Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2826

Search results for: old city renewal

2826 Study on Renewal Strategy of Old District with an Example of SQ in Shenzhen

Authors: Yun Zuo, Wenju Li

Abstract:

Shenzhen is one of China’s gates to the world. What was once a fishing village is now a metropolis of more than 10 million people. Because of its unprecedented pace of development, it also brings a serious of issues, such as the self-renewal of the city. In the paper, we use Sungang-Quingshuihe(SQ) as an example. SQ is one of the oldest districts in the east of Shenzhen. Nowadays, SQ faces many challenges. This is because once the logistics area has been slowly disappear, the new identity will be replaced. As a result, we are to minimize damages to the city in transforming process by seeking for a new design strategy. In the meantime, we think that each district in a city has its own role forming the whole city together. Therefore, a district transformation is functionally-oriented and for improving city quality in focus.

Keywords: old district, renewal strategy, public space, sustainable development

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2825 The Role of the Urban Renewal Projects on the Reshaping of the Cities in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Sibel Ecemis Kilic, Neslihan Karatas

Abstract:

The concept of urban renewal came up with interventions to the urban areas which have social and economic problems aimed at gaining the city. In Turkey after 2000, urban renewal has become a frequent topic on the agenda; regulations have been developed in this regard. Urban renewal project would be a focal point for the formation of the city in the near future. The future of the city is directly related to how to achieve these applications. Urban renewal policies will be decisive in the positive or negative development of the potential of the existing renewal process. Urban renewal is seen as a refreshing new planned action for reshaping unplanned and uncontrolled growth of big cities/metropolitan areas. In this context, Izmir is one of the largest metropolitan areas which came on the agenda of urban renewal application in the recent period. Izmir, which is the third largest city of Turkey, is an important trade and port city. The city, located west of Turkey, is a gate opening to Europe. In particular, continued its development rapidly after the Republican Period, it has become an important big city today. Assessment of the current situation shows that the majority of existing residential areas was formed with squatters and unplanned settlements in Izmir city center. Therefore, an important part of these areas have significant problems in terms of the quality of life, safety, and environmental quality. Legal residential areas which have had developed before 2000 is seen inadequate security in terms of an earthquake. In this study, the central policies in Turkey and local policies in İzmir about urban renewal will be considered. In addition, urban renewal projects that are being implemented or applied in Izmir were discussed and suggestions will be developed in accordance with this policy.

Keywords: urban transformation, Izmir, urban planning, urban renewal

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2824 A Morphological Examination of Urban Renewal Processes: The Sample of Konya City

Authors: Muzaffer Ali Yaygın, Mehmet Topçu

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate morphological changes in urban patterns in urban renewal areas by using geographic information systems and to reveal pattern differences that occur before and after urban renewal processes by applying a morphological analysis. The concept of urban morphology is not involved in urban renewal and urban planning practices in Turkey. This situation destroys the structural characteristic of urban space which appears as a consequence of changes at city, street or plot level. Different approaches and renewal interventions to urban settlements, which are formed as a reflection of cultural issues, may have positive and negative results. A morphological analysis has been applied to an urban renewal area that covers 325 ha. in Konya, in which city urban renewal projects have gained speed with the increasing of economic investments in this study. The study mentions urban renewal and urban morphology relationship, varied academic approach on the urban morphology issue, urban morphology components, changes in lots pattern and numerical differences that occur on road, construction and green space ratios that are before and after the renewal project, and the results of the morphological analysis. It is seen that the built-up area has significant differences when compared to the previous situation. The amount of green areas decreased significantly in quantitative terms; the transportation systems has been changed completely; and the property ownership has been reconstructed without taking the previous situation into account. Findings show that urban renewal projects in Turkey are put into practice with a rent-oriented approach without making an in-depth analysis. The paper discusses the morphological dimension of urban renewal projects in Turkey through a case study from Konya city.

Keywords: Konya, pattern, urban morphology, urban renewal

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2823 A Study on the Strategy of Pocket Park in the Renewal of Old City in China

Authors: Xian Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, the tendency that the decline of material and social vitality of old city in China becomes more and more serious. Nowadays, transformation and renewal of the old city have become a hot topic in urban research. The traditional mode of large-scale promotion has been criticized. Thus, exploration of new ways to update the city turns to be a necessity on the way of sustainable urban development. Pocket Park is a small city open space, its location choose is based on abandoned or idle lands on urban structure, is scattered or hidden in corner of the urban. It has a great significance on improving the old city environment. Based on the theory of ‘pocket park’, this paper summarizes the successful experience of domestic and foreign practice, and discusses the update strategies which are suitable for China's national conditions according to the characteristics and predicament of the old city in China. The main methods and results are as follows: 1)Based on the conception of ‘pocket park’, though describing the research status in domestic and foreign, summarizing the experience which is worth learning and existing problems. 2) From the analysis of ‘pocket park’ function, general design principles and types of the deep-seated difficulties in renewal the old city and the possibility of the application of ‘pocket park’,the varied implementation of ‘pocket park’ form are established, and application value in the old city renewal are summed up. 3) It can’t be denied that pocket park plays an irreplaceable role in solving the recession and renewing the vitality of the old city. Anymore, It is recommended to develop corresponding supportive development policies.

Keywords: sustainable development, strategy, old city renewal, pocket park

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2822 Research on the Path of Renewal and Activation of Public Space in Guangzhou Historical City under the Guidance of Public Art

Authors: Jingjing Li, Shifu Wang

Abstract:

After the irreversible consequences of the traditional renewal mode of ‘function first and then beautification’, such as the constructive destruction, social differentiation, and cultural, ecological imbalance, the renewal of the historical urban area began to pay attention to the excavation of cultural connotation, and entered a new stage from the pursuit of ‘quantity’ growth to the promotion of ‘quality’, expecting to rejuvenate the old city through the intervention of public art. This paper interprets the cases at home and abroad, summarizes the different forms of expression and application strategies of public art in the renewal of historical urban areas, and combs the limitations of the existing practice in Guangzhou through observation. Finally, it puts forward suggestions from three aspects of the system, implementation strategy, and implementation path, respectively, and explores the path of simultaneous rejuvenation of material space and cultural space in historical urban areas under the intervention of public art.

Keywords: public art, historic city, public space, renewal activation

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2821 Research on the Mode and Strategy of Urban Renewal in the Old Urban Area of China: A Case Study of Chongqing City

Authors: Sun Ailu, Zhao Wanmin

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, old urban renewal is an important task in China's urban construction. This study, using status survey and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, taking Chongqing of China as an example, puts forward the problems faced by the old urban area from the aspects of function, facilities and environment. Further, this study summarizes the types of the old urban area and proposes space renewal strategies for three typical old urban areas, such as old residential area, old factory and old market. These old urban areas are confronted with the problems of functional layout confounding, lack of infrastructure and poor living environment. At last, this paper proposes spatial strategies for urban renewal, which are hoped to be useful for urban renewal management in China.

Keywords: old urban renewal, renewal mode, renewal strategy, Chongqing, China

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2820 The Sustainable Strategies Research for Renewal of “Villages in City”: A Case Study of Liuzhou in Southwestern China

Authors: Kai Zhang

Abstract:

Transformation under the reconfiguration of urban-rural relation in Liuzhou city has never been as radical and visible as it has been since the tremendous turn of the last century in China. Huanjiang village is located in Linhuashan Scenic Area in the middle east of Liuzhou city, with spectacular landscape and traditional features. Nowadays Huanjiang village has become a so-called "village in city", which is considered full of great potential for development because of the economic value of regional advantages during the urban sprawl. Communities of village found it difficult to acclimatize with the dramatic changes, which later led to numerous problems including ecological damage, unemployment of landless farmers and loss of traditional culture. Government has started up a series of renewal planings to resolve the problems, which are based on advanced technology and conform to sustainable and integrated strategies of city planning considering the original context and historical culture, superseding the traditional arrangements based on the guide of extensive economic growth. This paper aims to elaborate the context of Liuzhou city and Huanjiang village offered to both the traditional and sustainable planning approaches, in order to understand challenges and solutions of the rebuilding process. Through the analysis of the place relevant to architecture, society and culture, it will establish the corresponding systematic strategies. Considering the local features, it concludes with a comprehensive perspective on organic renewal in the case of Huanjiang village.

Keywords: China, Liuzhou, sustainable strategy, urban renewal, village in city

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2819 A Study on the Urban Design Path of Historical Block in the Ancient City of Suzhou, China

Authors: Yan Wang, Wei Wu

Abstract:

In recent years, with the gradual change of Chinese urban development mode from 'incremental development' to 'stock-based renewal', the urban design method of ‘grand scene’ in the past could only cope with the planning and construction of incremental spaces such as new towns and new districts, while the problems involved in the renewal of the stock lands such as historic blocks of ancient cities are more complex. 'Simplified' large-scale demolition and construction may lead to the damage of the ancient city's texture and the overall cultural atmosphere; thus it is necessary to re-explore the urban design path of historical blocks in the conservation context of the ancient city. Through the study of the cultural context of the ancient city of Suzhou in China and the interpretation of its current characteristics, this paper explores the methods and paths for the renewal of historical and cultural blocks in the ancient city. It takes No. 12 and No. 13 historical blocks in the ancient city of Suzhou as examples, coordinating the spatial layout and the landscape and shaping the regional characteristics to improve the quality of the ancient city's life. This paper analyses the idea of conservation and regeneration from the aspects of culture, life, business form, and transport. Guided by the planning concept of ‘block repair and cultural infiltration’, it puts forward the urban design path of ‘conservation priority, activation and utilization, organic renewal and strengthening guidance’, with a view to continuing the cultural context and stimulating the vitality of ancient city, so as to realize the integration of history, modernity, space and culture. As a rare research on urban design in the scope of Suzhou ancient city, the paper expects to explore the concepts and methods of urban design for the historic blocks on the basis of the conservation of the history, space, and culture and provides a reference for other similar types of urban construction.

Keywords: historical block, Suzhou ancient city, stock-based renewal, urban design

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2818 The Renewal Strategy for Ancient Residential Area in Small and Medium-Sized Cities Based on Field Research of Changshu City in China

Authors: Yun Zhang, Zhu Wang

Abstract:

Renewing ancient residential areas is an integral part of the sustainable development of modern cities. Compared with a metropolis, the old areas of small and medium-sized cities is more complicated to update, as the spatial form is more fragmented. In this context, the author takes as the research object, the ancient town of Changshu City, which is a small city representative in China with a history of more than 1,200 years. Through the analysis of urban research and update projects, the spatial evolution characteristics and renewal strategies of small ancient urban settlements are studied. On this basis, it is proposed to protect the residential area from the perspective of integrity and sustainability, strengthen the core public part, control the district building, and reshape the important interface. Renewing small and medium-sized urban areas should respect the rhythm of their own urban development and gradually complete the update, not blindly copying the experience of large cities.

Keywords: ancient residential area, Changshu, city renewal strategy, small and medium-sized cities

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2817 Gentrification and Its Impact on Urbanization in India

Authors: Swapnil Vidhate, Anupama Sharma

Abstract:

At present the world is experiencing an extraordinary rate of urbanization. India is also in a major phase of urbanization. Gentrification is being practiced in India much later compared to western countries as a strategy for urban renewal. The urban fabric in Indian context is composed of multiple layers in it. Thus, the process of gentrification has different typologies, views and impacts in Indian context. It is a curative concept to restructure the declined areas of the city. But it has more negative views compared to positive due to the concerns in the process in India. The paper brings out the impacts of gentrification and concerns related with the process in Indian context with a case example of core city.

Keywords: urbanization, urban renewal, gentrification, restructure, core city

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2816 Study of the Benefit Analysis Using Vertical Farming Method in Urban Renewal within the Older City of Taichung

Authors: Hsu Kuo-Wei, Tan Roon Fang, Chao Jen-chih

Abstract:

Cities face environmental challenges, including over-urbanization issues, air and water quality issues, lack of green space, excess heat capture, polluted storm water runoff and lack of ecological biodiversity. The vertical farming holds the condition of technology addressing these issues by enabling more food to be produced with finite less resources use and space. Most of the existing research regarding to technology Industry of agriculture between plant factory and vertical greening, which with high costs and high-technology. Relative research developed a sustainable model for construction and operation of the vertical farm in urban housing which aims to revolutionize our daily life of food production and urban development. However, those researches focused on quantitative analysis. This study utilized relative research for key variables of benefits of vertical farming. In the second stage, utilizes Fuzzy Delphi Method to obtain the critical factors of benefits of vertical farming using in Urban Renewal by interviewing the foregoing experts. Then, Analytic Hierarchy Process is applied to find the importance degree of each criterion as the measurable indices of the vertical farming method in urban renewal within the older city of Taichung.

Keywords: urban renewal, vertical farming, urban agriculture, benefit analysis, the older city of Taichung

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2815 A Study on the Mechanism of the Regeneration of ‘Villages-in-City’ under Rapid Urbanization: Cases Study of Luojiazhuang

Authors: Mengying Du, Xiang Chen

Abstract:

‘villages-in-city’ is the unique product of rapid urbanization in China which embodies the contradiction between historical context and urbanization. This article mainly analyzes the corresponding strategy to the common problems such as urban texture, historical context, community structure, and industry pattern during the regeneration of ‘villages-in-city’ of Luojiazhuang. Taking government investment, community demands, the trend of urban renewal and transformation models of the ‘villages-in-city’ into consideration, the author propose a mechanism to balance those factors, and to achieve mutual confirmation with the instance of Luojiazhuang.

Keywords: community demands, historical context, villages-in-city, urbanization

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2814 Urban Renewal from the Perspective of Industrial Heritage Protection: Taking the Qiaokou District of Wuhan as an Example

Authors: Yue Sun, Yuan Wang

Abstract:

Most of the earliest national industries in Wuhan are located along the Hanjiang River, and Qiaokou is considered to be a gathering place for Dahankou old industrial base. Zongguan Waterworks, Pacific Soap Factory, Fuxin Flour Factory, Nanyang Tobacco Factory and other hundred-year-old factories are located along Hanjiang River in Qiaokou District, especially the Gutian Industrial Zone, which was listed as one of 156 national restoration projects at the beginning of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. After decades of development, Qiaokou has become the gathering place of the chemical industry and secondary industry, causing damage to the city and serious pollution, becoming a marginalized area forgotten by the central city. In recent years, with the accelerated pace of urban renewal, Qiaokou has been constantly reforming and innovating, and has begun drastic changes in the transformation of old cities and the development of new districts. These factories have been listed as key reconstruction projects, and a large number of industrial heritage with historical value and full urban memory have been relocated, demolished and reformed, with only a few factory buildings preserved. Through the methods of industrial archaeology, image analysis, typology and field investigation, this paper analyzes and summarizes the spatial characteristics of industrial heritage in Qiaokou District, explores urban renewal from the perspective of industrial heritage protection, and provides design strategies for the regeneration of urban industrial sites and industrial heritage.

Keywords: industrial heritage, urban renewal, protection, urban memory

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2813 The Liability of Renewal: The Impact of Changes in Organizational Capability, Performance, Legitimacy and Pressure for Change

Authors: Alshehri Sultan

Abstract:

Organizational change has remained an important subject for many researchers in the field of organizations theory. We propose the importance of organizational liability of renewal through a model that examines how an organization can overcome potential rigidities in organizational capabilities from learning by changing capabilities. We examine whether an established organization can overcome liability of renewal by changes in organizational capabilities and how the organizational renewal process reflect on the balance between the dynamic aspect of organizational learning as demonstrated by changes in capabilities and the stabilizing aspects of organizational inertia. We found both positive relationship between organizational learning and performance, and between legitimacy and performance. Performance and legitimacy have, however, a negative relationship on the pressure for change.

Keywords: organizational capabilities, organizational liability, liability of renewal, pressure for change

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2812 Understanding the Popularity of Historical Conservation in China: The Depoliticized Narratives as a Counter-Insurgency Strategy in Guangzhou

Authors: Luxi Chen

Abstract:

The land finance in China in recent years has propelled urban renewals in the name of historical conservation and led to massive gentrification and compulsory relocation. Such inequalities cause insurgence. Drawing on public planning information, ethnographic field notes, and online interview data about Guangzhou's Enninglu Area, this paper aims to present how such insurgence has been contained and put down gradually through depoliticization narratives represented by "improving living conditions," "conserving historical culture," and "public participation”. This paper's findings include that 1) Besides economic growth, maintaining social stability in alignment with the central government are equally important to local government, reveals the latter efforts to mediate the growth coalition, residents, media, and academics so as to reconstruct the interface between state and society; 2) To empower the insurgence, the media and academics use public interests for propaganda, that diverts attention away from its political dimension; 3) In response, the government introduces improved regulations and planning, turning social inequalities into technical inadequacy so as to become the defender of public interests, which justifies the incoming renewal and prevents public questioning. By comparing regime changes among governments, developers, residents, media, and academics caused by renewal policies, this paper presents the depoliticized narrative as a counter-insurgence strategy to contain social conflicts and to boost inner-city renewal.

Keywords: inner city renewal, depoliticization, historical conservation, public participation

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2811 A New Mathematical Model for Scheduling Preventive Maintenance and Renewal Projects of Multi-Unit Systems; Application to Railway Track

Authors: Farzad Pargar

Abstract:

We introduce the preventive maintenance and renewal scheduling problem for a multi-unit system over a finite and discretized time horizon. Given the latest possible time for carrying out the next maintenance and renewal projects after the previous ones and considering several common set-up costs, the introduced scheduling model tries to minimize the cost of projects by grouping them and simultaneously finding the optimal balance between doing maintenance and renewal. We present a 0-1 pure integer linear programming that determines which projects should be performed together on which location and in which period (e.g., week or month). We consider railway track as a case for our study and test the performance of the proposed model on a set of test problems. The experimental results show that the proposed approach performs well.

Keywords: maintenance, renewal, scheduling, mathematical programming model

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2810 The Analysis on the Renewal Strategy of Public Space in Old Communities with an Example of GeDa Community in Xi'An

Authors: Xiyue Wen

Abstract:

With the rapid development of the city, old communities in the city are facing a series of problems. On one hand, aging facilities, obsolete spatial patterns, aging populations arouse in the aging of the community. On the other hand, public space is reduced and is taking up by cars parking or facilities setting, which lead to the collapse of traditional life in the old communities. That is to say, modern amenities haven’t helped to reform the old community, but have leading to tedious and inefficient, when it is not accommodated in the traditional space. Exploring a way is imminent to the east the contradiction between modern living facilities and spatial patterns of traditional. We select a typical site-GeDa Community in Xi’an, built in 70-80s,and carry out a concept calling 'Raising Landscape', which enables a convenient and efficient space for parking, as well as a high-quality yard for activities. In addition, the design implements low cost, simple construction, resident participation, so that it can be spread in the same texture of urban space.

Keywords: old communities, renewal strategy, raising landscape, public space, parking space

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2809 A Conceptual Approach for Evaluating the Urban Renewal Process

Authors: Muge Unal, Ahmet Cilek

Abstract:

Urban identity, having a dynamic characteristic spatial and semantic aspects, is a phenomenon in an ever-changing. Urban identity formation includes not only a process of physical nature but also development and change processes that take place in the political, economic, social and cultural values, whether national and international level. Although the concept of urban transformation is basically regarded as the spatial transformation; in fact, it reveals a holistic perspective and transformation based on dialectical relationship existing between the spatial and social relationship. For this reason, urban renewal needs to address as not only spatial but also the impact of spatial transformation on social, cultural and economic. Implementation tools used in the perception of urban transformation are varied concepts such as urban renewal, urban resettlement, urban rehabilitation, urban redevelopment, and urban revitalization. The phenomenon of urban transformation begins with the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1980s, it was interpreted as reconsidering physical fossil on urban environment factor like occurring in rapid urbanization, changing in the spatial structure of the city, concentrating of the population in urban areas. However, after the 1980s, it has resided in a conceptual structure which requires to be addressed physical, economic, social, technological and integrity of information. In conclusion, urban transformation, when it enter the literature as a practice of planning, has been up to date in terms of the conceptual structure and content and also hasn’t remained behind converting itself. Urban transformation still maintains its simplest expression, while it transforms so fast converts the contents. In this study, the relationship between urban design and components of urban transformation were discussed with strategies used as a place in the historical process of urban transformation besides a general evaluation of the concept of urban renewal.

Keywords: conceptual approach, urban identity, urban regeneration, urban renewal

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2808 The Renewal of Chinese Urban Village on Cultural Ecology: Hubei Village as an Example

Authors: Shaojun Zheng, Lei Xu, Yunzi Wang

Abstract:

The main purpose of the research is to use the cultural ecology to analyze the renewal of Shenzhen urban village in the process of China's urbanization and to evaluate and guide the renewal, which will combine the society value and economic efficiency and activate urban villages. The urban village has a long history. There are also many old buildings, various residents, and a strong connection with the surrounding environment. Cultural ecology, which uses the knowledge of ecology to study culture, provides us a cultural perspective in the renewal. We take Hubei village in Shenzhen as our example. By using cultural ecology, we find a new way dealing with the relationship between culture and other factors. It helps us to give the buildings and space the culture meanings from different scales. It enables us to find a unique development pattern of urban village. After analyzing several famous cultural blocks cases, we find it is possible to connect the unique culture of urban village with the renovation of its buildings, community, and commerce. We propose the following strategies with specific target: 1. Building renovation: We repair and rebuild the origin buildings as little as possible, and retain the original urban space tissue as much as possible to keep the original sense of place and the cultural atmosphere. 2. Community upgrade: We reshape the village stream, fix the original function, add event which will activate people to complete the existing cultural circle 3. District commerce: We implant food and drink district, boutique commercial, and creative industries, to make full use of the historical atmosphere of the site to enhance the culture feelings For the renewal of a seemingly chaotic mixed urban village, it is important to break out from the conventional practices of building shopping malls or residential towers. Without creating those building landmarks, cultural ecology activates the urban village by exploiting its unique culture, which makes the old and new combine and becomes a new stream of energy, forming the new cultural, commercial and stylish landmark of the city.

Keywords: cultural ecology, urban village, renewal, combination

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2807 Leadership Succession and Renewal in Zimbabwe Political Parties: A Critical Analysis of the Bhora Remusango Concept

Authors: A. F. Chikerema

Abstract:

Political leadership in Africa vary from the “criminalization” of the state to political leadership as “dispensing patrimony”, the “recycling” of elites and the use of state power and resources to consolidate political and economic power (Van Wyk:2007: p1). Political parties just like any other organizations always need leadership renewal and revamping, besides ideological and policy renewal. Zimbabwean politics present a shunned leadership renewal as reflected by the two champion political parties namely ZANU PF and MDC-T. Despite hot political power contestation between MDC and ZANUPF, the parties` internal structures are hinged on the two Godfather or Father figure that is Mugabe and Tsvangirai. They are the “labels “behind the two political parties. The suppressing of dissent voice on succession and renewal of leadership in the two parties has brew resistance from within and this has resulted in factional fights within the two political parties. The disgruntlement in the political parties has led to the stemming of the ‘bhoramusango concept’ from the electorate and party cadres whereby they are throwing or donating away their votes to other political parties. The ‘bhoramusango’ concept haunted ZANUPF in 2008 leading to its defeat by the opposition MDC-T .The paper takes the form of an analytic approach on leadership crisis in Zimbabwe. The narrative is framed on key concepts of leadership: namely leadership renewal and leadership succession, as agents operating within inherited structures negotiated political settlements, and form structures of leadership. Rulers gave priority to the consolidation of state power by installing party loyalists in the armed forces, civil service and local government. As part of this process, rulers have ensured consolidated power and authority.

Keywords: leadership renewal, leadership succession, ‘Bhora Musango’, political culture, political legitimacy

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2806 A Descriptive Study on Micro Living and Its Importance over Large Houses by Understanding Various Scenarios and Case Studies

Authors: Belal Neazi

Abstract:

'Larger Houses Consume More Resources’ – both in construction and during operation. The most important aspect of smaller homes is that it uses less electricity and fuel for construction and maintenance. Here, an urban interpretation of the contemporary minimal existence movement is explained. In an attempt to restrict urban decay and to encourage inner-city renewal, the Tiny House principles are interpreted as alternative ways of dwelling in urban neighbourhoods. These tiny houses are usually pretty different from each other in interior planning, but almost similar in size. The disadvantage of large homes came up when people were asked to vacate as they were not able to pay the massive amount of mortgages. This made them reconsider their housing situation and discover the ideas of minimalism and the general rising inclination in environmental awareness that serve as the basis for the tiny house movement. One of the largest benefits of inhabiting a tiny house is the decrease in carbon footprint. Also, to increase social behaviour and freedom. It’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom. Examples of the tiny house village which are sustaining homeless population and the use of different reclaimed materials for the construction of these tiny houses are explained in the paper. It is proposed in the paper, that these houses will reflect the diversity while proposing an alternative model for the rehabilitation of decaying row-homes and the renewal of fading communities. The core objective is to design small or micro spaces for the economically backward people of the place and increase their social behaviour and freedom. Also, it’s better for the environmental concern, financial concerns, and desire for more time and freedom.

Keywords: city renewal, environmental concern, micro-living, tiny house

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2805 Research on Urban Design Method of Ancient City Guided by Catalyst Theory

Authors: Wang Zhiwei, Wang Weiwu

Abstract:

The process of urbanization in China has entered a critical period of transformation from urban expansion and construction to delicate urban design, thus forming a new direction in the field of urban design. So far, catalyst theory has become a prominent guiding strategy in urban planning and design. In this paper, under the background of urban renewal, catalyst theory is taken as the guiding ideology to explore the method of urban design in shouxian county. Firstly, this study briefly introduces and analyzes the catalyst theory. Through field investigation, it is found that the city has a large number of idle Spaces, such as abandoned factories and schools. In the design, the idle Spaces in the county town are utilized and interlinked in space, and functional interaction is carried out from the pattern of the county town. On the one hand, the results showed that the catalyst theory can enhance the vitality of the linear street space with a small amount of monomer construction. On the other hand, the city can also increase the cultural and economic sites of the city without damaging the historical relics and the sense of alterations of the ancient city, to improve the quality of life and quality of life of citizens. The city micro-transformation represented by catalyst theory can help ancient cities like shouxian to realize the activation of the old city and realize the gradual development.

Keywords: catalytic theory, urban design, China's ancient city, Renaissance

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2804 Fengqiao: An Ongoing Experiment with 'UrbanMemory' Theory in an Ancient Town and ItsDesign Experience

Authors: Yibei Ye, Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao

Abstract:

Ancient town is a unique carrier of urban culture, maintaining the core culture of a region and continuing the urban context. Fengqiao, a nearly 2000-year-old town was on the brink of dilapidation in the past few decades. The town faced such problems as poor construction quality, environmental degeneration, inadequate open space, cultural characteristics and industry vitality. Therefore, the research upholds the principle of ‘organic renewal’ and puts forward three practical updated strategies which are ‘Repair Old as Ever,' ‘Activate Function’ and ‘Fill in with The New’. Also as a participant in updating the design, the author aims to ‘keep the memory of the history and see the development of the present’ as the goal of updating the design and regards the process of town renewal as the experimental venue for realizing this purpose. The research will sum up innovations on the designing process and the engineering progress in the past two years, and find out the innovation experiment and the effect of its implementation on the methodological level of the organic renewal design in Fengqiao ancient town. From here, we can also enjoy the very characteristic development trend presented by China in the design practice of the organic renewal in the ancient town.

Keywords: characteristic town, Fengqiao, organic renewal, urban memory

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2803 Analysis of Creative City Indicators in Isfahan City, Iran

Authors: Reza Mokhtari Malek Abadi, Mohsen Saghaei, Fatemeh Iman

Abstract:

This paper investigates the indices of a creative city in Isfahan. Its main aim is to evaluate quantitative status of the creative city indices in Isfahan city, analyze the dispersion and distribution of these indices in Isfahan city. Concerning these, this study tries to analyze the creative city indices in fifteen area of Isfahan through secondary data, questionnaire, TOPSIS model, Shannon entropy and SPSS. Based on this, the fifteen areas of Isfahan city have been ranked with 12 factors of creative city indices. The results of studies show that fifteen areas of Isfahan city are not equally benefiting from creative indices and there is much difference between the areas of Isfahan city.

Keywords: grading, creative city, creative city evaluation indicators, regional planning model

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2802 Experiences and Challenges of Community Participation in Urban Renewal Projects: A Case Study of Bhendi Bazzar, Mumbai, India

Authors: Madhura Yadav

Abstract:

Urban redevelopment planning initiatives in developing countries have been largely criticised due to top-down planning approach and lack of involvement of the targeted beneficiaries which have led to a challenging situation which is contrary to the perceived needs of beneficiaries. Urban renewal projects improve the lives of people and meaningful participation of community plays a pivotal role. Public perceptions on satisfaction and participation have been given less priority in the investigation, which hinders effective planning and implementation of urban renewal projects. Moreover, challenges of community participation in urban renewal projects are less documented, particularly in relation to public participation and satisfaction. There is a need for new paradigm shift focusing on community participatory approach in urban renewal projects. The over 125-year-old Bhendi Bazar in Mumbai, India is the country’s first ever cluster redevelopment project, popularly known as Bhendi Bazaar redevelopment and it will be one of the largest projects for urban rejuvenation of one of Mumbai’s oldest and dying inner city areas. The project is led by the community trust, inputs were taken from various stakeholders, including residents, commercial tenants and expert consultants to shape the master plan and design of the project. The project started in 2016 but there is a significant delay in implementing the project. The study aimed at studying and assessing public perceptions on satisfaction and the relationship between community participation and community satisfaction in Bhendi Bazaar of Mumbai, India. Furthermore, the study will outline the challenges and problems of community participation in urban renewal projects and it suggests recommendations for the future. The qualitative and quantitative methods such as reconnaissance survey, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, walking interviews, a narrative inquiry is used for analysis of data. Preliminary findings revealed that all tenants are satisfied for the redevelopment of an area but the willingness of residential tenants to move in transit accommodation has made the projects successful and reductant of some residential and commercial tenants, regulatory provisions rising to face challenges in implementation. Experiences from the case study can help to understand dynamics behind public participation and government. At the same time, they serve as an inspiration and learning opportunity for future projects to ensure that they are sustainable not only from an economic standpoint but also, a social perspective.

Keywords: urban renewal, Bhendi Bazaar, community participation, satisfaction, social perspective

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2801 Research on the Overall Protection of Historical Cities Based on the 'City Image' in Ancient Maps: Take the Ancient City of Shipu, Zhejiang, China as an Example

Authors: Xiaoya Yi, Yi He, Zhao Lu, Yang Zhang

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, many historical cities have undergone excessive demolition and construction under the protection and renewal mechanism. The original pattern of the city has been changed, the urban context has been cut off, and historical features have gradually been lost. The historical city gradually changed into the form of decentralization and fragmentation. The understanding of the ancient city includes two levels. The first one refers to the ancient city on the physical space, which defined an ancient city by its historic walls. The second refers to the public perception of the image, which is derived from people's spatial identification of the ancient city. In ancient China, people draw maps to show their way of understanding the city. Starting from ancient maps and exploring the spatial characteristics of traditional Chinese cities from the perspective of urban imagery is a key clue to understanding the spatial characteristics of historical cities on an overall level. The spatial characteristics of the urban image presented by the ancient map are summarized into two levels by typology. The first is the spatial pattern composed of the center, axis and boundary. The second is the space element that contains the city, street, and sign system. Taking the ancient city of Shipu as a typical case, the "city image" in the ancient map is analyzed as a prototype, and it is projected into the current urban space. The research found that after a long period of evolution, the historical spatial pattern of the ancient city has changed from “dominant” to “recessive control”, and the historical spatial elements are non-centralized and fragmented. The wall that serves as the boundary of the ancient city is transformed into “fragmentary remains”, the streets and lanes that serve as the axis of the ancient city are transformed into “structural remains”, and the symbols of the ancient city center are transformed into “site remains”. Based on this, the paper proposed the methods of controlling the protection of land boundaries, the protecting of the streets and lanes, and the selective restoring of the city wall system and the sign system by accurate assessment. In addition, this paper emphasizes the continuity of the ancient city's traditional spatial pattern and attempts to explore a holistic conservation method of the ancient city in the modern context.

Keywords: ancient city protection, ancient maps, Shipu ancient city, urban intention

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2800 Systems for Air Renewal Inside Bus Bodies Importance in the Prevention of Disease Transmission

Authors: Giovanni Matheus Rech, Gilberto Zan, Filipe P. Aguiar

Abstract:

The current pandemic scenario raises questions that many times would have previously gone unnoticed. One of these issues is the quality of the air we breathe in the most diverse environments in which we are inserted in an everyday. It is plausible to suppose that, at times like this, there is apprehension regarding the possibility of contamination by pathological agents such as viruses and bacterias through the airways. However, the renewal of indoor air, combined with a properly sanitized air conditioning system, are important tools for the prevention of viral diseases, as is the case with COVID-19. The bus is an example of an environment where renovation is applied to improve the quality of indoor air, helping to reduce the possibility of spreading pathological agents. Together with other care, such as an alcohol gel dispenser, curtains to separate the passengers, cleaning the environment more frequently, and mandatory use of masks, help to reduce the transmission of pathologies, such as COVID-19. Knowing the reality of a large part of the population regarding the need for public transport, there are standards and devices dedicated to promoting air quality, ensuring greater comfort and safety for users. This paper seeks to present such standards and recommendations to improve the quality of indoor air, as well as the equipment responsible for the renewal of the air in the body of a bus. Experimental measurement of the flow rates of the renewal devices present in the bus body allows quantifying the average volume of external air admitted in each type of body. This way, it was possible to compare, in terms of airflow per person, the values of a bus in relation to a series of other environments, using recommendations for air renewal are described through the Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 16401.

Keywords: air quality, air renewal, buses, Covid-19

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2799 Urban City Centres: A Study of Centres and City Structure

Authors: B. Poorna Chander

Abstract:

Urban centre is one of the most important parts of the city where all the community activities take place. They are the active zones which enhance the structure of a city. The structure of the city refers to its form, mobility patterns, and concentration of people and lifestyles of people. The purpose of the research paper is to study how does the character or structure of city changes when a new centre is established. An attempt has been made to understand this by studying how the formation of centre has been changing the form or the structure of the city since the ancient times, what are the notions of a city and a centre by various architects, by studying the various models of the future city proposed by them. And then the data has been linked to how the formation of the new centres is changing the city. As the demands of the city are increasing, it also regulates how the new centres are formed. So both, the city and the centre are interdependent on each other.

Keywords: centre, activities, lifestyles, people, form

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2798 Socially Sustainable Urban Rehabilitation Projects: Case Study of Ortahisar, Trabzon

Authors: Elif Berna Var

Abstract:

Cultural, physical, socio-economic, or politic changes occurred in urban areas might be resulted in the decaying period which may cause social problems. As a solution to that, urban renewal projects have been used in European countries since World War II whereas they have gained importance in Turkey after the 1980s. The first attempts were mostly related to physical or economic aspects which caused negative effects on social pattern later. Thus, social concerns have also started to include in renewal processes in developed countries. This integrative approach combining social, physical, and economic aspects promotes creating more sustainable neighbourhoods for both current and future generations. However, it is still a new subject for developing countries like Turkey. Concentrating on Trabzon-Turkey, this study highlights the importance of socially sustainable urban renewal processes especially in historical neighbourhoods where protecting the urban identity of the area is vital, as well as social structure, to create sustainable environments. Being in the historic city centre and having remarkable traditional houses, Ortahisar is an important image for Trabzon. Because of the fact that architectural and historical pattern of the area is still visible but need rehabilitations, it is preferred to use 'urban rehabilitation' as a way of urban renewal method for this study. A project is developed by the local government to create a secondary city centre and a new landmark for the city. But it is still ambiguous if this project can provide social sustainability of area which is one of the concerns of the research. In the study, it is suggested that social sustainability of an area can be achieved by several factors. In order to determine the factors affecting the social sustainability of an urban rehabilitation project, previous studies have been analysed and some common features are attempted to define. To achieve this, firstly, several analyses are conducted to find out social structure of Ortahisar. Secondly, structured interviews are implemented to 150 local people which aims to measure satisfaction level, awareness, the expectation of them, and to learn their demographical background in detail. Those data are used to define the critical factors for a more socially sustainable neighbourhood in Ortahisar. Later, the priority of those factors is asked to 50 experts and 150 local people to compare their attitudes and to find common criterias. According to the results, it can be said that social sustainability of Ortahisar neighbourhood can be improved by considering various factors like quality of urban areas, demographical factors, public participation, social cohesion and harmony, proprietorial factors, facilities of education and employment. In the end, several suggestions are made for Ortahisar case to promote more socially sustainable urban neighbourhood. As a pilot study highlighting the importance of social sustainability, it is hoped that this attempt might be the contributory effect on achieving more socially sustainable urban rehabilitation projects in Turkey.

Keywords: urban rehabilitation, social sustainability, Trabzon, Turkey

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2797 An Overview of Informal Settlement Upgrading Strategies in Kabul City and the Need for an Integrated Multi-Sector Upgrading Model

Authors: Bashir Ahmad Amiri, Nsenda Lukumwena

Abstract:

The developing economies are experiencing an unprecedented rate of urbanization, mainly the urbanization of poverty which is leading to sprawling of slums and informal settlement. Kabul, being the capital and primate city of Afghanistan is grossly encountered to the informal settlement where the majority of the people consider to be informal. Despite all efforts to upgrade and minimize the growth of these settlements, they are growing rapidly. Various interventions have been taken by the government and some international organizations from physical upgrading to urban renewal, but none of them have succeeded to solve the issue of informal settlement. The magnitude of the urbanization and the complexity of informal settlement in Kabul city, and the institutional and capital constraint of the government calls for integration and optimization of currently practiced strategies. This paper provides an overview of informal settlement formation and the conventional upgrading strategies in Kabul city to identify the dominant/successful practices and rationalize the conventional upgrading modes. For this purpose, Hothkhel has been selected as the case study, since it represents the same situation of major informal settlements of the city. Considering the existing potential and features of the Hothkhel and proposed land use by master plan this paper intends to find a suitable upgrading mode for the study area and finally to scale up the model for the city level upgrading. The result highlights that the informal settlements of Kabul city have high (re)development capacity for accepting the additional room without converting the available agricultural area to built-up. The result also indicates that the integrated multi-sector upgrading has the scale-up potential to increase the reach of beneficiaries and to ensure an inclusive and efficient urbanization.

Keywords: informal settlement, upgrading strategies, Kabul city, urban expansion, integrated multi-sector, scale-up

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