Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Emeka Okonkwo

18 Internet as a Marketing Tool for Tourism Promotion

Authors: Emeka Okonkwo

Abstract:

The Information Technology (IT) has prevailed over all functions of strategic and operational management. The Internet (a product of information technology) has increasingly become a popular medium for marketing. This paper examines the potentials of Internet for tourism marketing. To achieve this, the paper x-rays the characteristics of tourism marketing and examines the application of the Internet in tourism marketing. It is argued that the use of Internet for tourism marketing will not only reach a broad audience and reduce the cost of transaction (by conventional methods used by travel agents in times past), but, will also alleviate the problems of identification, authentication and confirmation of travels/package tours by tourists as well as promotion of tourism industry.

Keywords: internet, marketing, tourism, tourism management

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
17 Packaging in the Design Synthesis of Novel Aircraft Configuration

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

A study to estimate the size of the cabin and major aircraft components as well as detect and avoid interference between internally placed components and the external surface, during the conceptual design synthesis and optimisation to explore the design space of a BWB, was conducted. Sizing of components follows the Bradley cabin sizing and rubber engine scaling procedures to size the cabin and engine respectively. The interference detection and avoidance algorithm relies on the ability of the Class Shape Transform parameterisation technique to generate polynomial functions of the surfaces of a BWB aircraft configuration from the sizes of the cabin and internal objects using few variables. Interference detection is essential in packaging of non-conventional configuration like the BWB because of the non-uniform airfoil-shaped sections and resultant varying internal space. The unique configuration increases the need for a methodology to prevent objects from being placed in locations that do not sufficiently enclose them within the geometry.

Keywords: packaging, optimisation, BWB, parameterisation, aircraft conceptual design

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16 Job Satisfaction and Commitment among Academic Staff of Selected Colleges of Education in Kano and Kaduna States of Nigeria

Authors: Mary Okonkwo Ekwy

Abstract:

The problem of the growing disillusionment of College of Education teachers with academic life vis-à-vis their job satisfaction and commitment was investigated in this study with a view to finding out if both their job satisfaction and commitment have suffered, and to find out if there was a relationship between job satisfaction and commitment among these College of Education teachers. Due consideration was also given in the study to the possible effects of demographic variables on attitudes to their job. To carry out a study of job satisfaction and commitment among the College of Education teachers and to explore the relationship between them, research instruments were used for measuring the levels of job satisfaction and commitment among them. A sample of 200 Colleges of Education teachers, comprising 15 Professors, 9 Principal Lecturers, 70 Senior Lecturer and 106 Lecturers was used for the study. Five major hypothesis were tested with regard to the relationship between job satisfaction and commitment among the teachers. The Pearson correlation, the F-ratio, and regression analysis were used for data analysis and hypothesis testing. The result of this investigation suggests that, perhaps the best way to secure the commitment of teachers is to ensure their job satisfaction. Future investigations will further enrich our knowledge about these very important themes.

Keywords: job satisfaction, commitment, academic staff, college of education

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15 Entrepreneurship as a Strategy for National Development and Attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Authors: Udokporo Emeka Leonard

Abstract:

The thrust of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurship can assist in the attainment of the first goal among the MDGs – eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in Nigeria. The paper discusses how national development can be driven through employment creation and wealth generation that can lead to reduction in widespread poverty so as to attain one crucial target, in fewer years. The task before Nigeria is certainly a herculean one; it is, in fact a race against time. However, in view of the clear and present danger that the increasing rate of poverty portends for our democracy and our nation, is a race we must; for it is a time bomb on our hands. The paper has been structured into sections; with the introduction as section one. Section two discusses the concept of entrepreneurship; Section three examines the link between entrepreneurship and economic development, while section four examines the challenges facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria. In section five, measures and recommendations to boost entrepreneurship that can drive economic development that translates into poverty reduction and employment creation in Nigeria are suggested. This work is a literature review with some understanding of current trends and situations. It outlines some of the difficulties facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria as the operating environment, inadequate understanding and skewed incentive. It also makes recommendations on possible ways to significantly reduce poverty in 2015.

Keywords: development, entrepreneur, Nigeria, poverty

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14 Running the Athena Vortex Lattice Code in JAVA through the Java Native Interface

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNI

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13 Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Watershed Runoff Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model in Southeast Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Emeka Anarah, Kingsley Nnaemeka Ogbu, Obasi Arinze

Abstract:

Quantifying the hydrological response due to changes in climate change is imperative for proper management of water resources within a watershed. The impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Upper Ebony River (UER) watershed, South East Nigeria, was studied using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. A climatological time series analysis from 1985 - 2014 using non-parametric test showed significant negative trends in precipitation and relative humidity trend while minimum and maximum temperature, solar radiation and wind speed showed significant positive trends. Future hypothetical land-use change scenarios (Scenarios 1, 2, 3 and 4) representing urbanization and conversion of forest to agricultural land were combined with future downscaled climate model (CSIRO-Mk3-6-0) and simulated in SWAT model. Relative to the Baseline scenario (2005 - 2014), the results showed a decrease in streamflow by 10.29%, 26.20%, 11.80% and 26.72% for Scenarios 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Model results suggest development of adaptation strategies to cope with the predicted hydrological conditions under future climate change in the watershed.

Keywords: climate change, hydrology, runoff, SWAT model

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12 Integrating the Athena Vortex Lattice Code into a Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation Platform in JAVA

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL, JNI

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11 Impact of Meteorological Events and Sand Excavation on Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids Levels of Imo River

Authors: Ihejirika Chinedu Emeka, Njoku John Didacus, Obenade Moses

Abstract:

This study was aimed at determining the impact of meteorological events (seasonal variations) and sand excavation activities on turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) of Imo River, Southeastern Nigeria. In-situ measurements of the parameters were carried out at the peaks of two consecutive seasons–dry and rainy season at seven major points of sand excavation along the river, under standard analytical methods. There were significant variations in seasons (P<0.05) for turbidity and TSS at all locations. The average turbidity concentration of locations were 36.71 NTU, during the rainy season, and 17 NTU in a dry season, while the average TSS concentration were 27.14 mg/L, during the rainy season, and 8.86mg/L in a dry season. Turbidity correlated positively (strongly) with TSS (r=0.956) at R–Square=0.91. Turbidity and TSS values were higher during the rainy season than the dry season. Turbidity increased when Total Suspended Solids increased. Sand excavation increased turbidity and TSS values of Imo River. The river had moderate water quality during the rainy season and unimpaired water quality during a dry season. The river was not very clear in both seasons, but clearer in a dry season than in rainy season. The increase in turbidity and TSS can lead to the destruction of aquatic biodiversity and stagnation of ecosystem processes. Exposure of aquatic animals to the recorded turbidity level in a rainy season can lead to stress.

Keywords: biodiversity destruction, meteorological events, pollution, sand excavation

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10 Modification of the Athena Vortex Lattice Code for the Multivariate Design Synthesis Optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology to integrate the Athena Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Software for automated operation in a multivariate optimisation of the Blended Wing Body Aircraft. The Athena Vortex Lattice code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Mark Drela allows for the aerodynamic analysis of aircraft using the vortex lattice method. Ordinarily, the Athena Vortex Lattice operation requires a text file containing the aircraft geometry to be loaded into the AVL solver in order to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments. However, automated operation will be required to enable integration into a multidisciplinary optimisation framework. Automated AVL operation within the JAVA design environment will nonetheless require a modification and recompilation of AVL source code into an executable file capable of running on windows and other platforms without the –X11 libraries. This paper describes the procedure for the integrating the FORTRAN written AVL software for automated operation within the multivariate design synthesis optimisation framework for the conceptual design of the BWB aircraft.

Keywords: aerodynamics, automation, optimisation, AVL

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9 Plasma Lipid Profiles and Atherogenic Indices of Rats Fed Raw and Processed Jack Fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Seeds Diets at Different Concentrations

Authors: O. E. Okafor, L. U. S. Ezeanyika, C. G. Nkwonta, C. J. Okonkwo

Abstract:

The effect of processing on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed Artocarpus heterophyllus seed diets at different concentrations were investigated. Fifty five rats were used for this study, they were divided into eleven groups of five rats each (one control group and ten test groups), the test groups were fed raw, boiled, roasted, fermented, and soaked diets at 10 % and 40% concentrations. The study lasted for thirty five days. The diets led to significant decrease (p < 0.05) in plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol of rats fed 10% and 40% concentrations of the diets, and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels at 40% concentrations of the test diets. The diets also produced decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), cardiac risk ratio (CRR), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and atherogenic coefficient (AC) at 40% concentrations except the soaked group that showed slight elevation of LDL, CRR, AC and AIP at 40% concentration. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds could be beneficial to health because of its ability to increase plasma HDL and reduce plasma LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic indices at higher diet concentration.

Keywords: artocarpus heterophyllus, atherogenic indices, concentrations, lipid profile

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8 Repair Workshop Queue System Modification Using Priority Scheme

Authors: C. Okonkwo Ugochukwu, E. Sinebe Jude, N. Odoh Blessing, E. Okafor Christian

Abstract:

In this paper, a modification on repair workshop queuing system using multi priority scheme was carried out. Chi square goodness of fit test was used to determine the random distribution of the inter arrival time and service time of crankshafts that come for maintenance in the workshop. The chi square values obtained for all the prioritized classes show that the distribution conforms to Poisson distribution. The mean waiting time in queue results of non-preemptive priority for 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes show 0.066, 0.09, and 0.224 day respectively, while preemptive priority show 0.007, 0.036 and 0.258 day. However, when non priority is used, which obviously has no class distinction it amounts to 0.17 days. From the results, one can observe that the preemptive priority system provides a very dramatic improvement over the non preemptive priority as it concerns arrivals that are of higher priority. However, the improvement has a detrimental effect on the low priority class. The trend of the results is similar to the mean waiting time in the system as a result of addition of the actual service time. Even though the mean waiting time for the queue and that of the system for no priority takes the least time when compared with the least priority, urgent and semi-urgent jobs will terribly suffer which will most likely result in reneging or balking of many urgent jobs. Hence, the adoption of priority scheme in this type of scenario will result in huge profit to the Company and more customer satisfaction.

Keywords: queue, priority class, preemptive, non-preemptive, mean waiting time

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7 Counter-Terrorism and Civil Society in Nigeria

Authors: Emeka Thaddues Njoku

Abstract:

Since 2009, the Nigerian Government has established diverse counter-terrorism legislations and practices in response terrorism in North Eastern part of the country. However, these measures have hampered not only the ability of civil society organizations to sustain the autonomous spaces that define/locate them at the intersection between the state and public but also the balance between freedom and security. Hence, this study examines the various elements associated with the interface between the counter terrorism security framework of the government and the capacity of civil society organizations to carry out their mandates in Nigeria. In order to achieve this, the survey research of the ex-post facto type will be adopted using the multi-stage sampling technique. A total of two hundred (200) copies of questionnaire will be administered to members of the civil society organizations and 24 In-Depth Interviews (IDI) will be conducted for officials of security agencies, Ministry of Defence and operators of civil society organizations. Fifty respondents will be drawn from each civil society organisations in the areas of humanitarian assistance, human rights Advocacy, development-oriented, peace-building. Moreover, 24 interviewees drawn from the key members of the security agencies (6), Ministry of Defence (6) and 12 operators of civil society organizations-three respondents each will represent the four civil society organizations mentioned above. Also, secondary data will be used to complement In-depth Interview (IDI) sessions. All collected data will be coded and analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and simple percentage in the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Content analysis will be used for the In-depth interview and secondary data.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, civil society organizations, freedom, terrorism

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6 Methylprednisolone Injection Did Not Inhibit Anti-Hbs Response Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Mice

Authors: P. O. Ughachukwu, P. O. Okonkwo, P. C. Unekwe, J. O. Ogamba

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection is high worldwide with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as important complications. Cases of poor antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination abound. Immunosuppression, especially from glucocorticoids, is often cited as a cause of poor antibody response and there are documented evidences of irrational administration of glucocorticoids to children and adults. The study was, therefore, designed to find out if administration of glucocorticoids affects immune response to vaccination against hepatitis B in mice. Methods: Mice of both sexes were randomly divided into 2 groups. Daily intramuscular methylprednisolone injections, (15 mg kg-1), were given to the test group while sterile deionized water (0.1ml) was given to control mice for 30 days. On day 6 all mice were given 2 μg (0.1ml) hepatitis B vaccine and a booster dose on day 27. On day 34, blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-HBs titres using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was done using Graph Pad Prism 5.0 and the results taken as statistically significant at p value < 0.05. Results: There were positive serum anti-HBs responses in all mice groups but the differences in titres were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At the dosages and length of exposure used in this study, methylprednisolone injection did not significantly inhibit anti-HBs response in mice following immunization against hepatitis B virus. By extrapolation, methylprednisolone, when used in the usual clinical doses and duration of therapy, is not likely to inhibit immune response to hepatitis B vaccinations in man.

Keywords: anti-HBs, hepatitis B vaccine, immune response, methylprednisolone, mice

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5 Environmental Drivers of Ichthyofauna Species Diversity and Richness in the Lower Reaches of Warri River, a Typical Mangrove Ecosystem in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

Authors: F. O. Arimoro, F. N. Okonkwo, R. B. Ikomi

Abstract:

The environmental determinants structuring species richness has been generating interest recently but we still lack an understanding of these patterns in various regions (e.g. Afrotropical), and how seasons help to structure these patterns. Our aim was to assessed the environmental drivers importance in regulating species richness and community structure of fish species. The lchthyofauna assemblage of Warri River, Niger Delta area of Nigeria was studied between August 2013 and July 2014. A total of 1152 individuals representing 43 species in 23 families and 30 genera were caught. Of the 43 species recorded, 67.4%, 53.5% and 67.4% of the species occurred in Stations 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Eight taxa representing 18.6% of the total abundance were ubiquitous. The claroteid, Chrysichthys walkeri and the cichlid, Chromidotilapia guentheri were the most dominant species accounting for 19.2% and 6.0% respectively of the total catch. The species richness and general diversity were relatively higher in station 1 although Jaccard similarity index revealed that stations 1 and 3 were significantly similar while station 2 showed complete dissimilarity with stations 1 and 3. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, Biochemical Oxygen demand and temperature were important variables structuring the overall fish assemblages. The presence of appreciable number of juveniles in this water body suggests that the Warri River is a breeding and nursery ground for fish species particularly those of brackish origin. These findings indicate that the water body is still useful as a good fishing ground for the rural communities and every effort should be put in place to ensure its protection and conservation for the production of healthy fish.

Keywords: Chrysichthys walkeri, fish communities, mangrove ecosystem, physicochemical parameters, Warri River

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4 Development of a Passive Solar Tomato Dryer with Movable Heat Storage System

Authors: Jacob T. Liberty, Wilfred I. Okonkwo

Abstract:

The present study designed and constructed a post-harvest passive solar tomato dryer of dimension 176 x 152 x 54cm for drying tomato. Quality of the dried crop was evaluated and compared with the fresh ones. The solar dryer consist of solar collector (air heater), 110 x 61 x 10 x 10cm, the drying chamber, 102 x54cm, removal heat storage unit, 40 x 35 x 13cm and drying trays, 43 x 42cm. The physicochemical properties of this crop were evaluated before and after drying. Physicochemical properties evaluated includes moisture, protein, fat, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C, contents. The fresh, open and solar dried samples were analysed for their proximate composition using the recommended method of AOAC. Also, statistical analysis of the data was conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely Randomize Design (CRD) and means were separated by Duncan’s New Multiple Range test (DNMRT). Proximate analysis showed that solar dried tomato had significantly (P < 0.05) higher protein, fibre, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C except for the fat content that was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for all the open sun dried samples than the solar dried and fresh product. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. Result indicates that moisture loss in solar dried tomato was faster and lower than the open dried samples and as such makes the solar dried products of lesser tendency to mould and bacterial growth. Also, the open sun dried samples had to be carried into the sheltered place each time it rained. The solar dried produce is of high quality. Further processing of the dried crops will involve packaging for commercial purposes. This will also help in making these agricultural product available in a relatively cheap price in off season and also avert micronutrient deficiencies in diet especially among the low-income groups in Nigeria.

Keywords: tomato, passive solar dryer, physicochemical properties, removal heat storage

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3 Prevalence and Patterns of Hearing Loss among the Elderly with Hypertension in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Ayo Osisanya, Promise Ebuka Okonkwo

Abstract:

Reduced hearing sensitivity among the elderly has been attributed to some risk factors and influence of age-related degenerative conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder, and hypertension. Hearing loss; especially the age-related type (presbycusis), has been reported as one of the global burden affecting the general well-being and quality of life of the elderly with hypertension. Thus, hearing loss has been observed to be associated with hypertension and functional decline in elderly, as this condition makes them experience poor communication, fatigue, reduced social functions, mood-swing, and withdrawal syndrome. Emerging research outcomes indicate a strong relationship between hypertension and reduced auditory performance among the elderly. Therefore, this study determined the prevalence, types, and patterns of hearing loss associated with hypertension, with a bid to suggesting comprehensive management strategies and a model of creating awareness towards promoting good healthy living among the elderly in Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-two elderly, aged 65–85 with hypertension were purposively selected from patients undergoing treatment for hypertension in some tertiary hospitals in southwest Nigeria for the study. Participants were suggested to Pure-Tone Audiometry (PTA) through the use of Maico 53 Diagnostic Audiometer to determine the degree, types ad patterns of hearing loss among the elderly with hypertension. Results showed that 148 (86.05%) elderly with hypertension presented with different degrees, types, and patterns of hearing loss. Out of this number, 123 (83.11%) presented with bilateral hearing loss, while 25 (16.89%) had unilateral hearing loss. Degree of hearing loss, 74 moderate hearing loss, 118 moderately severe and 50 severe hearing loss. 36% of the hearing loss appeared as flat audiometric configuration, 24% were slopping, 19% were rising, while 21% were tough-shaped audiometric configurations. The findings showed high prevalence of hearing loss among the elderly with hypertension in Southwest, Nigeria. Based on the findings, management of elderly with hypertension should include regular audiological rehabilitation and total adherence to hearing conservation principles, otological management, regulation of blood pressure and adequate counselling / follow-up services.

Keywords: auditory performance, elderly, hearing loss, hypertension

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2 Determining Components of Deflection of the Vertical in Owerri West Local Government, Imo State Nigeria Using Least Square Method

Authors: Chukwu Fidelis Ndubuisi, Madufor Michael Ozims, Asogwa Vivian Ndidiamaka, Egenamba Juliet Ngozi, Okonkwo Stephen C., Kamah Chukwudi David

Abstract:

Deflection of the vertical is a quantity used in reducing geodetic measurements related to geoidal networks to the ellipsoidal plane; and it is essential in Geoid modeling processes. Computing the deflection of the vertical component of a point in a given area is necessary in evaluating the standard errors along north-south and east-west direction. Using combined approach for the determination of deflection of the vertical component provides improved result but labor intensive without appropriate method. Least square method is a method that makes use of redundant observation in modeling a given sets of problem that obeys certain geometric condition. This research work is aimed to computing the deflection of vertical component of Owerri West local government area of Imo State using geometric method as field technique. In this method combination of Global Positioning System on static mode and precise leveling observation were utilized in determination of geodetic coordinate of points established within the study area by GPS observation and the orthometric heights through precise leveling. By least square using Matlab programme; the estimated deflections of vertical component parameters for the common station were -0.0286 and -0.0001 arc seconds for the north-south and east-west components respectively. The associated standard errors of the processed vectors of the network were computed. The computed standard errors of the North-south and East-west components were 5.5911e-005 and 1.4965e-004 arc seconds, respectively. Therefore, including the derived component of deflection of the vertical to the ellipsoidal model will yield high observational accuracy since an ellipsoidal model is not tenable due to its far observational error in the determination of high quality job. It is important to include the determined deflection of the vertical component for Owerri West Local Government in Imo State, Nigeria.

Keywords: deflection of vertical, ellipsoidal height, least square, orthometric height

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1 Waste Scavenging as a Waste-to-Wealth Strategy for Waste Reduction in Port Harcourt City Nigeria: A Mixed Method Study

Authors: Osungwu Emeka

Abstract:

Until recently, Port Harcourt was known as the “Garden City of Nigeria” because of its neatness and the overwhelming presence of vegetation all over the metropolis. But today, the presence of piles of refuse dotting the entire city may have turned Port Harcourt into a “Garbage City”. Indiscriminate dumping of industrial, commercial and household wastes such as food waste, paper, polythene, textiles, scrap metals, glasses, wood, plastic, etc. at street corners and gutters, is still very common. The waste management problem in the state affects the citizens both directly and indirectly. The dumping of waste along the roadside obstructs traffic and, after mixing with rain water may sip underground with the possibility of the leachate contaminating the groundwater. The basic solid waste management processes of collection, transportation, segregation and final disposal appear to be very inefficient. This study was undertaken to assess waste utilization using metal waste scavengers. Highlighting their activities as a part of the informal sector of the solid waste management system with a view to identifying their challenges, prospects and possible contributions to the solid waste management system in the Port Harcourt metropolis. Therefore, the aim was to understand and assess scavenging as a system of solid waste management in Port Harcourt and to identify the main bottlenecks to its efficiency and the way forward. This study targeted people who engage in scavenging metal scraps across 5 major waste dump sites across Port Harcourt. To achieve this, a mixed method study was conducted to provide both experiential evidence on this waste utilization method using a qualitative study and a survey to collect numeric evidence on this subject. The findings from the qualitative string of this study provided insight on scavenging as a waste utilization activity and how their activities can reduce the gross waste generated and collected from the subject areas. It further showed the nature and characteristics of scavengers in the waste recycling system as a means of achieving the millennium development goals towards poverty alleviation, job creation and the development of a sustainable, cleaner environment. The study showed that in Port Harcourt, the waste management practice involves the collection, transportation and disposal of waste by refuse contractors using cart pushers and disposal vehicles at designated dumpsites where the scavengers salvage metal scraps for recycling and reuse. This study further indicates that there is a great demand for metal waste materials/products that are clearly identified as genuinely sustainable, even though they may be perceived as waste. The market for these waste materials shall promote entrepreneurship as a profitable venture for waste recovery and recycling in Port Harcourt. Therefore, the benefit of resource recovery and recycling as a means of the solid waste management system will enhance waste to wealth that will reduce pollution, create job opportunities thereby alleviate poverty.

Keywords: scavengers, metal waste, waste-to-wealth, recycle, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, waste reduction, garden city, waste

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