, Emine D. Kahraman

Abstract:

One of the important impacts of climate change is the sea level rise. Turkey is a peninsula, so the coastal areas of the country are threatened by the problem of sea level rise. Therefore, the urbanized coastal areas are highly vulnerable to climate change. At the aim of enhancing spatial resilience of urbanized areas, this question arises: What should be the priority intervention subject in the urban planning process for a given city. To answer this question, by focusing on the problem of sea level rise, this study aims to determine spatial vulnerability typologies and levels of Turkey coastal cities based on morphological, physical and social characteristics. As a method, spatial vulnerability of coastal cities is determined by two steps as level and type. Firstly, physical structure, morphological structure and social structure were examined in determining spatial vulnerability levels. By determining these levels, most vulnerable areas were revealed as a priority in adaptation studies. Secondly, all parameters are also used to determine spatial typologies. Typologies are determined for coastal cities in order to use as a base for urban planning studies. Adaptation to climate change is crucial for developing countries like Turkey so, this methodology and created typologies could be a guide for urban planners as spatial directors and an example for other developing countries in the context of adaptation to climate change. The results demonstrate that the urban settlements located on the coasts of the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean respectively, are more vulnerable than the cities located on the Black Sea’s coasts to sea level rise.

Keywords: climate change, coastal cities, vulnerability, urban land use planning

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6 English Language Teaching Graduate Students' Use of Discussion Moves in Research Articles

Authors: Gamzegul Koca, Evrim Eveyik-Aydin

Abstract:

Genre and discipline-specific knowledge of academic discourse in writing has long been acknowledged as being a core skill to achieve formidable tasks that are expected of graduate students in academic settings. Genre analysis approaches can be adopted to unveil the challenges encountered in these tasks to be able to take instructional actions addressing the aspects of graduate writing that need improvement. In an attempt to find genre-specific academic writing needs of Turkish students enrolled in a graduate program in ELT, this study examines the rhetorical structure of discussion sections of research articles written during the course load stage of their graduate studies. The 35.437-word specialized corpus of graduate papers compiled for the purpose of the study includes discussions of 58 unpublished reports of empirical studies, 31 written in MA courses and 27 in Ph.D. courses by a total of 44 graduate students. The study does sentence-based move structure analysis using the framework developed by Eveyik-Aydın, Karabacak and Akyel in a corpus-based study that analyzed the discussion moves of expert writers in published articles in ELT journals indexed by Social Sciences Citation. The coding of 1577 sentences by three graders using this framework revealed that while the graduate papers included the same moves used in published articles, the rhetorical structure of MA and Ph.D. papers showed considerable differences in terms of the frequency of occurrence of main discussion moves, including interpretation of the results and drawing implications. The implications of these findings will be discussed with respect to the needs of graduate writers and the expectations of discourse community.

Keywords: discussion moves, genre-specific rhetorical structure, move analysis, research articles, the specialized corpus of graduate papers

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5 A New Binder Mineral for Cement Stabilized Road Pavements Soils

Authors: Aydın Kavak, Özkan Coruk, Adnan Aydıner

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Long-term performance of pavement structures is significantly impacted by the stability of the underlying soils. In situ subgrades often do not provide enough support required to achieve acceptable performance under traffic loading and environmental demands. NovoCrete® is a powder binder-mineral for cement stabilized road pavements soils. NovoCrete® combined with Portland cement at optimum water content increases the crystallize formations during the hydration process, resulting in higher strengths, neutralizes pH levels, and provides water impermeability. These changes in soil properties may lead to transforming existing unsuitable in-situ materials into suitable fill materials. The main features of NovoCrete® are: They are applicable to all types of soil, reduce premature cracking and improve soil properties, creating base and subbase course layers with high bearing capacity by reducing hazardous materials. It can be used also for stabilization of recyclable aggregates and old asphalt pavement aggregate, etc. There are many applications in Germany, Turkey, India etc. In this paper, a few field application in Turkey will be discussed. In the road construction works, this binder material is used for cement stabilization works. In the applications 120-180 kg cement is used for 1 m3 of soil with a 2 % of binder NovoCrete® material for the stabilization. The results of a plate loading test in a road construction site show 1 mm deformation which is very small under 7 kg/cm2 loading. The modulus of subgrade reaction increase from 611 MN/m3 to 3673 MN/m3.The soaked CBR values for stabilized soils increase from 10-20 % to 150-200 %. According to these data weak subgrade soil can be used as a base or sub base after the modification. The potential reduction in the need for quarried materials will help conserve natural resources. The use of on-site or nearby materials in fills, will significantly reduce transportation costs and provide both economic and environmental benefits.

Keywords: soil, stabilization, cement, binder, Novocrete, additive

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4 A Meta-Analysis towards an Integrated Framework for Sustainable Urban Transportation within the Concept of Sustainable Cities

Authors: Hande Aladağ, Gökçe Aydın

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The world’s population is increasing continuously and rapidly. Moreover, there are other problems such as the decline of natural energy resources, global warming, and environmental pollution. These facts have made sustainability an important and primary topic from future planning perspective. From this perspective, constituting sustainable cities and communities can be considered as one of the key issues in terms of sustainable development goals. The concept of sustainable cities can be evaluated under three headings such as green/sustainable buildings, self – contained cities and sustainable transportation. This study only concentrates on how to form and support a sustainable urban transportation system to contribute to the sustainable urbanization. Urban transportation system inevitably requires many engineering projects with various sizes. Engineering projects generally have four phases, in the following order: Planning, design, construction, operation. The order is valid but there are feedbacks from every phase to every phase in its upstream. In this regard, engineering projects are iterative processes. Sustainability is an integrated and comprehensive concept thus it should be among the primary concerns in every phase of transportation projects. In the study, a meta-analysis will be performed on the related studies in the literature. It is targeted and planned that, as a result of the findings of this meta-analysis, a framework for the list of principles and actions for sustainable transport will be formed. The meta-analysis will be performed to point out and clarify sustainability approaches in every phase of the related engineering projects, with also paying attention to the iterative nature of the process and relative contribution of the action for the outcomes of the sustainable transportation system. However, the analysis will not be limited to the engineering projects, non-engineering solutions will also be included in the meta-analysis. The most important contribution of this study is a determination of the outcomes of a sustainable urban transportation system in terms of energy efficiency, resource preservation and related social, environmental and economic factors. The study is also important because it will give light to the engineering and management approaches to achieve these outcomes.

Keywords: meta-analysis, sustainability, sustainable cities, sustainable urban transportation, urban transportation

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3 The Difficulties Male Nurses Facing up Due to the Nurse Degree which has the Meaning of ‘Sister’ in Turkish

Authors: Hacer Erdöl, Merve Aydın, Hacer Kobya Bulut, Kıymet Yeşilçiçek Çalık

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Like all occupations, nursing is significantly influenced by the society which it serves and it also affects it. Social structure affects attitudes of nurses, nursing practice, society's attitudes towards nursing and those who have chosen nursing as a profession. People who choose nursing schools take the views of the society’s they live in on nursing to nursing school. Until the 1960s, many nursing schools had not accepted men as students and women had received nursing education and profession had been carried out by women. In our country, in 2007 an amendment to article eight of Nursing Law was passed and with these changes men also began to be able to choose the nursing as a profession. In Turkish, nurse means 'sister'. Hence, in this study to determine the problems that male nursing students likely encounter at the clinic, non-clinical environment and in their private life regarding the title of nurse, among qualitative research methods phenomenological research design was used. Using purpose sampling method, a total of 18 voluntary male students-13 in third grade and 5 in fourth grade at nursing school- were taken to the study. Data were collected through interviews and by the ethical principles much attention was paid to ensure the confidentiality and to protect participants’ identity. During the interviews lasting 30-40 minutes on average, nine pre-configured standard questions were asked and when necessary free questions were also used in order to ensure the clarity of the responses. With pre- configured standard questions, the reasons why students chose the profession, the problems they had in clinical and non-clinical environment and the potential problems they might encounter in their private lives regarding the title of nurse were questioned. Content analysis was performed on data collected and three main themes were obtained. According to the findings of the evaluation of data, it was found that almost all the students preferred the profession due to possible work opportunities, there were students who did not bother nurse title as well as the ones who did bother and as the most important problem they might encounter in their private lives was to feel worried if their kids had to answer "What does your father" question as "my dad is a nurse" and being ridiculed afterwards. The results of this study show that studies should be done to change the social judgment stemmed from the recognition of nursing as a female profession and take advantage of media through creating public spotlight to accomplish this.

Keywords: choice of profession, the title of the profession, title problems, nursing

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2 High Capacity SnO₂/Graphene Composite Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: Hilal Köse, Şeyma Dombaycıoğlu, Ali Osman Aydın, Hatem Akbulut

Abstract:

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become promising power sources for a wide range of applications, such as mobile communication devices, portable electronic devices and electrical/hybrid vehicles due to their long cycle life, high voltage and high energy density. Graphite, as anode material, has been widely used owing to its extraordinary electronic transport properties, large surface area, and high electrocatalytic activities although its limited specific capacity (372 mAh g-1) cannot fulfil the increasing demand for lithium-ion batteries with higher energy density. To settle this problem, many studies have been taken into consideration to investigate new electrode materials and metal oxide/graphene composites are selected as a kind of promising material for lithium ion batteries as their specific capacities are much higher than graphene. Among them, SnO₂, an n-type and wide band gap semiconductor, has attracted much attention as an anode material for the new-generation lithium-ion batteries with its high theoretical capacity (790 mAh g-1). However, it suffers from large volume changes and agglomeration associated with the Li-ion insertion and extraction processes, which brings about failure and loss of electrical contact of the anode. In addition, there is also a huge irreversible capacity during the first cycle due to the formation of amorphous Li₂O matrix. To obtain high capacity anode materials, we studied on the synthesis and characterization of SnO₂-Graphene nanocomposites and investigated the capacity of this free-standing anode material in this work. For this aim, firstly, graphite oxide was obtained from graphite powder using the method described by Hummers method. To prepare the nanocomposites as free-standing anode, graphite oxide particles were ultrasonicated in distilled water with SnO2 nanoparticles (1:1, w/w). After vacuum filtration, the GO-SnO₂ paper was peeled off from the PVDF membrane to obtain a flexible, free-standing GO paper. Then, GO structure was reduced in hydrazine solution. Produced SnO2- graphene nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. CR2016 cells were assembled in a glove box (MBraun-Labstar). The cells were charged and discharged at 25°C between fixed voltage limits (2.5 V to 0.2 V) at a constant current density on a BST8-MA MTI model battery tester with 0.2C charge-discharge rate. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was performed at the scan rate of 0.1 mVs-1 and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out using Gamry Instrument applying a sine wave of 10 mV amplitude over a frequency range of 1000 kHz-0.01 Hz.

Keywords: SnO₂-graphene, nanocomposite, anode, Li-ion battery

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