Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Vedat Acar

27 A Proposal of Farm-Based Tourism within the Context of Rural Tourism: Zeytinseli

Authors: Vedat Acar, Osman Eralp Çolakoğlu


In this research, with reference to specialization of travel agencies being an important part of tourism industry, a project has been presented about a small-scale enterprise, called as Zeytinseli, contributing actively from the beginning to the end of the production process of olive and olive oil within the context of rural tourism. For this purpose in the research done, firstly, conceptual framework has been formed about travel agency, tour operatorship, specialized travel agency and rural tourism and the necessity of specialization on tourism has been emphasized in today's world. Afterwards, "olive", having an important role in both mythology and divine religions, has been handled within the scope of rural tourism. The cost of accommodation units about Zeytinseli operating in Didim, being a district of Aydın, has been calculated within the context of the project and a fifteen-day's tour to this enterprise has been presented at the end of this project. The research may be said to be an original research on account of embodying not only ecotourism, agro tourism but also cultural tourism and special interest tourism.

Keywords: agro tourism, rural tourism, specialization of travel agency, special interest tourism

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26 Security Analysis of SIMSec Protocol

Authors: Kerem Ok, Cem Cevikbas, Vedat Coskun, Mohammed Alsadi, Busra Ozdenizci


Un-keyed SIM cards do not contain the required security infrastructure to provide end-to-end encryption with Service Providers. Hence, new, emerging, or smart services those require end-to-end encryption between SIM card and a Service Provider is impossible. SIMSec key exchange protocol creates symmetric keys between SIM card and Service Provider. After a successful protocol execution, SIM card and Service Provider creates the symmetric keys and can perform end-to-end data encryption when required. In this paper, our aim is to analyze the SIMSec protocol’s security. According to the results, SIM card and Service Provider can generate keys securely using SIMSec protocol.

Keywords: End-to-end encryption, key exchange, SIM card, smart card

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25 Magneto-Rheological Damper Based Semi-Active Robust H∞ Control of Civil Structures with Parametric Uncertainties

Authors: Vedat Senol, Gursoy Turan, Anders Helmersson, Vortechz Andersson


In developing a mathematical model of a real structure, the simulation results of the model may not match the real structural response. This is a general problem that arises during dynamic motion of the structure, which may be modeled by means of parameter variations in the stiffness, damping, and mass matrices. These changes in parameters need to be estimated, and the mathematical model is updated to obtain higher control performances and robustness. In this study, a linear fractional transformation (LFT) is utilized for uncertainty modeling. Further, a general approach to the design of an H∞ control of a magneto-rheological damper (MRD) for vibration reduction in a building with mass, damping, and stiffness uncertainties is presented.

Keywords: uncertainty modeling, structural control, MR Damper, H∞, robust control

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24 Two Degree of Freedom Spherical Mechanism Design for Exact Sun Tracking

Authors: Osman Acar


Sun tracking systems are the systems following the sun ray by a right angle or by predetermined certain angle. In this study, we used theoretical trajectory of sun for latitude of central Anatolia in Turkey. A two degree of freedom spherical mechanism was designed to have a large workspace able to follow the sun's theoretical motion by the right angle during the whole year. An inverse kinematic analysis was generated to find the positions of mechanism links for the predicted trajectory. Force and torque analysis were shown for the first day of the year.

Keywords: sun tracking, theoretical sun trajectory, spherical mechanism, inverse kinematic analysis

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23 Heat Transfer Enhancement via Using Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Car Radiator

Authors: S. Movafagh, Y. Bakhshan


In this study, effect of adding Al2O3 nanoparticle to base fluid (water) in car radiator is investigated numerically. Radiators are compact heat exchangers optimized and evaluated by considering different working conditions. The cooling system of a car plays an important role in vehicle's performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. In this study, the effects of fluid inlet flow rate and nanoparticle volume fraction on heat transfer and pressure drop of acar radiator are studied.

Keywords: forced convection, nanofluid, radiator, CFD simulation

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22 Development and Performance Analysis of Multifunctional City Smart Card System

Authors: Vedat Coskun, Fahri Soylemezgiller, Busra Ozdenizci, Kerem Ok


In recent years, several smart card solutions for transportation services of cities with different technical infrastructures and business models has emerged considerably, which triggers new business and technical opportunities. In order to create a unique system, we present a novel, promising system called Multifunctional City Smart Card System to be used in all cities that provides transportation and loyalty services based on the MasterCard M/Chip Advance standards. The proposed system provides a unique solution for transportation services of large cities over the world, aiming to answer all transportation needs of citizens. In this paper, development of the Multifunctional City Smart Card System and system requirements are briefly described. Moreover, performance analysis results of M/Chip Advance Compatible Validators which is the system's most important component are presented.

Keywords: smart card, m/chip advance standard, city transportation, performance analysis

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21 Points of View on Turkish Trade Marks by Foreigners Living in Konya

Authors: İmran Ugur, Zulfiye Acar


Trade marks are composed of figures, signs or symbols such as logos, colours and designs to be formed for service or products to be different from their counterparts. However, trade marks have nowadays a large meaning that defines its classical description. It has an understanding that pioneers novelties by forming the perception of quality, being emotional constituents and leading to links to their consumers. While entering different markets all over the world, Turkish trade marks are encountering a new type of consumers in Turkey migrating from different countries. Most of these new consumers meet Turkish trade marks for the first time. The present study was performed to investigate the perception of Turkish trade marks living in Konya. How these consumers look at the trade marks of clothes, food, beverages, GSM operators and whiteware appliances, and perceive these trade marks were tried to be determined. Which trade marks they chose according to their preferences, and the awareness of Turkish trade marks were evaluated in the study.

Keywords: brand, brand awareness, culture, trade marks

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20 Corrosion Protection of Steel 316 by Electrochemically Synthesized Conductive Poly (O-Toluidine)

Authors: H. Acar, M. Karakışla, L. Aksu, M. Saçak


The corrosion protection effect of poly(o-toluidine) (POT) coated on steel 316 electrode was determined in corrosive media such as NaCl, H2SO4 and HCl with the use of Tafel curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The POT coatings were prepared with cyclic voltammetry technique in aqueous solution of oxalic acid and they were characterized by FTIR and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The Tafel curves revealed that the POT coating provides the most effective protection compared to the bare steel 316 electrode in NaCl as corrosive medium. The results were evaluated based upon data decrease of corrosion current and shift to positive potentials with the increase of number of scans. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were found to support Tafel data of POT coating.

Keywords: corrosion, impedance spectroscopy, steel 316, poly(o-toluidine)

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19 Decentralized Control of Interconnected Systems with Non-Linear Unknown Interconnections

Authors: Haci Mehmet Guzey, Levent Acar


In this paper, a novel decentralized controller is developed for linear systems with nonlinear unknown interconnections. A model linear decoupled system is assigned for each system. By using the difference actual and model state dynamics, the problem is formulated as inverse problem. Then, the interconnected dynamics are approximated by using Galerkin’s expansion method for inverse problems. Two different sets of orthogonal basis functions are utilized to approximate the interconnected dynamics. Approximated interconnections are utilized in the controller to cancel the interconnections and decouple the systems. Subsequently, the interconnected systems behave as a collection of decoupled systems.

Keywords: decentralized control, inverse problems, large scale systems, nonlinear interconnections, basis functions, system identification

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18 Evaluation of Water Quality for the Kurtbogazi Dam Outlet and the Streams Feeding the Dam (Ankara, Turkey)

Authors: Gulsen Tozsin, Fatma Bakir, Cemil Acar, Ercument Koc


Kurtbogazi Dam has gained special meaning for Ankara, Turkey for the last decade due to the rapid depletion of nearby resources of drinking water. In this study, the results of the analyses of Kurtbogazi Dam outlet water and the rivers flowing into the Kurtbogazi Dam were discussed for the period of last five years between 2008 and 2012. The quality of these surface water resources were evaluated in terms of pH, temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrate, phosphate and chlorine. They were classified according to the Council Directive (75/440/EEC). Moreover, the properties of these surface waters were assessed to determine the quality of water for drinking and irrigation purposes using Piper, US Salinity Laboratory and Wilcox diagrams. The results revealed that the quality of all the investigated water sources are generally at satisfactory level as surface water except for Pazar Stream in terms of ortho-phosphate and BOD5 concentration for 2008.

Keywords: Kurtbogazi dam, water quality assessment, Ankara water, water supply

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17 Bringing Ethics to a Violent System

Authors: Zeynep Selin Acar


In international system, there has always been a cycle of violence, war and peace. As there travels the time, after Christianity and later Just War theorists, international relations theorists have been tried to limit violence and war. As pieces of international law, Peace of Augsburg, Kellog-Briand Pact, League of Nations Covenant and UN Charter were and are still not effective to prevent war. Moreover, in order to find a way around these rules, it is believed that a new excuse started to be used instead of violence or war, humanitarian intervention. However, it has neither a legal nor a universally accepted framework. As a result, it is open to be manipulated by states. In order to prevent this, Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) which gives a state the responsibility to protect its citizens against violence, is created. Additionally, RtoP transfers this responsibility to regional or international group of states at the time when a state is the origin of violence. In the lights of these, this paper analyzes RtoP as an ethical approach to war and peace studies because it provides other states as guardians and care-takers of people who do not belong to them or do not share any togetherness.

Keywords: ethics, humanitarian intervention, responsibility to protect, UN charter

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16 Dynamic Analysis of a Moderately Thick Plate on Pasternak Type Foundation under Impact and Moving Loads

Authors: Neslihan Genckal, Reha Gursoy, Vedat Z. Dogan


In this study, dynamic responses of composite plates on elastic foundations subjected to impact and moving loads are investigated. The first order shear deformation (FSDT) theory is used for moderately thick plates. Pasternak-type (two-parameter) elastic foundation is assumed. Elastic foundation effects are integrated into the governing equations. It is assumed that plate is first hit by a mass as an impact type loading then the mass continues to move on the composite plate as a distributed moving loading, which resembles the aircraft landing on airport pavements. Impact and moving loadings are modeled by a mass-spring-damper system with a wheel. The wheel is assumed to be continuously in contact with the plate after impact. The governing partial differential equations of motion for displacements are converted into the ordinary differential equations in the time domain by using Galerkin’s method. Then, these sets of equations are solved by using the Runge-Kutta method. Several parameters such as vertical and horizontal velocities of the aircraft, volume fractions of the steel rebar in the reinforced concrete layer, and the different touchdown locations of the aircraft tire on the runway are considered in the numerical simulation. The results are compared with those of the ABAQUS, which is a commercial finite element code.

Keywords: elastic foundation, impact, moving load, thick plate

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15 A Light in the Road of Protection of Civilians: Responsibility to Protect

Authors: Zeynep Selin Acar


In the world of wars, it is aimed to find ways to protect civilians propound by political elites. Current threats may come from edges of the security concerns, meaning uncontrollable terrorist groups, unanticipated government-supported armed groups or separatists, and unimaginable merge of the previous with foreign supports or oppositions of which could flow into all groups– flaws of international state system. These threats resulted in transformation of inter-state system into a world system with distinctive actors and brought along the changes in strategic plans of political and military bodies, as well as adaptations of principles framing the strategies in terms of may-be-applicable international law constrained by ethical considerations. This paper aims to analyse the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP), being one of those, with its criteria aiming to regulate military interventions taking the protection of civilians both as the reason for intervention, jus ad bellum or right to war, and as the duties during the intervention, jus in bello or how to conduct the war. In addition it will discuss the rise of its bindingness in terms of Responsibility Not to Veto (RNtoV), Franco/Mexican Political Declaration opened in signature for UN member states on September 2015.

Keywords: civilian protection, protection as responsibility, responsibility to protect, responsibility not to veto

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14 The Effect of Group Counseling Program on 9th Grade Students' Assertiveness Levels

Authors: Ismail Seçer, Kerime Meryem Dereli̇oğlu


This study is conducted to determine the effects of group counseling program on secondary school 9th grade students’ assertiveness skills. The study group was formed of 100 students who have received education in Erzurum Kültür Elementary School in 2015-2016 education years. RAE-Rathus Assertiveness Schedule developed by Voltan Acar was applied on this group to gather data. 40 students who got lower grades from the inventory were divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each group is formed of 20 students. Group counseling program was carried out on the experimental group to improve the students’ assertiveness skills for 8 weeks. Single-way and two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used in the analysis of the data. The data was analyzed by using the SPSS 19.00. The results of the study show that assertiveness skills of the students who participate in the group counseling program increased meaningfully compared to the control group and pre-experiment. Besides, it was determined that the change observed in the experimental group occurred separately from the age and socio-economic level variables, and it was determined with the monitoring test applied after four months that this affect was continued. According to this result, it can be said that the applied group counseling program is an effective means to improve the assertiveness skills of secondary school students.

Keywords: high school, assertiveness, assertiveness inventory, assertiveness education

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13 The Relationship between Public Relations and Media Relations: The Case of Hotel Enterprises

Authors: Burcu Oksuz, Volkan Altıintas, Zulfiye Acar Senturk


Though in the academic literature, it is emphasized that Public Relations (PR) should not be seen only as media relations, in practise, the media relations has a very dominant position at the communication studies carried out by many companies. There are many PR practitioners who have journalism background. However the number of the practitioners who have started to work in the sector after having PR education at the universities has been highly increasing. Therefore, it can be said that previous journalist dominance has diminished at the public relations sector in Turkey. However, by virtue of the fact that some companies and practitioners consider the media coverage the first priority of PR, this much is certain that the dominant position of media relations is ongoing. On the other hand, still many companies measure the success of their PR by how much place their companies have taken. This situation creates major pressure on the PR practitioners to have close relations with the media members and to make them write articles about their companies. Thereupon, PR practitioners have to take the time for the media relations and the media relations comes into prominence more than the other PR functions. The aim of this study is to reveal the PR functions at the companies and to evaluate the position of the media relations in the PR studies. Therefore, it is aimed to find out at what extend the discourse of “Public relations is not media relations” is accepted in practice and actualised. Accordingly, a research about 15 hotel enterprises which are located in the city of İzmir will be carried out. İzmir as one of the most important tourism destinations has many hotels. The PR/corporate communications managers will be interviewed profoundly within the scope of this study and PR functions performed by hotels will be discussed in details in consideration of the datum obtained.

Keywords: media relations, public relations, public relations practitioners, Turkey

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12 Distribution of Maximum Loss of Fractional Brownian Motion with Drift

Authors: Ceren Vardar Acar, Mine Caglar


In finance, the price of a volatile asset can be modeled using fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with Hurst parameter H>1/2. The Black-Scholes model for the values of returns of an asset using fBm is given as, 〖Y_t=Y_0 e^((r+μ)t+σB)〗_t^H, 0≤t≤T where Y_0 is the initial value, r is constant interest rate, μ is constant drift and σ is constant diffusion coefficient of fBm, which is denoted by B_t^H where t≥0. Black-Scholes model can be constructed with some Markov processes such as Brownian motion. The advantage of modeling with fBm to Markov processes is its capability of exposing the dependence between returns. The real life data for a volatile asset display long-range dependence property. For this reason, using fBm is a more realistic model compared to Markov processes. Investors would be interested in any kind of information on the risk in order to manage it or hedge it. The maximum possible loss is one way to measure highest possible risk. Therefore, it is an important variable for investors. In our study, we give some theoretical bounds on the distribution of maximum possible loss of fBm. We provide both asymptotical and strong estimates for the tail probability of maximum loss of standard fBm and fBm with drift and diffusion coefficients. In the investment point of view, these results explain, how large values of possible loss behave and its bounds.

Keywords: maximum drawdown, maximum loss, fractional brownian motion, large deviation, Gaussian process

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11 Assessing the Adaptive Re-Use Potential of Buildings as Part of the Disaster Management Process

Authors: A. Esra İdemen, Sinan M. Şener, Emrah Acar


The technological paradigm of the disaster management field, especially in the case of governmental intervention strategies, is generally based on rapid and flexible accommodation solutions. From various technical solution patterns used to address the immediate housing needs of disaster victims, the adaptive re-use of existing buildings can be considered to be both low-cost and practical. However, there is a scarcity of analytical methods to screen, select and adapt buildings to help decision makers in cases of emergency. Following an extensive literature review, this paper aims to highlight key points and problem areas associated with the adaptive re-use of buildings within the disaster management context. In other disciplines such as real estate management, the adaptive re-use potential (ARP) of existing buildings is typically based on the prioritization of a set of technical and non-technical criteria which are then weighted to arrive at an economically viable investment decision. After a disaster, however, the assessment of the ARP of buildings requires consideration of different/additional layers of analysis which stem from general disaster management principles and the peculiarities of different types of disasters, as well as of their victims. In this paper, a discussion of the development of an adaptive re-use potential (ARP) assessment model is presented. It is thought that governmental and non-governmental decision makers who are required to take quick decisions to accommodate displaced masses following disasters are likely to benefit from the implementation of such a model.

Keywords: adaptive re-use of buildings, disaster management, temporary housing, assessment model

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10 The Effects of Functionality Level on Gait in Subjects with Low Back Pain

Authors: Vedat Kurt, Tansel Koyunoglu, Gamze Kurt, Ozgen Aras


Low back pain is one of the most common health problem in public. Common symptoms that can be associated with low back pain include; pain, functional disability, gait disturbances. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between disability scores and gait parameters in subjects with low back pain. Sixty participants are included in our study, (35 men, 25 women, mean age: 37.65±10.02 years). Demographic characteristics of participants were recorded. Pain (visual analog scale) and disability level (Oswestry Disability Index(ODI)) were evaluated. Gait parameters were measured with Zebris-FDM-2 platform. Independent samples t-test was used to analyse the differences between subjects with under 40 points (n=31, mean age:35.8±11.3) and above 40 points (n=29, mean age:39.6±8.1) of ODI scores. Significant level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. There was no significant difference between the ODI scores and groups’ ages. Statistically significant differences were found in step width between subjects with under 40 points of ODI and above 40 points of ODI score(p < 0.05). But there were non-significant differences with other gait parameters (p > 0.05). The differences between gait parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Researchers generally agree that individuals with LBP walk slower and take shorter steps and have asymmetric step lengths when compared with than their age-matched pain-free counterparts. Also perceived general disability may have moderate correlation with walking performance. In the current study, the patients classified as minimal/moderate and severe disability level by using ODI scores. As a result, a patient with LBP who have higher disability level tends to increase support surface. On the other hand, we did not find any relation between pain intensity and gait parameters. It may be caused by the classification system of pain scores. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of functionality level and pain intensity on gait in subjects with low back pain under different classification types.

Keywords: functionality, low back pain, gait, pain

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9 Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Heterocyclic Indole Derivatives

Authors: Tunca Gul Altuntas, Aziz Baydar, Cemre Acar, Sezen Yılmaz, Tulay Coban


Free radicals, which are generated in many bioorganic redox processes, play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer, arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and age-related degenerative brain diseases. Exposures of normal cell to free radical damages several structures, oxidizes nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, or DNA. Compounds interfere with the action of reactive oxygen species might be useful in prevention and treatment of these pathologies. A series of indole compounds containing piperazine ring were synthesized. Coupling of indole-2-carboxylic acid with monosubstituted piperazines was accomplished with 1,1’-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in a good yield. The structures of prepared compounds were verified in good agreement with their 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), MS (mass spectrophotometry), and IR (infrared spectrophotometry) characteristics. In this work, all synthetized indole derivatives were screened in vitro for their antioxidative potential against vitamin E (α-tocopherol) using different antioxidant assays such as superoxide anion formation, lipid peroxidation levels in rat liver, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable radical scavenging activity. The synthesized compounds showed various levels of inhibition compared to vitamin E. This may give promising results for the development of new antioxidant agents.

Keywords: antioxidant, indoles, piperazines, reactive oxygen species

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8 Water Quality Determination of River Systems in Antalya Basin by Biomonitoring

Authors: Hasan Kalyoncu, Füsun Kılçık, Hatice Gülboy Akyıldırım, Aynur Özen, Mehmet Acar, Nur Yoluk


For evaluation of water quality of the river systems in Antalya Basin, macrozoobenthos samples were taken from 22 determined stations by a hand net and identified at family level. Water quality of Antalya Basin was determined according to Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) system, by using macrozoobenthic invertebrates and physicochemical parameters. As a result of the evaluation, while Aksu Stream was determined as the most polluted stream in Antalya Basin, Isparta Stream was determined as the most polluted tributary of Aksu Stream. Pollution level of the Isparta Stream was determined as quality class V and it is the extremely polluted part of stream. Pollution loads at the sources of the streams were determined in low levels in general. Due to some parts of the streams have passed through deep canyons and take their sources from nonresidential and non-arable regions, majority of the streams that take place in Antalya Basin are at high quality level. Waste water, which comes from agricultural and residential regions, affects the lower basins of the streams. Because of the waste water, lower parts of the stream basins exposed to the pollution under anthropogenic effects. However, in Aksu Stream, which differs by being exposed to domestic and industrial wastes of Isparta City, extreme pollution was determined, particularly in the Isparta Stream part.

Keywords: Antalya basin, biomonitoring, BMWP, water quality

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7 Adsorption of Chlorinated Pesticides in Drinking Water by Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Hacer Sule Gonul, Vedat Uyak


Intensive use of pesticides in agricultural activity causes mixing of these compounds into water sources with surface flow. Especially after the 1970s, a number of limitations imposed on the use of chlorinated pesticides that have a carcinogenic risk potential and regulatory limit have been established. These chlorinated pesticides discharge to water resources, transport in the water and land environment and accumulation in the human body through the food chain raises serious health concerns. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention from on all because of their excellent mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics. Due to CNT particles' high degree of hydrophobic surfaces, these nanoparticles play critical role in the removal of water contaminants of natural organic matters, pesticides and phenolic compounds in water sources. Health concerns associated with chlorinated pesticides requires the removal of such contaminants from aquatic environment. Although the use of aldrin and atrazine was restricted in our country, repatriation of illegal entry and widespread use of such chemicals in agricultural areas cause increases for the concentration of these chemicals in the water supply. In this study, the compounds of chlorinated pesticides such as aldrin and atrazine compounds would be tried to eliminate from drinking water with carbon nanotube adsorption method. Within this study, 2 different types of CNT would be used including single-wall (SWCNT) and multi-wall (MWCNT) carbon nanotubes. Adsorption isotherms within the scope of work, the parameters affecting the adsorption of chlorinated pesticides in water are considered as pH, contact time, CNT type, CNT dose and initial concentration of pesticides. As a result, under conditions of neutral pH conditions with MWCNT respectively for atrazine and aldrin obtained adsorption capacity of determined as 2.24 µg/mg ve 3.84 µg/mg. On the other hand, the determined adsorption capacity rates for SWCNT for aldrin and atrazine has identified as 3.91 µg/mg ve 3.92 µg/mg. After all, each type of pesticide that provides superior performance in relieving SWCNT particles has emerged.

Keywords: pesticide, drinking water, carbon nanotube, adsorption

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6 Spatial and Temporal Evaluations of Disinfection By-Products Formation in Coastal City Distribution Systems of Turkey

Authors: Vedat Uyak


Seasonal variations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) concentrations were investigated within three distribution systems of a coastal city of Istanbul, Turkey. Moreover, total trihalomethanes and other organics concentration were also analyzed. The investigation was based on an intensive 16 month (2009-2010) sampling program, undertaken during the spring, summer, fall and winter seasons. Four THM (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform), and nine HAA (the most commonly occurring one being dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA); other compounds are monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), tribromoacetic acid (TBAA), bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA) and chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBAA)) species and other water quality and operational parameters were monitored at points along the distribution system between the treatment plant and the system’s extremity. The effects of coastal water sources, seasonal variation and spatial variation were examined. The results showed that THMs and HAAs concentrations vary significantly between treated waters and water at the distribution networks. When water temperature exceeds 26°C in summer, the THMs and HAAs levels are 0.8 – 1.1, and 0.4 – 0.9 times higher than treated water, respectively. While when water temperature is below 12°C in the winter, the measured THMs and HAAs concentrations at the system’s extremity were very rarely higher than 100 μg/L, and 60 μg/L, respectively. The highest THM concentrations occurred in the Buyukcekmece distribution system, with an average total HAA concentration of 92 μg/L. Moreover, the lowest THM levels were observed in the Omerli distribution network, with a mean concentration of 7 μg/L. For HAA levels, the maximum concentrations again were observed in the Buyukcekmece distribution system, with an average total HAA concentration of 57 μg/l. High spatial and seasonal variation of disinfection by-products in the drinking water of Istanbul was attributed of illegal wastewater discharges to water supplies of Istanbul city.

Keywords: disinfection byproducts, drinking water, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, seasonal variation

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5 Stress Concentration and Strength Prediction of Carbon/Epoxy Composites

Authors: Emre Ozaslan, Bulent Acar, Mehmet Ali Guler


Unidirectional composites are very popular structural materials used in aerospace, marine, energy and automotive industries thanks to their superior material properties. However, the mechanical behavior of composite materials is more complicated than isotropic materials because of their anisotropic nature. Also, a stress concentration availability on the structure, like a hole, makes the problem further complicated. Therefore, enormous number of tests require to understand the mechanical behavior and strength of composites which contain stress concentration. Accurate finite element analysis and analytical models enable to understand mechanical behavior and predict the strength of composites without enormous number of tests which cost serious time and money. In this study, unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy composite specimens with central circular hole were investigated in terms of stress concentration factor and strength prediction. The composite specimens which had different specimen wide (W) to hole diameter (D) ratio were tested to investigate the effect of hole size on the stress concentration and strength. Also, specimens which had same specimen wide to hole diameter ratio, but varied sizes were tested to investigate the size effect. Finite element analysis was performed to determine stress concentration factor for all specimen configurations. For quasi-isotropic laminate, it was found that the stress concentration factor increased approximately %15 with decreasing of W/D ratio from 6 to 3. Point stress criteria (PSC), inherent flaw method and progressive failure analysis were compared in terms of predicting the strength of specimens. All methods could predict the strength of specimens with maximum %8 error. PSC was better than other methods for high values of W/D ratio, however, inherent flaw method was successful for low values of W/D. Also, it is seen that increasing by 4 times of the W/D ratio rises the failure strength of composite specimen as %62.4. For constant W/D ratio specimens, all the strength prediction methods were more successful for smaller size specimens than larger ones. Increasing the specimen width and hole diameter together by 2 times reduces the specimen failure strength as %13.2.

Keywords: failure, strength, stress concentration, unidirectional composites

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4 An Evaluation of Medical Waste in Health Facilities through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Method: Turkey-Amasya Public Hospitals Union Model

Authors: Murat Iskender Aktaş, Sadi Ergin, Rasime Acar Aktaş


In the light of fast-paced changes and developments in the health sector, the Ministry of Health started a new structuring with decree law numbered 663 within the scope of the Project of Transformation in Health. Accordingly, hospitals should ensure patient satisfaction through more efficient, more effective use of resources and sustainable finance by placing patients in the centre and should operate to increase efficiency to its maximum level while doing these. Within this study, in order to find out how efficient the hospitals were in terms of medical waste management between the years 2011-2014, the data from six hospitals of Amasya Public Hospitals Union were evaluated separately through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. First of all, input variables were determined. Input variables were the number of patients admitted to polyclinics, the number of inpatients in clinics, the number of patients who were operated and the number of patients who applied to the laboratory. Output variable was the cost of medical wastes in Turkish liras. Each hospital’s total medical waste level before and after public hospitals union; the amounts of average medical waste per patient admitted to polyclinics, per inpatient in clinics, per patient admitted to laboratory and per operated patient were compared within each group. In addition, average medical waste levels and costs were compared for Turkey in general and Europe in general. Paired samples t-test was used to find out whether the changes (increase-decrease) after public hospitals union were statistically significant. The health facilities that were unsuccessful in terms of medical waste management before and after public hospital union and the factors that caused this failure were determined. Based on the results, for each health facility that was ineffective in terms of medical waste management, the level of improvement required for each input was determined. The results of the study showed that there was an improvement in medical waste management applications after the health facilities became a member of public hospitals union; their medical waste levels were lower than the average of Turkey and Europe while the averages of cost of disposal were the highest.

Keywords: medical waste management, cost of medical waste, public hospitals, data envelopment analysis

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3 Synthesis by Mechanical Alloying and Characterization of FeNi₃ Nanoalloys

Authors: Ece A. Irmak, Amdulla O. Mekhrabov, M. Vedat Akdeniz


There is a growing interest on the synthesis and characterization of nanoalloys since the unique chemical, and physical properties of nanoalloys can be tuned and, consequently, new structural motifs can be created by varying the type of constituent elements, atomic and magnetic ordering, as well as size and shape of the nanoparticles. Due to the fine size effects, magnetic nanoalloys have considerable attention with their enhanced mechanical, electrical, optical and magnetic behavior. As an important magnetic nanoalloy, the novel application area of Fe-Ni based nanoalloys is expected to be widened in the chemical, aerospace industry and magnetic biomedical applications. Noble metals have been using in biomedical applications for several years because of their surface plasmon properties. In this respect, iron-nickel nanoalloys are promising materials for magnetic biomedical applications because they show novel properties such as superparamagnetism and surface plasmon resonance property. Also, there is great attention for the usage Fe-Ni based nanoalloys as radar absorbing materials in aerospace and stealth industry due to having high Curie temperature, high permeability and high saturation magnetization with good thermal stability. In this study, FeNi₃ bimetallic nanoalloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying in a planetary high energy ball mill. In mechanical alloying, micron size powders are placed into the mill with milling media. The powders are repeatedly deformed, fractured and alloyed by high energy collision under the impact of balls until the desired composition and particle size is achieved. The experimental studies were carried out in two parts. Firstly, dry mechanical alloying with high energy dry planetary ball milling was applied to obtain FeNi₃ nanoparticles. Secondly, dry milling was followed by surfactant-assisted ball milling to observe the surfactant and solvent effect on the structure, size, and properties of the FeNi₃ nanoalloys. In the first part, the powder sample of iron-nickel was prepared according to the 1:3 iron to nickel ratio to produce FeNi₃ nanoparticles and the 1:10 powder to ball weight ratio. To avoid oxidation during milling, the vials had been filled with Ar inert gas before milling started. The powders were milled for 80 hours in total and the synthesis of the FeNi₃ intermetallic nanoparticles was succeeded by mechanical alloying in 40 hours. Also, regarding the particle size, it was found that the amount of nano-sized particles raised with increasing milling time. In the second part of the study, dry milling of the Fe and Ni powders with the same stoichiometric ratio was repeated. Then, to prevent agglomeration and to obtain smaller sized nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior, surfactants and solvent are added to the system, after 40-hour milling time, with the completion of the mechanical alloying. During surfactant-assisted ball milling, heptane was used as milling medium, and as surfactants, oleic acid and oleylamine were used in the high energy ball milling processes. The characterization of the alloyed particles in terms of microstructure, morphology, particle size, thermal and magnetic properties with respect to milling time was done by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating-sample magnetometer, and differential scanning calorimetry.

Keywords: iron-nickel systems, magnetic nanoalloys, mechanical alloying, nanoalloy characterization, surfactant-assisted ball milling

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2 Modeling and Simulation of the Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Fe-Ni Based Nanoalloys

Authors: Ece A. Irmak, Amdulla O. Mekhrabov, M. Vedat Akdeniz


There is a growing interest in the modeling and simulation of magnetic nanoalloys by various computational methods. Magnetic crystalline/amorphous nanoparticles (NP) are interesting materials from both the applied and fundamental points of view, as their properties differ from those of bulk materials and are essential for advanced applications such as high-performance permanent magnets, high-density magnetic recording media, drug carriers, sensors in biomedical technology, etc. As an important magnetic material, Fe-Ni based nanoalloys have promising applications in the chemical industry (catalysis, battery), aerospace and stealth industry (radar absorbing material, jet engine alloys), magnetic biomedical applications (drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, biosensor) and computer hardware industry (data storage). The physical and chemical properties of the nanoalloys depend not only on the particle or crystallite size but also on composition and atomic ordering. Therefore, computer modeling is an essential tool to predict structural, electronic, magnetic and optical behavior at atomistic levels and consequently reduce the time for designing and development of new materials with novel/enhanced properties. Although first-principles quantum mechanical methods provide the most accurate results, they require huge computational effort to solve the Schrodinger equation for only a few tens of atoms. On the other hand, molecular dynamics method with appropriate empirical or semi-empirical inter-atomic potentials can give accurate results for the static and dynamic properties of larger systems in a short span of time. In this study, structural evolutions, magnetic and electronic properties of Fe-Ni based nanoalloys have been studied by using molecular dynamics (MD) method in Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) in the Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP). The effects of particle size (in 2-10 nm particle size range) and temperature (300-1500 K) on stability and structural evolutions of amorphous and crystalline Fe-Ni bulk/nanoalloys have been investigated by combining molecular dynamic (MD) simulation method with Embedded Atom Model (EAM). EAM is applicable for the Fe-Ni based bimetallic systems because it considers both the pairwise interatomic interaction potentials and electron densities. Structural evolution of Fe-Ni bulk and nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by calculation of radial distribution functions (RDF), interatomic distances, coordination number, core-to-surface concentration profiles as well as Voronoi analysis and surface energy dependences on temperature and particle size. Moreover, spin-polarized DFT calculations were performed by using a plane-wave basis set with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange and correlation effects in the VASP-MedeA package to predict magnetic and electronic properties of the Fe-Ni based alloys in bulk and nanostructured phases. The result of theoretical modeling and simulations for the structural evolutions, magnetic and electronic properties of Fe-Ni based nanostructured alloys were compared with experimental and other theoretical results published in the literature.

Keywords: density functional theory, embedded atom model, Fe-Ni systems, molecular dynamics, nanoalloys

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1 Fabrication of Zeolite Modified Cu Doped ZnO Films and Their Response towards Nitrogen Monoxide

Authors: Irmak Karaduman, Tugba Corlu, Sezin Galioglu, Burcu Akata, M. Ali Yildirim, Aytunç Ateş, Selim Acar


Breath analysis represents a promising non-invasive, fast and cost-effective alternative to well-established diagnostic and monitoring techniques such as blood analysis, endoscopy, ultrasonic and tomographic monitoring. Portable, non-invasive, and low-cost breath analysis devices are becoming increasingly desirable for monitoring different diseases, especially asthma. Beacuse of this, NO gas sensing at low concentrations has attracted progressive attention for clinical analysis in asthma. Recently, nanomaterials based sensors are considered to be a promising clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool, because its large surface–to–volume ratio, controllable structure, easily tailored chemical and physical properties, which bring high sensitivity, fast dynamic processand even the increasing specificity. Among various nanomaterials, semiconducting metal oxides are extensively studied gas-sensing materials and are potential sensing elements for breathanalyzer due to their high sensitivity, simple design, low cost and good stability.The sensitivities of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors can be enhanced by adding noble metals. Doping contents, distribution, and size of metallic or metal oxide catalysts are key parameters for enhancing gas selectivity as well as sensitivity. By manufacturing doping MOS structures, it is possible to develop more efficient sensor sensing layers. Zeolites are perhaps the most widely employed group of silicon-based nanoporous solids. Their well-defined pores of sub nanometric size have earned them the name of molecular sieves, meaning that operation in the size exclusion regime is possible by selecting, among over 170 structures available, the zeolite whose pores allow the pass of the desired molecule, while keeping larger molecules outside.In fact it is selective adsorption, rather than molecular sieving, the mechanism that explains most of the successful gas separations achieved with zeolite membranes. In view of their molecular sieving and selective adsorption properties, it is not surprising that zeolites have found use in a number of works dealing with gas sensing devices. In this study, the Cu doped ZnO nanostructure film was produced by SILAR method and investigated the NO gas sensing properties. To obtain the selectivity of the sample, the gases including CO,NH3,H2 and CH4 were detected to compare with NO. The maximum response is obtained at 85 C for 20 ppb NO gas. The sensor shows high response to NO gas. However, acceptable responses are calculated for CO and NH3 gases. Therefore, there are no responses obtain for H2 and CH4 gases. Enhanced to selectivity, Cu doped ZnO nanostructure film was coated with zeolite A thin film. It is found that the sample possess an acceptable response towards NO hardly respond to CO, NH3, H2 and CH4 at room temperature. This difference in the response can be expressed in terms of differences in the molecular structure, the dipole moment, strength of the electrostatic interaction and the dielectric constant. The as-synthesized thin film is considered to be one of the extremely promising candidate materials in electronic nose applications. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK) under Project No, 115M658 and Gazi University Scientific Research Fund under project no 05/2016-21.

Keywords: Cu doped ZnO, electrical characterization, gas sensing, zeolite

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