Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: mosque

48 The General Evolution of Today's Mosque Architecture in Turkey: The Case of Mekke Mosque

Authors: Hatice Derya Arslan

Abstract:

Religious buildings in terms of architectural features are known as the most repeated building types. Mosques representing Islam religion shows big differences in terms of architecture. In Turkey, every year many mosques are built all over the country and a majority of the mosques being built are inspired by the Ottoman and Seljuk architecture. Unfortunately, inspired by the architecture of the mosque made from traditional mosque architecture is often inadequate. In this study, first of all, the evolution of the mosque architecture in Turkey has been examined chronologically and shortly. After that, in the other part of the paper, Mekke Mosque which was built in Kutahya City Center of Turkey is discussed in terms of architectural properties. In this mosque, quasi-postmodern design was preferred. Generally preferred classical Ottoman architecture has been abandoned in this mosque. However, there exists a lot of issue in the interior and exterior design of the mosque was criticized in the conclusion part of the paper in a comparative manner.

Keywords: architectural criticism, mosque, ottoman and seljuk architecture, religious building

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47 Assessment of the Occupancy’s Effect on Speech Intelligibility in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque

Authors: Wasim Orfali, Hesham Tolba

Abstract:

This research investigates the acoustical characteristics of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque. Extensive field measurements were conducted in different locations of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque to characterize its acoustic characteristics. The acoustical characteristics are usually evaluated by the use of objective parameters in unoccupied rooms due to practical considerations. However, under normal conditions, the room occupancy can vary such characteristics due to the effect of the additional sound absorption present in the room or by the change in signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the acoustic measurements carried out in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque with and without occupancy, and the analysis of such measurements, the existence of acoustical deficiencies has been confirmed.

Keywords: Al-Madinah Holy Mosque, mosque acoustics, speech intelligibility, worship sound

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46 Concept and Implementation of Religious Tourism as a City Icon; Case Study: Golden Dome Mosque in Depok, Indonesia

Authors: Azhari Fauzan

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Dian Al Mahri Mosque or more known as Golden Dome Mosque is one of the biggest mosques in Southeast Asia which located in Depok, West Java Province, Indonesia. Instead of a place for praying, this beautiful Mosque is also becoming an icon of Depok for religious tourism destination. The purpose of this study is to understand the concept and objective of religious tourism, also how to be implemented as an icon of the city. As a qualitative method, the data was collected by direct interview with three of the most influential persons: K. H. Amirudin Said S. Q. MA as a Manager of the Mosque, K. H. Dr. Mohammad Idris, MA as a Major of Depok, and Mulyamto as a Head of Tourism Department of Depok. As a result, Golden Dome Mosque involves three integrated aspects (social, economic, and cultural) which can be implemented to evaluate their daily activities and services in order to define themselves as a religious tourism destination.

Keywords: city icon, golden mosque, Muslim Indonesia, religious tourism

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45 The Evaluation of Islamic Concept in Contemporary Mosque Design with the Case of Study: Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia

Authors: Ibrahim Malik, M. Ikramullah al Kambuna

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Today the crisis of understanding in Islamic values has been extended to the architectural design. The majority of Muslim Architects when they designed Islamic Architectural building always stuck in cultural symbols, forms of facade, carvings calligraphy, and all of things which intimately associated with middle eastern culture. As well as the interpretation of symbols form, by designing a dome in every mosque, calligraphy carving in the interior of the mosque, and the other elements in the building which interpreted to the middle east culture. So here there are problems in understanding the meaning of Islam with Kaffah (overall), which appeared a distortion of understanding to distinguish between cultural and theological values in a design. This paper will try to evaluate the design of a contemporary mosque in Indonesia, with case studies in Jogokariyan Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia. The building evaluation are focused in building function , aesthetic, comfort, and security. And finally from this research should be found the results of the integrated design evaluation of a contemporary mosque which based on the study of the Quran and Hadith.

Keywords: evaluation, islamic concept, mosque, Hadith, Quran

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44 Parameters of Minimalistic Mosque in India within Minimalism

Authors: Hafila Banu

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Minimalism is a postmodern style movement which emerged in the 50s of the twentieth century, but it was rapidly growing in the years of 60s and 70s. Minimalism is defined as the concept of minimizing distractions from what is truly valuable or essential. On the same grounds, works of minimalism offer a direct view at and raises questions about the true nature of the subject or object inviting the viewer to consider it for it for the real shape, a thought, a movement reminding us to focus on what is really important. The Architecture of Minimalism is characterized by an economy with materials , focusing on building quality with considerations for ‘essences’ as light, form, detail of material, texture, space and scale, place and human conditions . The research of this paper is mainly into the basis of designing a minimalistic mosque in India while analysing the parameters for the design from the matching characteristics of Islamic architecture in specific to a mosque and the minimalism. Therefore, the paper is about the mosque architecture and minimalism and of their underlying principles, matching characteristics and design goals.

Keywords: Islamic architecture, minimalism, minimalistic mosque, mosque in India

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43 Mosque as a Sustainable Model in Iranian Traditional Urban Development: The Case Study of Vakil Mosque in Shiraz

Authors: Amir Hossein Ashari, Sedighe Erfan Manesh

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When investigating Iranian traditional and historical urban development, such as that seen in Shiraz, our attention is drawn to mosques as a focal point. Vakil Mosque in Shiraz is completely consistent, coordinated and integrated with the Bazaar, square and school. This is a significant example of traditional urban development. The position of the mosque in the most important urban joint near bazaar in a way that it is considered part of the bazaar structure are factors that have given it social, political, and economic roles in addition to the original religious role. These are among characteristics of sustainable development. The mosque has had an important effect in formation of the city because it is connected to main gates. In terms of access, the mosque has different main and peripheral access paths from different parts of the city. The courtyard of the mosque was located next to the main elements of the city so that it was considered as an urban open space, which made it a more active and more dynamic place. This study is carried out via library and field research with the purpose of finding strategies for taking advantage of useful features of the mosque in traditional urban development. These features include its role as a gathering center for people and city in sustainable urban development. Mosque can be used as a center for enhancing social interactions and creating a sense of association that leads to sustainable social space. These can act as a model which leads us to sustainable cities in terms of social and economic factors.

Keywords: mosque, traditional urban development, sustainable social space, Vakil Mosque, Shiraz

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42 The Characteristics of Islamic Concept In Contemporary Mosque Design With The Case Modulation of Study: Kauman Mosque Yogyakarta Indonesia

Authors: Sulihantoro, Muhamad Irga Fahreza

Abstract:

Age of onset of the crisis makes more advanced understanding of the values of Islam that has been etched in architectural design. The majority Muslim mosque architecture designing buildings when they designed the architecture of Islam has always stuck in a cultural symbol, the shape of the facade, carving calligraphy, and all things that are closely related to the culture of the Middle East. As well as the interpretation of symbols, by designing a dome in every mosque, calligraphy carvings inside the mosque, and the other elements in the building which is interpreted by middle eastern culture. So here we have a problem understanding the meaning of Islam with kaf fah (overall), which appears distorted understanding to distinguish between cultural values and theological in design. This paper will try to evaluate the design of a contemporary mosque in Indonesia, with a case study in Masjid Kauman Yogyakarta Indonesia. building characteristics focused on the function of the building, history, aesthetics, comfort, and safety. The results of this study should be found on the evaluation of the integrated design of contemporary mosques are based on a study of the Quran and Hadith.

Keywords: characteristics, Islamic concept, culture, Kauman Mosque

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41 Reimaging Archetype of Mosque: A Case Study on Contemporary Mosque Architecture in Bangladesh

Authors: Sabrina Rahman

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The Mosque is Islam’s most symbolic structure, as well as the expression of collective identity. From the explicit words of our Prophet, 'The earth has been created for me as a masjid and a place of purity, and whatever man from my Ummah finds himself in need of prayer, let him pray' (anywhere)! it is obvious that a devout Muslim does not require a defined space or structure for divine worship since the whole earth is his prayer house. Yet we see that from time immemorial man throughout the Muslim world has painstakingly erected innumerable mosques. However, mosque design spans time, crosses boundaries, and expresses cultures. It is a cultural manifestation as much as one based on a regional building tradition or a certain interpretation of religion. The trend to express physical signs of religion is not new. Physical forms seem to convey symbolic messages. However, in recent times physical forms of mosque architecture are dominantly demising from mosque architecture projects in Bangladesh. Dome & minaret, the most prominent symbol of the mosque, is replacing by contextual and contemporary improvisation rather than subcontinental mosque architecture practice of early fellows. Thus the recent mosque projects of the last 15 years established the contemporary architectural realm in their design. Contextually, spiritual lighting, the serenity of space, tranquility of outdoor spaces, the texture of materials is widely establishing a new genre of Muslim prayer space. A case study based research will lead to specify its significant factors of modernism. Based on the findings, the paper presents evidence of recent projects as well as a guideline for the future image of contemporary Mosque architecture in Bangladesh.

Keywords: contemporary architecture, modernism, prayer space, symbolism

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40 Role of Symbolism in the Journey towards Spirituality: A Case Study of Mosque Architecture in Bahrain

Authors: Ayesha Agha Shah

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The purpose of a mosque or a place of worship is to build a spiritual relation with God. If the sense of spirituality is not achieved, then sacred architecture appears to be lacking depth. Form and space play a significant role to enhance the architectural quality to impart a divine feel to a place. To achieve this divine feeling, form and space, and unity of opposites, either abstract or symbolic can be employed. It is challenging to imbue the emptiness of a space with qualitative experience. Mosque architecture mostly entails traditional forms and design typology. This approach for Muslim worship produces distinct landmarks in the urban neighborhoods of Muslim societies, while creating a great sense of spirituality. The universal symbolic characters in the mosque architecture had prototype geometrical forms for a long time in history. However, modern mosques have deviated from this approach to employ different built elements and symbolism, which are often hard to be identified as related to mosques or even as Islamic. This research aims to explore the sense of spirituality in modern mosques and questions whether the modification of geometrical features produce spirituality in the same manner. The research also seeks to investigate the role of ‘geometry’ in the modern mosque architecture. The research employs the analytical study of some modern mosque examples in the Kingdom of Bahrain, reflecting on the geometry and symbolism adopted in the new mosque architecture design. It buttresses the analysis by the engagement of people’s perceptions derived using a survey of opinions. The research expects to see the significance of geometrical architectural elements in the mosque designs. It will find answers to the questions such as; what is the role of the form of the mosque, interior spaces and the effect of the modified symbolic features in the modern mosque design? How can the symbolic geometry, forms and spaces of a mosque invite a believer to leave the worldly environment behind and move towards spirituality?

Keywords: geometry, mosque architecture, spirituality, symbolism

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39 Layers of Identities in Nahdliyyin Mosque Architecture and Some Related Socio-Political Context Within

Authors: Yulia Eka Putrie, Widjaja Martokusumo

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The development of architecture today indicates that an architectural object often does not represent one single identity only. One architectural object could represents layers of multiple identities of an increasingly complex society. Mosque architecture for example, is mainly associated with one religious identity; that mosque architecture serves as the representation of Islamic identity. However, on many occasions, mosque architecture also serves as the representation of other motives, such as political, social, even individual identity. In normal circumstances, these layers of identities are not always seen or realized by common people outside the community. They are only represented implicitly in some symbolic forms, activities, and events. On the other hand, in specific circumstances, these kinds of identities were represented explicitly in mosque architecture. This paper is a part of an initial research on the representation of socio-political identities in Nahdliyyin mosques in East Java, Indonesia. Nahdliyyin mosques were chosen as the object of research because of its significance in Indonesian socio-political context, because majority of Indonesian muslims are culturally associated with Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) with its aswaja doctrine. Some frictions in mosque ownership and management between Nahdliyyin and other islamic school of thoughts, has resulted in preventive efforts, where some of the efforts are related to the representation of their identity in their mosque architecture. The research is a field research that took place in Malang, East Java. Malang is one of main cities in East Java; a cultural and regional basis of NU and Nahdliyyin people. Formal analysis were conducted in ten large Nahdliyyin mosques in Malang. Some structured and in-depth interviews were also held to explore the motives of identity representation in some architectural aspects of the mosques. The result of this initial study indicates that there are layers of identities which were manifested in the studied mosques. These layers of identities in Nahdliyyin mosques were based on the same main values, but represented through various formal expressions. Furthermore, the study also brings the deeper understanding on socio-political context of mosques in Nahdliyyin culture.

Keywords: Nahdliyyin mosque architecture, layers of identities, representation, Nahdlatul Ulama

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38 Geometrical Analysis of Tiling Patterns in Azari Style: The Case of Tabriz Kaboud Mosque

Authors: Seyyedeh Faezeh Miralami, Sahar Sayyadchapari, Mona Laleh, Zahra Poursafar

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Tiling patterns are magnificent display of decoration in Islamic period. They transform the dusty and dreary facades to splendid and ornate ones. Due to ideological factors and elements of Azari style decorations, geometrical patterns and vegetative designs became prevalent and pervasive in religious sites like mosques. Objectives: The objective of this research is a study of tiling patterns in Tabriz Kaboud mosque, as a splendid work of architecture in Azari style. In this study, the geometrical designs and tiling patterns employed in the mosque decorations are examined and analyzed. Method: The research is based on a descriptive analysis method. Data and information are collected based on documents library and field study. Then, polished and brushed, the study resulted in an illustrative conclusion. Findings: In religious sites such as mosques, geometry represents ‘divination’ in Christian theology and ‘Unity with God’ or ‘Tawhid’ in Islamic terminology. In other words, science, literature, architecture, and all forms of human expression and representation are pointed towards one cause, unity or divination. Tiling patterns of Kaboud Mosque, mostly hexagonal, circular, square and triangle, form outstanding architectonic features which recount a story, a narration of divination or unification with the One.

Keywords: tiling, Azari style, Tabriz Kaboud Mosque, Islamic architecture

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37 The Historical Background of Physical Changing Towards Ancient Mosques in Aceh, Indonesia

Authors: Karima Adilla

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Aceh province, into which Islam convinced to have entered Indonesia in the 12th Century before spreading throughout the archipelago and the rest of Southeast Asia, has several early Islamic mosques that still exist until today. However, due to some circumstances, the restoration and rehabilitation towards those mosques have been made in some periods, while the background was diverse. Concerning this, the research will examine the physical changing aspects of 3 prominent historical mosques in Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh; those are, Indrapuri Mosque, Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, and Baiturrahim Mosque built coincided with the beginning of Islam’s development in Aceh and regarded as eventful mosques. The existence of Indrapuri Mosque built on the remains of the Lamuri Kingdom’s temple is a historical trace that there was Hindu-Buddhist civilization in Aceh before Islam entered and became the majority religion about 98% from Aceh total population. Also, there was the Dutch who colonialized Aceh behind the existence of two famous mosques in Aceh, namely Baiturrahman Grand Mosque and Baiturrahim Mosque, as the colonizer also assisted to rebuild those 2 sacred Mosques to quell the anger of the Acehnese people because their mosque was burnt by the Dutch. Interestingly, despite underwent a long history successively since the rise of Islam after the Hindu-Buddhist kingdom had collapsed, colonialization, conflict, in Aceh, and even experienced the earthquake and tsunami disaster in 2004, those mosques still exist. Therefore, those mosques have been considered as historical silent witnesses. However, it was not merely those reasons that led the mosques underwent several physical changes, otherwise economic, political, social, cultural and religious factors were also highly influential. Instead of directly illustrating the physical changing of those three mosques, this research intends to identify under what condition the physical appearance continuously changing during the sultanate era, the colonial period until post-independent in terms of the architectural style, detail elements, design philosophy, and how the remnants buildings act as medium to bridge the history. A framework will use qualitative research methods by collecting actual data of the mosque's physical change figures through field studies, investigations, library studies and interviews. This research aims to define every trace of historical issues embedded in the physical changing of those mosques as they are intertwined in collecting historical proof. Thus, the result will reveal the characteristic interrelation between history, the mosque architectural style in a certain period, the physical changes background and its impact. Eventually, this research will also explicate a clear inference of each mosque’s role in representing history in Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh specifically, as well as Aceh generally through architectural design concepts.

Keywords: Aceh ancient mosques, Aceh history, Islamic architecture, physical changing

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36 Investigation of the Historical Background of Monumental Mosques in Kocaeli, Turkey by IRT Techniques

Authors: Emre Kishalı, Neslihan TürkmenoğLu Bayraktar

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Historical buildings may face various impacts throughout their life cycle. There have been environmental, structural, public works actions on old monuments influencing sustainability and maintenance issues. As a result, ancient monuments can have been undergone various changes in the context of restoration and repair. Currently, these buildings face integrated conditions including city planning macro solutions, old intervention methods, modifications in building envelope and artefacts in terms of conservation. Moreover, documentation of phases is an essential for assessing the historical building, yet it can result in highly complicated and interwoven issues. Herein, two monuments constructed in the 16th century are selected as case studies in Kocaeli, Turkey which are located in different micro climatic conditions and/or exposed to different interventions and which are important for the city as cultural property. Pertev Paşa Mosque (also known as Yenicuma Mosque) -constructed by Architect Sinan-; Gebze Çoban Mustafa Paşa Mosque -constructed in 1523 and known as the work of Architect Sinan but various names asserted as the architect of building according to resources. Active water infiltration and damages, recent material interventions, hidden niches, and foundation techniques of the mosque are investigated via Infrared Thermography under the project of 114K284, “Non-Destructive Test Applications, in the Context of Planned Conservation, through Historical Mosques of Kocaeli: Coban Mustafa Pasa Mosque, Fevziye Mosque and Pertev Pasa Mosque” funded by TUBITAK. It is aimed to reveal active deteriorations on building elements generated by unwanted effects of structural and climatic conditions, historical interventions, and modifications by monitoring the variation of surface temperature and humidity by IRT visualization method which is an important non- destructive process for investigation of monuments in the conservation field in the context of planned conservation. It is also concluded that in-situ monitoring process via IRT through different climatic conditions give substantial information on the behaviour of the envelope to the physical environmental conditions by observation of thermal performance, degradations. However, it is obvious that monitoring of historical buildings cannot be pursued by implementing a single non-destructive technique to have complete data of the structure.

Keywords: IRT, non-destructive test, planned conservation, mosque

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35 Site Specific Ground Response Estimations for the Vulnerability Assessment of the Buildings of the Third Biggest Mosque in the World, Algeria’s Mosque

Authors: S. Mohamadi, T. Boudina, A. Rouabeh, A. Seridi

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Equivalent linear and non-linear ground response analyses are conducted at many representative sites at the mosque of Algeria, to compare the free field acceleration spectra with local code of practice. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) technique was adopted to measure the in-situ shear wave velocity profile at the representative sites. The seismic movement imposed on the rock is the NS component of Keddara station recorded during the earthquake in Boumerdes 21 May 2003. The site-specific elastic design spectra for each site are determined to further obtain site specific non-linear acceleration spectra. As a case study, the results of site-specific evaluations are presented for two building sites (site of minaret and site of the prayer hall) to demonstrate the influence of local geological conditions on ground response at Algerian sites. A comparison of computed response with the standard code of practice being used currently in Algeria for the seismic zone of Algiers indicated that the design spectra is not able to capture site amplification due to local geological conditions.

Keywords: equivalent linear, non-linear, ground response analysis, design response spectrum

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34 Evaluation of Heating/Cooling Potential of a Passive Building

Authors: M. Jamil Ahmad

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In this paper, the heating/cooling potential of a passive building (mosque) of Prof. K. A. Nizami center for Quranic studies at AMU Aligarh, has been evaluated on the basis of energy balance under quasi-steady state condition by incorporating the effect of ventilation. The study has been carried out for composite climate of Aligarh. The performance of the above mentioned building has been presented in this study. It is observed that the premises of the mosque are cooler than the outside ambient temperature by an average of 2°C and 4°C during the month of March and April respectively. Provision of excellent ventilation, high amount of thermal mass, high ceilings and circulation of cool natural air helps in maintaining an optimal thermal comfort temperature in the passive building.

Keywords: heating/cooling potential, passive building, ambient temperatures

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33 The Arts of Walisanga's Mosques in Java: Structure/Architecture Studies and Its Meaning in Anthropological Perspective

Authors: Slamet Subiyantoro, Mulyanto

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Revealing the structure and symbolism meaning of the walisanga’s mosque arts in Java is very important to explain the philosophy of religious foundation which is a manifestation of the norms/ value system and behavior of the Javanese Islam society that support the culture. This research's aims are also to find the structure pattern of walisanga’s mosque and its symbolic meaning in the context of Javanese Islam society. In order to obtain the research objectives, the research were done in several walisanga’s mosques in Java using anthropological approach which is focused on its interpretation and semiotic analysis. The data were collected through interviews with key informants who well informed about the shape and symbolism of walisanga’s mosques in Java. The observation technique is done through visiting walisanga’s mosques to see directly about its structure/ architecture. In completing the information of comprehensive result of the research, it is also used documents and archives as well as any other source which is analyzed to deepen the discussion in answering the problems research. The flow of analysis is done using an interactive model through stages of data collection, data reduction, data presentation and verification. The analysis is done continuously in a cycle system to draw valid conclusions. The research result indicates that the structure/architecture of walisanga’s mosque in Java is structured/built up vertically as well as horizontally. Its structure/architecture is correlated to each other which is having a sacred meaning that is a process represents the mystical belief such as sangkan paraning dumadi and manuggaling kawula gusti.

Keywords: Walisanga’s mosques, Java, structure and architecture, meaning

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32 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?

Authors: Norlizam Md Sukiban, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Hidayah bt Rahmalan

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The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.

Keywords: e-masjid, online community, virtual community, e-community

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31 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Mustafa Paşa Mosque in Skopje

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti

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The masonry building stock in Istanbul and in other cities of Turkey are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. Determination of the safety of masonry structures against earthquakes is a complex challenge. This study deals with experimental tests and non-linear dynamic analysis of masonry structures modeled through discrete element method. The 1:10 scale model of Mustafa Paşa Mosque was constructed and the data were obtained from the sensors on it during its testing on the shake table. The results were used in the calibration/validation of the numerical model created on the basis of the 1:10 scale model built for shake table testing. 3D distinct element model was developed that represents the linear and nonlinear behavior of the shake table model as closely as possible during experimental tests. Results of numerical analyses with those from the experimental program were compared and discussed.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, non-linear modeling, shake table tests, masonry

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30 Investigation of Anatomical Components of Mosques with the Approach of Attention to Islamic Wisdom

Authors: Farshad Negintaji, Hamid Reza Zeraat Pisheh, Mahshid Ghanea, Zahra Khalifeh, Mohammad Bagher Rahami

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This study has been examined the anatomical components of mosques with the approach of attending to Islamic wisdom and investigated the distinction between the anatomical design of mosques (traditional and modern) by considering the category of perception in Islamic architecture. To this end, this article by reviewing the theoretical and empirical literature of mosques' anatomy and the role of anatomy on the architectural design of Iranian mosques by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators and in order to understand and identify the anatomy of mosques, indicators such as: entrance, portico, minarets, domes, bedchamber and pool have been used. The aim of this study has been to investigate materials, the functional properties, technology, sizes and fitness of (traditional and modern) mosques. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared in which the anatomical and spiritual elements of the mosque shape have been questioned. Research is related to field and is of descriptive, analytical and inferential type and quantitative and qualitative indicators have been examined.

Keywords: Islamic wisdom, Islamic architecture, mosque anatomy, the minaret, dome, bedchamber, entrance, pool, perception

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29 Urban Form of the Traditional Arabic City in the Light of Islamic Values

Authors: Akeel Noori Al-Mulla Hwaish

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The environmental impact, economics, social and cultural factors, and the processes by which people define history and meaning had influenced the dynamic shape and character of the traditional Islamic Arabic city. Therefore, in regard to the period when Islam was at its peak (7th- 13th Centuries), Islamic city wasn’t the highly dynamited at the scale of buildings and city planning that demonstrates a distinguished city as an ‘Islamic’ as appeared after centuries when the function of the buildings and their particular arrangement and planning scheme in relation to one another that defined an Islamic city character. The architectural features of the urban fabric of the traditional Arabic Islamic city are a ‎reflection of the spiritual, social, and cultural characteristics of the people. It is a ‎combination of Islamic values ‘Din’ and life needs ‘Dunia’ as Prophet Muhammad built the first Mosque in ‎Madinah in the 1st year of his migration to it, then the Suq or market on 2nd of Hijrah, attached to ‎the mosque to signify the birth of a new Muslims community which considers both, ‎‎’Din’ and ‘Dunia’ and initiated nucleus for what which called after that as an ‘Islamic’ city. This research will discuss the main characteristics and components of the traditional Arab cities and demonstrate the impact of the Islamic values on shaping the planning layout and general built environment features of the early traditional Arab cities.

Keywords: urban, Islamic, Arabic, city

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28 Structural Analysis and Evolution of 18th Century Ottoman Imperial Mosques (1750-1799) in Comparison with the Classical Period Examples

Authors: U. Demir

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18th century which is the period of 'change' in the Ottoman Empire, affects the architecture as well, where the Classical period is left behind, architecture is differentiated in the form language. This change is especially noticeable in monumental buildings and thus manifested itself in the mosques. But, is it possible to talk about the structural context of the 'change' which has been occurred in decoration? The aim of this study is to investigate the changes and classical relations of the 18th century mosques through plan schedules and structure systems. This study focuses on the monumental mosques constructed during the reign of the three sultans who ruled in the second half of the century (Mustafa the 3rd 1757-1774, Abdülhamid the 1st 1774-1789 and Selim the 3rd). According to their construction years these are 'Ayazma, Laleli, Zeyneb Sultan, Fatih, Beylerbeyi, Şebsefa Kadın, Eyüb Sultan, Mihrişah Valide Sultan and Üsküdar-Selimiye' mosques. As a plan scheme, four mosques have a square or close to a rectangular square scheme, while the others have a rectangle scheme and showing the longitudinal development of the mihrab axis. This situation is widespread throughout the period. In addition to the longitudinal development plan, which is the general characteristic of the 18th century mosques, the use of the classical plan schemes continued in the same direction. Spatialization of the mihrab area was applied to the five mosques while other mosques were applied as niches on the wall surface. This situation is widespread in the period of the second half of the century. In the classical period, the lodges may be located at the back of the mosques interior, not interfering with the main worship area. In the period, the lodges were withdrawn from the main worship area. They are separated from the main interior with their own structural and covering systems. The plans seem to be formed as a result of the addition of lodge parts to the northern part of the Classical period mosques. The 18th century mosques are the constructions where the change of the architectural language and style can be observed easily. This change and the break from the classical period manifest themselves quickly in the structural elements, wall surface decorations, pencil work designs, small scale decor elements, motifs. The speed and intensity of change in the decor does not occur the same as in structural context. The mosque construction rules from the traditional and classical era still continues in the century. While some mosque structures have a plan which is inherited from the classical successor, some of were constructed with the same classical period rules. Nonetheless, the location and transformation of the lodges, which are affecting the interior design, are noteworthy. They provide a significant transition on the way to the new language of the mosque design that will be experienced in the next century. It is intended to draw attention to the structural evolution of the 18th century Ottoman architecture through the royal mosques within the scope of this conference.

Keywords: mosque structure, Ottoman architecture, structural evolution, 18th century architecture

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27 The Impact of Climate Change on Typical Material Degradation Criteria over Timurid Historical Heritage

Authors: Hamed Hedayatnia, Nathan Van Den Bossche

Abstract:

Understanding the ways in which climate change accelerates or slows down the process of material deterioration is the first step towards assessing adaptive approaches for the conservation of historical heritage. Analysis of the climate change effects on the degradation risk assessment parameters like freeze-thaw cycles and wind erosion is also a key parameter when considering mitigating actions. Due to the vulnerability of cultural heritage to climate change, the impact of this phenomenon on material degradation criteria with the focus on brick masonry walls in Timurid heritage, located in Iran, was studied. The Timurids were the final great dynasty to emerge from the Central Asian steppe. Through their patronage, the eastern Islamic world in northwestern of Iran, especially in Mashhad and Herat, became a prominent cultural center. Goharshad Mosque is a mosque in Mashhad of the Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. It was built by order of Empress Goharshad, the wife of Shah Rukh of the Timurid dynasty in 1418 CE. Choosing an appropriate regional climate model was the first step. The outputs of two different climate model: the 'ALARO-0' and 'REMO,' were analyzed to find out which model is more adopted to the area. For validating the quality of the models, a comparison between model data and observations was done in 4 different climate zones in Iran for a period of 30 years. The impacts of the projected climate change were evaluated until 2100. To determine the material specification of Timurid bricks, standard brick samples from a Timurid mosque were studied. Determination of water absorption coefficient, defining the diffusion properties and determination of real density, and total porosity tests were performed to characterize the specifications of brick masonry walls, which is needed for running HAM-simulations. Results from the analysis showed that the threatening factors in each climate zone are almost different, but the most effective factor around Iran is the extreme temperature increase and erosion. In the north-western region of Iran, one of the key factors is wind erosion. In the north, rainfall erosion and mold growth risk are the key factors. In the north-eastern part, in which our case study is located, the important parameter is wind erosion.

Keywords: brick, climate change, degradation criteria, heritage, Timurid period

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26 The Role of Community Participation in the Socialization of the Child within the Saudi Family in Riyadh City

Authors: Ohoud Abdullatif Alshaiji

Abstract:

Child-rearing is considered as the most important family role and with the modern lifestyle and busy families social institutions has taken this role from the family to encourage the individuals active's role in the social life, this study aimed to acknowledge the contributions of the social institutions in child-rearing the Saudi children and to acknowledge The Role of the community's partnership in activating the social child-rearing for the Saudi children. The research main question was how much the community's partnership is actually participating in activating the process of the social development of the Saudi children. The importance of this study comes from the massive care that has been given from all over the world, children international organizations, and this research is focusing on the participating of five social organization in child-rearing the Saudi children. The study was limited on the mothers of the children who are enrolled in the government's kindergarten the tool that has been used was the Questionnaire, using the descriptive and analytical approach. The important role of the family in encouraging the social development for the Saudi child, and the results has shown the importance of the mosque in encouraging the good social behaviors. And the kindergarten role has shown after the mosque because of the changes that made most of the families relying on the educational institutions to help the child to adapt in a different cultures. To spread the community's partnership in all the social actions, to support and encourage the role of community's partnership in activating the process of the social development of the Saudi children, to minimize the difficulties and the provide the need to fully support the community's partnership.

Keywords: child-rearing, social development, acknowledge the contributions

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25 Holy Kabah and Holy Mosque: The Journey of Spiritual, Mystical and Social Ascension of Two Slaves of Ethiopia to Represent the Two Holiest Symbols of Islam

Authors: Zawahir Siddique

Abstract:

The paper explores the philosophical, spiritual, and mystical dimensions of the glorified journey of Hajira and Bilal. The black Ethiopian slave Hajira’s skirt was chosen to cover the first house of God on earth. Hajira was chosen by God as the embodiment of love and submission. The philosophy behind her migration with her child Ismail and wandering between Safa and Marwa in search of water that eventually gushed forth from the feet of Ismail and how God gifted Hajira, Ismail, and the entire humanity with Zamzam needs to be explored. Every year over two million pilgrims assemble and circumambulate around the Holy Kabah during Hajj, and every day, millions of Muslims pray, riveting their faith around Kabah. The significance and mysticism of the central figure of Hajira deserve due attention. Several eras later, the most blessed personality of humanity, Prophet Muhammad, elevated another Ethiopian Slave to the highest honor in the first Mosque of the Prophet of Islam in Medina. The purity of his heart and spiritually captivating voice of Bilal was preferred over his pre-Islamic social status. When the companions of the Prophet questioned the diction and pronunciation of 'SHEEN' by Bilal owing to his African origin, the Prophet immediately corrected them, justifying the purity of Bilal’s heart mattered more and hence Bilal’s 'SEEN' was heard as 'SHEEN' by God Almighty. The journey of Bilal to Islam and his pious and devoted contributions to Islam in the light of spirituality, mysticism, and social reforms are also explored further in this paper.

Keywords: philosophy, spirituality, mysticism, Hajira, Bilal

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24 Optimum Dewatering Network Design Using Firefly Optimization Algorithm

Authors: S. M. Javad Davoodi, Mojtaba Shourian

Abstract:

Groundwater table close to the ground surface causes major problems in construction and mining operation. One of the methods to control groundwater in such cases is using pumping wells. These pumping wells remove excess water from the site project and lower the water table to a desirable value. Although the efficiency of this method is acceptable, it needs high expenses to apply. It means even small improvement in a design of pumping wells can lead to substantial cost savings. In order to minimize the total cost in the method of pumping wells, a simulation-optimization approach is applied. The proposed model integrates MODFLOW as the simulation model with Firefly as the optimization algorithm. In fact, MODFLOW computes the drawdown due to pumping in an aquifer and the Firefly algorithm defines the optimum value of design parameters which are numbers, pumping rates and layout of the designing wells. The developed Firefly-MODFLOW model is applied to minimize the cost of the dewatering project for the ancient mosque of Kerman city in Iran. Repetitive runs of the Firefly-MODFLOW model indicates that drilling two wells with the total rate of pumping 5503 m3/day is the result of the minimization problem. Results show that implementing the proposed solution leads to at least 1.5 m drawdown in the aquifer beneath mosque region. Also, the subsidence due to groundwater depletion is less than 80 mm. Sensitivity analyses indicate that desirable groundwater depletion has an enormous impact on total cost of the project. Besides, in a hypothetical aquifer decreasing the hydraulic conductivity contributes to decrease in total water extraction for dewatering.

Keywords: groundwater dewatering, pumping wells, simulation-optimization, MODFLOW, firefly algorithm

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23 A Tomb Structure in Pursuit of Tradition in 2oth Century Turkey and Its Story; the Tomb of Haci Hâkim Kemal Onsun and His Wife

Authors: Yavuz Arat, Ugur Tuztasi, Mehmet Uysal

Abstract:

Anatolia has been the host of many civilizations and a site where architectural structures of many cultural layers were interpreted. Most significantly the Turks who settled in Central Asia brought their architectural dynamics and cultural accumulation to Anatolia after the 12th century. The tomb structures first observed in Central Asia under the influence of Islamic faith and Turkish cultural heritage has blossomed under Great Seljuk Empire and with the Anatolian Seljuk Empire these tombs changed both in size and form with rich and beautiful samples from Ahlat to Sivas to Kayseri and Konya. This tomb tradition which started during 13th century has continued during the Ottoman Empire period with some alterations of form and evolved into the rarely observed mausoleum type tombs. The Ottoman tradition of building tombs inside mosque gardens and their forms present the clues of an important burial tradition. However this understanding was abandoned in 20th century Turkey. This tradition was abandoned with regard to legal regulations and health conditions. This study investigates the vestiges of this tradition and its spatial reflections over a sample. The present sample is representative of a tradition that started in 1970s and the case of building tombs inside mosque gardens will be illustrated over the tomb of Hacı Kemal Onsun and his wife which is located in Konya, the capital of the Anatolian Seljuks. The building process of this tomb will be evaluated with regard to burial traditions and architectural stylization.

Keywords: tomb, language of architectural form, Anatolian Seljuk tombs, Ottoman tombs

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22 Writing a Parametric Design Algorithm Based on Recreation and Structural Analysis of Patkane Model: The Case Study of Oshtorjan Mosque

Authors: Behnoush Moghiminia, Jesus Anaya Diaz

Abstract:

The current study attempts to present the relationship between the structure development and Patkaneh as one of the Iranian geometric patterns and parametric algorithms by introducing two practical methods. While having a structural function, Patkaneh is also used as an ornamental element. It can be helpful in the scientific and practical review of Patkaneh. The current study aims to use Patkaneh as a parametric form generator based on the algorithm. The current paper attempts to express how can a more complete algorithm of this covering be obtained based on the parametric study and analysis of a sample of a Patkaneh and also investigate the relationship between the development of the geometrical pattern of Patkaneh as a structural-decorative element of Iranian architecture and digital design. In this regard, to achieve the research purposes, researchers investigated the oldest type of Patkaneh in the architecture history of Iran, such as the Northern Entrance Patkaneh of Oshtorjan Jame’ Mosque. An accurate investigation was done on the history of the background to answer the questions. Then, by investigating the structural behavior of Patkaneh, the decorative or structural-decorative role of Patkaneh was investigated to eliminate the ambiguity. Then, the geometrical structure of Patkaneh was analyzed by introducing two practical methods. The first method is based on the constituent units of Patkaneh (Square and diamond) and investigating the interactive relationships between them in 2D and 3D. This method is appropriate for cases where there are rational and regular geometrical relationships. The second method is based on the separation of the floors and the investigation of their interrelation. It is practical when the constituent units are not geometrically regular and have numerous diversity. Finally, the parametric form algorithm of these methods was codified.

Keywords: geometric properties, parametric design, Patkaneh, structural analysis

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21 Spatial Transformation of Heritage Area as The Impact of Tourism Activity (Case Study: Kauman Village, Surakarta City, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Nafiah Solikhah Thoha

Abstract:

One area that has spatial character as Heritage area is Kauman Villages. Kauman village in The City of Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia was formed in 1757 by Paku Buwono III as the King of Kasunanan kingdom (Mataram Kingdom) for Kasunanan kingdom courtiers and scholars of Madrasa. Spatial character of Kauman village influenced by Islamic planning and socio-cultural rules of Kasunanan Kingdom. As traditional settlements influenced by Islamic planning, the Grand Mosque is a binding part of the whole area. Circulation pattern forming network (labyrinth) with narrow streets that ended at the Grand Mosque. The outdoor space can be used for circulation. Social activity is dominated by step movement from one place to a different place. Stalemate (the fina/cul de sac) generally only passable on foot, bicycles, and motorcycles. While the pass (main and branch) can be traversed by motor, vehicles. Kauman village has an area that can not be used as a public road that penetrates and serves as a liaison between the outside world to the other. Hierarchy of hall in Kauman village shows that the existence of a space is getting into more important. Firstly, woman in Kauman make the handmade batik for themself. In 2005 many people improving batik tradisional into commercial, and developed program named "Batik Tourism village of Kauman". That program affects the spatial transformations. This study aimed to explore the influence of tourism program towards spatial transformations. The factors that studied are the organization of space, circulation patterns, hierarchical space, and orientation through the descriptive-evaluation approach methods. Based on the study, tourism activity engenders transformations on the spatial scale (macro), residential block (mezo), homes (micro). First, the Grand Mosque and madrasa (religious school) as a binding zoning; tangle of roads as forming the structure of the area developed as a liaison with outside Kauman; organization of space in the residential of batik entrepreneurs firstly just a residential, then develop into residential, factory of batik including showroom. Second, the circulation pattern forming network (labyrinth) and ends at the Grand Mosque. Third, the hierarchy in the form of public space (the shari), semi-public, and private (the fina/culdesac) is no longer to provide protection to women, only as hierarchy of circulation path. Fourth, cluster building orientation does not follow the kiblat direction or axis oriented to cosmos, but influence by the new function as the showroom. It was need the direction of the main road. Kauman grow as an appropriate area for the community. During its development, the settlement function changes according to community activities, especially economic activities. The new function areas as tourism area affect spatial pattern of Kauman village. Spatial existence and activity as a local wisdom that has been done for generations have meaning of holistic, encompassing socio-cultural sustainability, economics, and the heritage area. By reviewing the local wisdom and the way of life of that society, we can learn how to apply the culture as education for sustainable of heritage area.

Keywords: impact of tourism, Kauman village, spatial transformation, sustainable of heritage area

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20 Elements of Usability and Sociability in Activity Management System for e-Masjid

Authors: Hidayah bt Rahmalan, Marhazli Kipli, Muhammad Suffian Sikandar Ghani, Maisarah Abu, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Norlizam Md Sukiban

Abstract:

This study presents an example of activity management system for e-Masjid implementing elements of usability and sociability. It is expected to resolve the shortcomings of the most e-Masjid that provide lot of activities to their community. However, the data on handling a lot of activities or events in which involve a lot of people will be difficult to manipulate. Thus, this paper presents the usability and sociability element on an activity management system that not only eases the job for the user but being practical for future when the community join any events. For the time being, this activity management system was only applied for Sayyidina Abu Bakar Mosque in Utem, Malacca.

Keywords: e-masjid, usability, sociability, activity management system

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19 The Enlightenment Project in the Arab World: Saudi Arabia as a Case Study in Modern Islamic Thought

Authors: Khawla Almulla

Abstract:

It is noticed that many Arab intellectuals have called to the need and the importance of enlightenment and its application in their communities, such as Saudi Arabia. To every Islamic state, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia represents a strategic cornerstone, since it is considered the cradle of Islam. It is the Land of the Two Holy Mosques: the Holy Mosque in Makkah surrounding the Kaaba, towards which all Muslims around the world turn while performing daily prayers and even travel to if possible in order to perform the Hajj (Pilgrimage). It also has the Prophet'ـ‘s Holy Mosque in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, which contains the tomb of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Therefore, Saudi Arabia occupies an eminent position among Arab and Islamic countries on a religious level. Saudi Arabia has become the most influential country in the Arab world, since it has one-third of the oil resources outside Central Asia, China and Russia .It is the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil. Discovering oil in Saudi Arabia converted it from an important country for Muslims-only to an important country for the major industrial countries and also the developing countries, as well. For various reasons, the diversity of intellectual currents can play a significant role in each community by way of cultural improvement, the development of civilization and the education of people until they become accustomed to accepting or rejecting opinions or ideas which differ from or oppose their own. In addition, the intellectual pluralism and cultural diversity can play a variety of roles. This helps promote dialogue and understanding between different groups or schools of thought. It can also develop cognitive skills, by exchanging ideas and views between different schools and intellectual currents. However, in Saudi Arabia there is much to oppose this plurality. The situation today shows that having a variety of ideologies and differences of cultures are not considered a reasonable way to develop intellectually as an individual or as a country. Rather the opposite is recommended, such that the ideologies of different groups are enough to bring out intellectual conflict and then to the segregation of society. As a consequence, extremism of thought from the different currents in Saudi Arabia has become apparent. This research is of great importance in its exploration of two significant themes. First, it highlights the Saudi Arabian background, in particular the historical, religious and social contexts, in order to understand the background of each religious or liberal movement and find the core of the intellectual differences between them. In addition, the aim of this research is to show the importance of moderation in Islamic thought in Saudi Arabia by tracing the thoughts and views of Dr Salman Al-Odah, whom he has considered to be the most important moderate thinker in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, intellectual movements, religious movements, extremism, moderation, Salafism, liberalism, Salman Al-Odah

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