Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2160

Search results for: rural tourism

2160 Analyzing the Perceived Relationship between Motivation and Satisfaction for Rural Tourists in a Digital World

Authors: N. P. Tsephe, S. D. Eyono Obono

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Rural tourism is usually associated with rural development because it has strong linkages to rural resources; but it remains underdeveloped compared to urban tourism. This underdevelopment of rural tourism serves as a motivation for this study whose aim is to examine the factors affecting the perceived satisfaction of rural tourists. The objectives of this study are: to identify and design theories and models on rural tourism satisfaction, and to empirically validate these models and theories through a survey of tourists from the Malealea Lodge which is located in the Mafeteng District, in the Mountain Kingdom of Lesotho. Data generated by the collection of questionnaires used by this survey was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics and correlations in SPSS after checking the validity and the reliability of the questionnaire. The main hypothesis behind this study is the relationship between the demographics of rural tourists, the motivation, and their satisfaction of tourists, as supported by existing literature; except that motivation is measured in this study according to three dimensions: push factors, pull factors, and perceived usefulness of ICT's in the rural tourism experience. Findings from this study indicate that among the demographics factors, continent of origin and marital status influence the satisfaction of rural tourists; and their occupation affects their perceptions on the use of ICT's in rural tourism. Moreover, only pull factors were found to influence the satisfaction of rural tourists.

Keywords: digital world, motivation, rural tourism, satisfaction

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2159 Rural Tourism Entrepreneurship as Strategy for Economic Development in Nigeria

Authors: Salami Ayobami Taofeek, Ajayi Adeola

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Rural tourism entrepreurship is a tourist industry which revolutionizes businesses and prompting economic development across the globe. It encompasses huge range activities, natural or man-made attractions, amenities and facilities, transportation, marketing and information systems. It is also an important export for 83% of the developing countries and the main export for one third of them. In 2000, developing countries recorded 142.6 million international arrivals an increase of 95% compared to the figures of 1990. However, only developing countries with effective natural and man-made tourism supporting and enhancing infrastructure have been able to develop their tourism sector and seize the attendance advantages. Rural areas of Nigeria possess some distinctive peculiarities which can be transformed into attractive tourist centers. In spite of all these, rural tourism areas are still faced with myriad problems which include poor finance inadequate awareness and education, lack of progress in developing the rural of progress in developing the rural tourism potentials inadequate legislation, insecurity, entrepreneurial inertness, over-dependent on oil among others. This paper focuses on the impact and challenges of rural tourism entrepreneurship as strategy for economic development in Nigeria. It reviews literature rural tourism, tourism entrepreneurship potentials and classifications of Nigerians tourism potential’s destinations. The paper concludes that Nigeria Government should encourage rural based tourism entrepreneurship development by addressing the challenges facing rural tourism entrepreneurship in the country.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, economic development, rural tourism, tourism destinations tourism potentials

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2158 A Proposal of Farm-Based Tourism within the Context of Rural Tourism: Zeytinseli

Authors: Vedat Acar, Osman Eralp Çolakoğlu

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In this research, with reference to specialization of travel agencies being an important part of tourism industry, a project has been presented about a small-scale enterprise, called as Zeytinseli, contributing actively from the beginning to the end of the production process of olive and olive oil within the context of rural tourism. For this purpose in the research done, firstly, conceptual framework has been formed about travel agency, tour operatorship, specialized travel agency and rural tourism and the necessity of specialization on tourism has been emphasized in today's world. Afterwards, "olive", having an important role in both mythology and divine religions, has been handled within the scope of rural tourism. The cost of accommodation units about Zeytinseli operating in Didim, being a district of Aydın, has been calculated within the context of the project and a fifteen-day's tour to this enterprise has been presented at the end of this project. The research may be said to be an original research on account of embodying not only ecotourism, agro tourism but also cultural tourism and special interest tourism.

Keywords: agro tourism, rural tourism, specialization of travel agency, special interest tourism

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2157 Rurality in Flux: A Perspective on Changing Face of Rural Tourism Enterprise

Authors: Gunjan Saxena

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This paper presents case insights from India and Mexico to illustrate how tourism can work as a tool for bringing about peace and prosperity in disadvantaged communities living in peripheral rural localities. A reordering of rural space, given the slow but definite shift from production-oriented activities towards more complex and contested blends of production, consumption and protection indicates clearly that rurality is in flux. Whilst on one hand, there is a predominance of urban interests in the countryside, on the other rurality is boxed and presented for consumption in urban localities. Qualitative data, collected using semi-structured interviews and participant observation, is used in illustrating how creative enterprise is bringing about innovative use of rural ethos and space in response to consumer demands. Overall, this work seeks to contribute to debates on how rurality no longer represents a fixed space of tradition, but is packaged and promoted in a multi-faceted manner to creatively perform for and access tourism markets.

Keywords: rural tourism, creative enterprise, India, Mexico

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2156 Rural Tourism Planning from the Perspective of Water Resource Protection and Regional Integration: Taking Villages along Tongji Lake as an Example

Authors: Pianpian Zhang, Qingping Luo

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Currently, there is a great tendency that more and more villages in China are trying to increase income by development of tourism. Especially in Zhejiang Province, 'Beautiful Rural Construction' provides an excellent opportunity for the development of tourism. In this context, development orientation, transportation routes and tourism service facilities are analyzed under the perspective of water resources protection and regional integration based on the development tourism industry of the six villages in Pujiang County, Zhejiang Province as a research object. In the program, the biggest issue is the contradiction between the ecological protection of the water and the development of economy. How to deal with the relationship between protection and development is the key to the design of this case. Furthermore, the six villages are regarded as a whole, connecting to each other by the system of five-path and the landscape along the lake. Every village has its own features, but cannot develop without one another. The article is actively exploring for suggestions and countermeasures to promote the development premised on protection and based on a regional view.

Keywords: development, integration, protection, rural tourism

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2155 Wine Tourism in Rural Russia: Perceptions of Vineyard Managers

Authors: Jeremy Schultz

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The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of vineyard managers in the Krasnodar Region of Southern Russia located between the city of Kransnodar and the Black Sea. In recent years, wine tourism throughout the region has seen tremendous growth due in part to the concurrent growth in the number of tourists vacationing at the Black Sea. This trend has contributed to the development of large-scale wine operations developing in numerous rural locations along the tourists’ travel path. Niche areas of tourism, such as wine tourism, have proven to provide economic viability for rural communities all around the world. Understanding their shared group characteristics while honoring their unique qualities as individuals aids in responsible wine tourism development that provides a sense of well-being for the communities and stakeholders involved. Semi-structured interviews and lived experience methodologies were used in locations that were associated with wine food tourism operations. By understanding management perspectives, it lends insight into sustainable destination management and wine tourism product development, furthering our progress toward ethical, responsible, and financially feasible operations. This research also represents a collaborative effort between Russia and the United States that supports an agenda of sustainable destination development and management. As a global community, we need to continue to investigate stakeholder perceptions and strategic management techniques that best support the pillars upon which responsible tourism was founded.

Keywords: wine tourism, tourism development, Russia, rural tourism

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2154 The Green Propaganda: Paradoxes of Costa Rica as the Poster Child for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: Maria Jose Ramos Villagra

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Since the boom of tourism in the late 80s and 90s, Costa Rica is considered as one of the leading countries for tourism. The size and geography of its territory, its low population density, and its image of being one of the most stable Latin American democracies make Costa Rica an attractive and safe target for foreign investors. Land ownership by foreign investors has increased as the natural resources in rural communities have been exhausted. When nature becomes an instrument to increase profit, it loses its communal value contributing to local communities losing their sovereignty and access to basic resources. The rural regions in proximity to the most tourist areas are often the most marginalized. The purpose of this research is to use the case of the rural community Sardinal and its struggle to protect its aquifer to investigate the economic and cultural consequences of the tourism boom in Costa Rican rural communities. The process of reclaiming the access to and the preservation of the aquifer enabled individuals to redefine their political views and their political power. The case of Sardinal broke the stereotypes about rural individuals and their ability to politically educate themselves and organize. Sardinal´s conflict brought to light the necessity of questioning the role of modern tourism as part of Costa Rica’s national identity, and as a tool for development

Keywords: Costa Rica, tourism, rural development, economy, ecotourism, environment, water, Sardinal

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2153 Rural Tourism Planning from the Perspective of Development and Protection of the River and Regional Integration: Taking Nanliangdu Village as an Example

Authors: Yadi Xu, Qingping Luo

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Currently, there is a great tendency that more and more villages in China are trying to increase income by development of tourism. 'Beautiful Rural Construction' provides an excellent opportunity for the development of tourism. In this context, development orientation, transportation routes, and tourism service facilities are analyzed under the perspective of existing landscape utilization and regional integration based on the development tourism industry of the Nanliangdu Village in Jingxing Town, Shijiazhuang Province as a research object. In the program, the biggest issue is the contradiction between the ecological development and protection of the river and the development of economy. How to deal with the relationship between protection and development is the key to the design of this case. Furthermore, the streets and courtyard space, existing buildings, public environment, specific landscape of the ancient village with a history of thousands of years have strong regional characteristics. The article is actively exploring for suggestions and countermeasures to promote the development premised on protection and based on a regional view.

Keywords: development, integration, protection, rural tourism

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2152 Sustainable Tourism at the Bedside of Local Development of a Rural Coastline Village: Taleza, Collo, Algeria

Authors: Sihem Ferah, Karima Messaoudi

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Tourism is far from of being apprehended as a closed space limited to a defined area. The different experiences in the world have shown that tourism should be set up in the city, where locals can meet tourists, to know their history, tradition, culture, and relationship with the territory. In Algeria, the strategy employed in the context of promoting tourism is to integrate sustainable tourism based on a set of instruments such as the tourism expansion areas named ZET. Unfortunately, these areas have promoted the economic and environmental dimension, neglecting the social dimension which is the responsible of the community well–being. The case of Taleza village in Collo (characterized by its various potential) demonstrates clearly this paradox between the planned tourism in the ZET in Taleza as an economic product and the Tourism lived inside this local environment. When people by their genius and innovative action have succeeded to create an alternative tourism (social tourism) developed through guesthouses, sales of local products which have participated in promoting local Tourism Taleza. The aim of this research is to find a strong position between the planned space ZET and the village of Taleža where sustainable tourism can be installed that encourages the social membership, preservation of the natural heritage of Taleza and generates economic benefits that will ensure a local development of the village and will succeed in maintain sustainable tourism on its territory.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, local development, rural areas, tourism expansion zone

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2151 Gender and Sustainable Rural Tourism: A Study into the Experiences and the Roles of Local Women in the Sundarbans Area of Bangladesh

Authors: Jakia Rajoana

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The key aim of this research is to achieve Sustainable Rural Tourism (SRT) through women’s empowerment in the Sundarbans area of Bangladesh. Women in rural areas in developing countries depend on biomass for their survival and that of their family. Yet they have an unequal access to resources as well as decision making, thus making them more vulnerable to any changes in the environment. Women in the developing countries experience gender inequality which is culturally embedded resulting into women having less access to and control over financial and material resources, information, and also a lack of recognition of their contribution as compared to men. Their disadvantaged social position is augmented by their extreme poverty, little or no power they have over their own lives vis-à-vis the disproportionate burden they bear in reproduction and child-raising. Despite the significance of the need to pay attention to gender related issues in sustainable rural tourism (SRT), research remains rather scant. For instance, there is very little research that illustrates the role of women in tourism in the Sundarbans area. Thus empirically, this research seeks to fill a significant gap by focusing on rural areas and in particular focus on considerably under-researched area, namely the Sundarbans women’s role in tourism. In order to fully comprehend their experiences and life stories, this research will apply the empowerment theory and consider it along with the research on sustainable rural tourism. Since, women’s empowerment can act as a potential tool for SRT development and also examine the role tourism plays in the lives of Sundarbans’ women. Methodologically, this study will follow a qualitative research design using an ethnographic approach. Participant observation, semi- structured interviews, and documentation will be the primary data collection instruments in four communities – Shayamnagar, Koyra, Mongla and Sarankhola – in the Sundarbans area. It is hoped that by focusing on the life stories of these invisible women, research is better able to engage with nuances inherent in marginal and significantly under-researched communities.

Keywords: gender, sustainable rural tourism, women empowerment, Sundarbans

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2150 Investigating the Role of Clam Festival for Destination Branding: A Case Study of Tainan Cigu

Authors: Lim Lie Pin, Lin Hui Wen

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Rural tourism has become popular in Taiwan, the villages based on agriculture including fishery have to follow the trend to develop the local economy and achieve the sustainable development of the rural areas. Through cultural festivals, the tourist could experience the benefit while promoting and stimulating the local development of rural tourism. Cigu is famous for salt history and abundant natural resources, such as lagoon, black-faced spoonbills and other fishery products. Digging clam has become the most special parent-child activities in Tainan and increasing awareness since it was initiated. Therefore, festival organizers and regional destination marketers need to identify visitors’ experiences attributes which lead to opportunities for industry professionals, community involvement to plan and organize regional festivals and their programmes for effective destination branding finding out more potential rural resources encouraging the local industry growth and sustainable development.

Keywords: rural tourism, cultural festival, destination branding, tourist experience, sustainable development

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2149 Research on the Spatial Evolution of Tourism-Oriented Rural Settlements: Take the Xiaochanfangyu Village, Dongshuichang Village, Maojiayu Village in Jixian County, Tianjin City as Examples

Authors: Yu Zhang, Jie Wu, Li Dong

Abstract:

Rural tourism is the service industry which regards the agricultural production, rural life, rural nature and cultural landscape as the tourist attraction. It aims to meet the needs of the city tourists such as country sightseeing, vacation, and leisure. According to the difference of the tourist resources, the rural settlements can be divided into different types: The type of tourism resources, scenic spot, and peri-urban. In the past ten years, the rural tourism has promoted the industrial transformation and economic growth in rural areas of China. And it is conducive to the coordinated development of urban and rural areas and has greatly improved the ecological environment and the standard of living for farmers in rural areas. At the same time, a large number of buildings and sites are built in the countryside in order to enhance the tourist attraction and the ability of tourist reception and also to increase the travel comfort and convenience, which has significant influence on the spatial evolution of the village settlement. This article takes the XiangYing Subdistrict, which is in JinPu District of Dalian in China as the exemplification and uses the technology of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and the technology of Landscape Spatial Analysis to study the influence of the rural tourism development in the rural settlement spaces in four steps. First, acquiring the remote sensing image data at different times of 8 administrative villages in the XiangYing Subdistrict, by using the remote sensing application EDRAS8.6; second, vectoring basic maps of XiangYing Subdistrict including its land-use map with the application of ArcGIS 9.3, associating with social and economic attribute data of rural settlements and analyzing on the rural evolution visually; third, quantifying the comparison of these patches in rural settlements by using the landscape spatial calculation application Fragstats 3.3 and analyzing on the evolution of the spatial structure of settlement in macro and medium scale; finally, summarizing the evolution characteristics and internal reasons of tourism-oriented rural settlements. The main findings of this article include: first of all, there is difference in the evolution of the spatial structure between the developing rural settlements and undeveloped rural settlements among the eight administrative villages; secondly, the villages relying on the surrounding tourist attractions, the villages developing agricultural ecological garden and the villages with natural or historical and cultural resources have different laws of development; then, the rural settlements whose tourism development in germination period, development period and mature period have different characteristics of spatial evolution; finally, the different evolution modes of the tourism-oriented rural settlement space have different influences on the protection and inheritance of the village scene. The development of tourism has a significant impact on the spatial evolution of rural settlement. The intensive use of rural land and natural resources is the fundamental principle to protect the rural cultural landscape and ecological environment as well as the critical way to improve the attraction of rural tourism and promote the sustainable development of countryside.

Keywords: landscape pattern, rural settlement, spatial evolution, tourism-oriented, Xiangying Subdistrict

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2148 Rural Tourism in Indian Himalayan Region: A Scope for Sustainable Livelihood

Authors: Rommila Chandra, Harshika Choudhary

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The present-day tourism sector is globally developing at a fast pace, searching for new ideas and new venues. In the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), tourism has experienced a vast growth and continuous diversification over the last few years, thus becoming one of the fastest-growing economic sectors in India. With its majestic landscape, high peaks, rich floral and faunal diversity, and cultural history, the IHR has continuously attracted tourists and pilgrims from across the globe. The IHR has attracted a vast range of visitors who seek adventure sports, natural and spiritual solace, peace, cultural assets, food, and festivals, etc. Thus, the multi-functionality of the region has turned tourism into a key component of economic growth for the rural communities in the hills. For the local mountain people, it means valuable economic opportunity for income generation, and for the government and entrepreneurs, it brings profits. As the urban cities gain attention and investment in India, efforts have to be made to protect, safeguard, and strengthen the cultural, spiritual, and natural heritage of IHR for sustainable livelihood development. Furthermore, the socio-economic and environmental insecurities, along with geographical isolation, adds to the challenging survival in the tough terrains of IHR, creating a major threat of outmigration, land abandonment, and degradation. The question the paper intends to answer is: whether the rural community of IHR is aware of the new global trends in rural tourism and the extent of their willingness to adapt to the evolving tourism industry, which impacts the rural economy, including sustainable livelihood opportunity. The objective of the paper is to discuss the integrated nature of rural tourism, which widely depends upon natural resources, cultural heritage, agriculture/horticulture, infrastructural development, education, social awareness, and willingness of the locals. The sustainable management of all these different rural activities can lead to long-term livelihood development and social upliftment. It highlights some gap areas and recommends fewcommunity-based coping measures which the local people can adopt amidst the disorganized sector of rural tourism. Lastly, the main contribution is the exploratory research of the rural tourism vulnerability in the IHR, which would further help in studying the resilience of the tourism sector in the rural parts of a developing nation.

Keywords: community-based approach, sustainable livelihood development, Indian Himalayan region, rural tourism

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2147 Heritage Tourism and the Changing Rural Landscape: Case Study of Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces

Authors: Yan Wang; Mathis Stock

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The World Heritage Site of Honghe Hani rice terrace, also a marginal rural region in Southern China, is undergoing rapid change because of urbanization and heritage tourism. Influenced by out-migration and changing ways of living in the urbanization process, the place sees a tendency of losing its rice terrace landscape, traditional housings and other forms of cultural traditions. However, heritage tourism tends to keep the past, valorize them for tourism purposes and diversifies rural livelihood strategies. The place stands at this development trajectories, where the same resources are subjected to different uses by different actors. The research seeks to answer the questions of how the site is transformed and co-constructed by different institutions, practices and actors, and the how heritage tourism affects local livelihood. The research aims to describe the transformation of villages, rice terraces, and cultural traditions, analyze the place-making process, and assess the role of heritage tourism in local livelihood transition. The research uses a mixed of methods including direct observation, participant observation, interviews; collects various data of images, words, narratives, and statistics, and analyze them qualitatively and qualitatively. Theoretically, it is hoped that the research would reexamine the concept of heritage, the world heritage practice from UNESCO, reveal the conflicts it entails in development and brings more thoughts from a functional perspective on heritage in relation to rural development. Practically, it is also anticipated that the research could access the linkage between heritage tourism and local livelihood, and generate concrete suggestions on how tourism could engage locals and improve their livelihood.

Keywords: cultural landscape, Hani rice terraces, heritage tourism, livelihood strategy, place making, rural development, transformation

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2146 Cultural Heritage in Rural Areas: Added Value for Agro-Tourism Development

Authors: Djurdjica Perovic, Sanja Pekovic, Tatjana Stanovcic, Jovana Vukcevic

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Tourism development in rural areas calls for a discussion of strategies that would attract more tourists. Several scholars argue that rural areas may become more attractive to tourists by leveraging their cultural heritage. The present paper explores the development of sustainable heritage tourism practices in transitional societies of the Western Balkans, specifically targeting Montenegrin rural areas. It addresses the sustainable tourism as a shift in business paradigm, enhancing the centrality of the host community, fostering the encounters with local culture, customs and heritage and minimizing the environmental and social impact. Disseminating part of the results of the interdisciplinary KATUN project, the paper explores the diversification of economic activities related to the cultural heritage of katuns (temporary settlements in Montenegrin mountainous regions where the agricultural households stay with livestock during the summer season) through sustainable agro-tourism. It addresses the role of heritage tourism in creating more dynamic economy of under-developed mountain areas, new employment opportunities, sources of income for the local community and more balanced regional development, all based on the principle of sustainability. Based on the substantial field research (including interviews with over 50 households and tourists, as well as the number of stakeholders such as relevant Ministries, business communities and media representatives), the paper analyses the strategies employed in raising the awareness and katun-sensitivity of both national and international tourists and stimulating their interest in sustainable agriculture, rural tourism and cultural heritage of Montenegrin mountain regions. Studying the phenomena of responsible tourism and tourists’ consumerist consciousness in Montenegro through development of katuns should allow evaluating stages of sustainability and cultural heritage awareness, closely intertwined with the EU integration processes in the country. Offering deeper insight at the relationship between rural tourism, sustainable agriculture and cultural heritage, the paper aims to understand if cultural heritage of the area is valuable for agro-tourism development and in which context.

Keywords: heritage tourism, sustainable tourism, added value, Montenegro

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2145 The Practices of Creative Tourism in Urban and Rural Areas at International Level

Authors: Isabel Freitas, Paula Remoaldo, Olga Matos, Ricardo Goja, Juliana Araujo, Vitor Ribeiro, Miguel Pereira

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Several destinations have been experiencing a transition from a massified cultural tourism to a creative tourism approach. In this new segment of tourism, urban territories have been the focus for several decades. Urban studies on creative industries and initiatives have been taking place in big cities marginalizing small towns and more specifically rural areas. This paper envisages evaluating the differences between rural and urban institutions/platforms, mostly certified by the Creative Tourism Network, in what concerns the practices and initiatives in creative tourism worldwide. In the research carried out between March 2017 and March 2018, we had three levels of primary data and qualitative analysis: i) research on Google (web) by using several keywords like 'creative tourism initiatives', 'creative cities', 'best practices in creative tourism' (from March to August 2017). With the help of the certification of institutions/platforms by the Creative Tourism Network, 24 institutions were found and declared to be developing creative initiatives. It was decided to try to unravel the type of activities and some practices and initiatives carried out by these institutions and the analysis of the differences between rural and urban initiatives. A database of 20 items (e.g., institutions in charge of implementing the initiatives, year of implementation, site, activities developed, place of development, country of origin, type of partners chosen) was created for each institution/platform; ii) A deeper analysis was made on the websites’ information on the institutions (from September to December 2017). The type of professionals involved in the activities, the language used in the activities and the type of activity performed were some of the data analysed and iii) To complement these data, semi-structured interviews were done to representatives of the institutions, conducted mainly by Skype from July 2017 to April 2018. The interviews consisted of 17 questions. In the present paper, these interviews are used to complement the analysis of the same items. Some of the qualitative analysis was supported by the narratives of the leaders of the twenty-four institutions that were surveyed. The results indicate that creative tourism is more active and diverse in urban areas. Some more consolidated communication strategies and partnerships are needed for these activities to become economically more sustainable. The findings of this research provide researchers and practitioners with a better understanding of creative tourism and give some information of how creative tourism is developed in rural and urban areas, the gaps and lack of information, and all the possible directions towards the development of the creative tourism industry.

Keywords: creative tourism, practices of creative tourism, rural areas, urban areas

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2144 Research on the Evolution of Public Space in Tourism-Oriented Traditional Rural Settlements

Authors: Yu Zhang, Mingxue Lang, Li Dong

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The hundreds of years of slow succession of living environment in rural area is a crucial carrier of China’s long history of culture and national wisdom. In recent years, the space evolution of traditional rural settlements has been promoted by the intervention of tourism development, among which the public architecture and outdoor activity areas together served as the major places for villagers, and tourists’ social activities are an important characterization for settlement spatial evolution. Traditional public space upgrade and layout study of new public space can effectively promote the tourism industry development of traditional rural settlements. This article takes Qi County, one China Traditional Culture Village as the exemplification and uses the technology of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Space Syntax, studies the evolution features of public space of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements in four steps. First, acquire the 2003 and 2016 image data of Qi County, using the remote sensing application EDRAS8.6. Second, vectorize the basic maps of Qi County including its land use map with the application of ArcGIS 9.3 meanwhile, associating with architectural and site information concluded from field research. Third, analyze the accessibility and connectivity of the inner space of settlements using space syntax; run cross-correlation with the public space data of 2003 and 2016. Finally, summarize the evolution law of the public space of settlements; study the upgrade pattern of traditional public space and location plan for new public space. Major findings of this paper including: first, location layout of traditional public space has a larger association with the calculation results of space syntax and further confirmed the objective value of space syntax in expressing the space and social relations. Second, the intervention of tourism development generates remarkable impact on public space location of tradition rural settlements. Third, traditional public space produces the symbols of both strengthening and decline and forms a diversified upgrade pattern for the purpose of meeting the different tourism functional needs. Finally, space syntax provides an objective basis for location plan of new public space that meets the needs of tourism service. Tourism development has a significant impact on the evolution of public space of traditional rural settlements. Two types of public space, architecture, and site are both with changes seen from the perspective of quantity, location, dimension and function after the intervention of tourism development. Function upgrade of traditional public space and scientific layout of new public space are two important ways in achieving the goal of sustainable development of tourism-oriented traditional rural settlements.

Keywords: public space evolution, Qi county, space syntax, tourism oriented, traditional rural settlements

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2143 An Analysis on Community Based Heritage Tourism: A Resource for a Small Community in Rural County Clare, Ireland

Authors: Marie Taylor, Catriona Murphy

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The aim of this paper is to identify the factors of success in community based heritage tourism initiatives. Heritage and community are central to many tourism initiatives with heritage tourism having the potential to act as a catalyst for community development. This paper presents the findings of research that examined the relationship between heritage tourism and community development. The findings recognised that heritage tourism had economic, social and cultural benefits for a community as well as a role in strengthening concepts such as sense of identity, place, and authenticity. In addition, this paper proposes an assessment framework for sustainable community based heritage tourism to identify factors and contextual influences involved in their success or failure. In evaluating the sustainability of such initiatives, a number of issues are investigated including the continued role of stakeholders, the role of funding, the influence of collaboration and the changing role of rural development and its impact on community engagement. The research is descriptive, evaluative and explanatory research, exploring and analysing issues such as the development of community structures in community based heritage tourism. Thus, it will contribute to the development of potential tourism and community development policies and strategies at a local, national and international level. An interpretative and inductive approach is utilised, and a mixed method approach followed as it encapsulates the best of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The case studies focus on social enterprises in relation to tourism and community based tourism cooperatives as there are limited study and knowledge of these. Consequently, this research will contribute to the discourse on community based heritage tourism as an aspect of community development.

Keywords: collaboration, community-based heritage tourism, stakeholders, sustainable tourism

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2142 Sustainability of Small Tourism Enterprises: A Comparison of Homestays and Independent Businesses from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

Authors: Baikuntha Prasad Acharya, Elizabeth Halpenny

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Small tourism enterprises (STEs) are primary providers of services and attractions in many destinations of less developed countries; they are considered the lifeblood of tourism sector. Furthermore, in rural community destinations of such countries including Nepal, STEs are regarded as alternative tools for advancing economic and sociocultural transformations. Many families in rural Nepali destinations are venturing into small tourism entrepreneurship so that their poverty can be reduced and they can live a sustained life. Most these communities are utilizing their lifestyles and natural and cultural heritages as tourism attractions. This study aimed to understand the sustainability of the STEs in rural destinations by synthesizing observations from Ghalegaon and Ghandruk of the Annapurna Conservation Area in western Nepal. Ghalegaon has community-based homestays and Ghandruk has independently owned and operated small tourism businesses such as cafes, tea houses, lodges, guest houses, and hotels, etc. The community-based homestays of Ghalegaon are compared with the independently owned and operated STEs of Ghandruk. The data were collected through multiple sources: 1) survey of tourists (n=112) and households (n=191); 2) interviews (n=14) with the locals, 3) group discussions (n=10) with different local groups including that of regional tourism players, experts and policy makers, 4) observations, and 5) document analysis. The STEs of both communities were first analyzed by understanding their level of sustainability as businesses, and then were explored how they were impacting on respective communities’ sustainability. The survey indicators and guidelines for interviews and group discussions were adapted to the Nepalese context based on four pillars of sustainability: economic, social, cultural and environmental; an additional dimension of management was also included, particularly for the STEs. The findings have shown a weaker economic and management dimensions of Ghalegaon’s Homestay than that of Ghandruk’s STEs. Some interesting social complexities of rural tourism and entrepreneurship were also revealed. This study’s findings do not much resonate to what Nepal government’s current rural tourism strategies that have been envisioned and prioritized for, particularly that the rural homestay tourism opportunities enhance inclusiveness of women and other deprived communities by spreading the benefits to the grassroots level. The study has highlighted several important applied implications to the local tourism management committees, tourism operators and associations, and regional and national tourism authorities. Further studies are advisable in other similar contexts in Nepal and in other countries to see whether there are variances in the findings.

Keywords: Nepal, rural tourism communities, small tourism enterprises, sustainability

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2141 Assessment of the Indices in Converting Affect Rural to Urban Settlements Case Study: Torqabe and Shandiz Rural Districts in Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Khatami, Elham Sanagar Darbani, Behnosh Khir Khah, R.Khatami

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Rural and ruralism is one of the residential forms that form in special natural areas, and the Interaction between their internal and external forces cause developments and changes that are different in time and space. Over time, historical developments, social and economic changes in the political system cause developments and rapid growth of the rural to urban settlements. However, criteria for recognizing rural settlements to the city are different in every land. One of the problems in modern plan is inattention to indicators and criteria of changing these settlements to the city. The method of this research is a type of applied and compilation research and library and field methods are used in it. And also qualitative and quantitative indicators have been provided while collecting documents and studies from rural districts like Dehnow, Virani, Abardeh, Zoshk, Nowchah, Jaqarq in tourism area of Mashhad. In this research, the used tool is questionnaire and for analyzing quantitative variables by Morris and Mac Granahan examination, the importance of each factor and the development settlements are evaluated, and the rural that can convert to the city was defined. In result, according to Askalvgram curve obtained from analysis, it was found that among the mentioned villages, Virani and Nowchah rural districts have this ability to convert to the city; Zoshk rural district will be converting to the city in future and Dehnow, Abardeh and Jaqarq rural districts won’t be converting.

Keywords: rural settlements, city, indicators, Torqabe and Shandiz rural districts

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2140 Gender Inequality on Marine Tourism Development in Small Island

Authors: Khodijah Ismail, Elfindri

Abstract:

Tourism development have many environmental, economically and sociocultural benefits. Small islands have a lot of potential for marine tourism development. But, stereotype gender issues still dominate the social and cultural life of rural communities that have an impact on the gap in benefits of local development. The purpose of this study is to found development strategy concept of marine tourism in small islands gender-based. This study found in the marine tourism development of small islands not involved women, from planning to monitor marine tourism development in small islands. It's affects to the low of socio-economic of women in the coastal village and small islands. This condition is not advantage for sustainable development of marine tourism in small islands. Therefore, strengthening of livelihood assets by gender based through the marine tourism development in small islands is very important to attention, that women can contributed to household welfare, bargaining positioned in social culture was better and increase broad access to local government development policies. To realize it requires the full support of the government and relevant stakeholders through gender empowerment and strengthening of accessibility, connectivity, regulation, and design institution.

Keywords: gender inequality, marine tourism, development, tourism management

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
2139 Rural Electrification in India-Challenges and Solutions

Authors: P. Chandhra Sekhar, R. A. Deshpande, T. Raghunatha

Abstract:

The government of India has given special attention on rural electrification under Rajiv Gandhi Grameena Vidyuthikarana Yojana (RGGVY) during 10th plan and 11th plan. Government of India electrified about 107523 villages and 21164003 BPL Households. This paper briefs about various rural electrification programs initiated by government of India and status of RGGVY in India. The paper mainly describes about challenges in the rural electrification, new ideas recently implemented and suggestions for improvement in the rural electrification.

Keywords: rural electrification, RGGVY, NJY, BPL

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2138 The Maldistribution of Doctors and the Responsibility of Medical Education: A Literature Review

Authors: Catherine Bernard

Abstract:

The maldistribution of clinicians within countries is well documented. It is a common theme throughout the world that rural areas often struggle to recruit and retain health workers resulting in inadequate healthcare for many. This paper will concentrate on the responsibilities that medical schools may have in addressing this shortage of rural health workers. Recommendations are made with regards to targeted rural student admissions, rurally-based medical schools, rural clinical rotations and a curriculum orientated towards rural health issues. The evidence gathered suggests that individual factors are positive in encouraging health workers to practice in rural locations. However, there is strength in numbers, and combining all the recommendations will likely result in a synergistic effect, thereby increasing numbers of rural health workers and achieving accessible healthcare for those living in rural populations.

Keywords: medical education, medical education design, public health, rural health

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
2137 Empowered Women Entrepreneurs and Sustainable Rural Tourism: A Study into the Voices and Experiences of Local Women in the Sundarbans Area of Bangladesh

Authors: Jakia Rajoana

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine the role of women entrepreneurs in bringing about sustainable rural tourism (SRT) development in Sundarbans area of Bangladesh. Theoretically, it draws upon empowerment and entrepreneurial marketing concepts. Women entrepreneurship development and lack of empowered women as role models is an important issue for developing economies in South Asia. Despite the substantial role women play in rural economy of Sundarbans, their contribution remains overlooked as enterprises led by them are run on an informal basis and their business acumen is not taken seriously both by their families and society at large. Studies on SRT fail to engage in sufficient depth with the term applied in this paper as ‘invisible women on the margins’ who run their enterprises with no formal training or societal/familial support. Moreover, the link between their (non) tourism enterprise and their empowerment remains under-theorized. Thus empirically, this research seeks to fill a significant gap by focusing on a considerably under-researched Sundarbans region. Methodologically, this study follows a qualitative research design using visual ethnographic approach. Participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and documentation are the primary data collection instruments in three coastal communities – Munshigonj, Burigoalini and Gabura – in the Sundarbans area. By focusing on the narratives of these under-investigated women, this work aims to provide in-depth and nuanced insights into salient issues on marginal communities experience from rural women’s perspectives. Initial findings illustrate that the Sundarbans women have low income due to no or little education. In addition, socio-cultural and religious factors also restrict the scope of their extensive contribution to workplace. In addition, physical and social violence which is a common occurrence for these women inhibits their agency and contributes to their disempowerment.

Keywords: gender, empowerment, entrepreneurial marketing, sustainable rural tourism, Sundarbans

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2136 Tourist Attraction through Agricultural Way of Life: A Case Study at Tra Que Village, Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

Authors: Ha Van Trung, Suchint Simaraks

Abstract:

Agro-tourism is a form of rural tourism that has actively developed in recent years. Tra Que vegetable village has developed this type of tourism to meet the needs of visitors to visit and experience. However, in the process of agricultural tourism development, Tra Que village is facing many issues related to the agricultural way of life, affecting the attraction of tourists. The purpose of this study is to find those issues. The survey questionnaire of 71 households and a semi-structured group interview of 30 households has been applied for the data collection. Research results show that there is a shortage of young workers, lack of training in tourism and agricultural production, and households only exploit a few agricultural activities for tourism. The number of households receiving tourists tends to decrease, and the number of households selling products to tourists at farms accounts for a small proportion. These will affect sustainable agro-tourism development in the future. Focusing on training local households in tourism and agricultural production, encourage young generation to preserve the agricultural way of life, upgrade infrastructure and public services, develop agro-products and tourism services will contribute to the sustainable development of agro-tourism in Tra Que vegetable village in the future.

Keywords: agro-tourism, way of life, Vietnamese tourists, Tra Que vegetable village

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2135 Research on the Application of Renewability in the Construction Model of Zhejiang Rural Revitalization

Authors: Zheng Junchao, Wang Zhu

Abstract:

With the advancement of China's urbanization process, the Chinese government has put forward the strategy of rural revitalization which is aiming at realizing the comprehensive integration of urban and rural areas and the comprehensive revitalization of rural areas. The path of rural revitalization in Zhejiang province put forward a typical model from four dimensions: suburban area, plain, island and mountain area. Research methods include on-the-spot investigation, visiting a number of successful demonstration villages in Zhejiang and interviewing village officials. Based on the location conditions, resource endowments, industrial forms and development foundations of Zhejiang Province, this paper introduces in detail the model of rural revitalization in Zhejiang Province and the challenges it encounters, as well as the role of building construction. The rural development model of Zhejiang province makes the rural culture flourish. Taking the construction of rural scenic spots as the carrier, the rural culture, and natural landscape are constantly improved. It provides a model and template for the country's rural revitalization. The promotion of Zhejiang rural revitalization model will improve the current rural landscape, living standard and industrial structure, which will narrow the urban-rural gap greatly.

Keywords: comprehensive rural revitalization, Zhejiang model, reproducible, comprehensive integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2134 Research on the Evolutionary Character of Capital in Rural Areas and Counter-Measure of Planning

Authors: Han Song, Tingting Wei, Dong Chen

Abstract:

The combination of capital and rural areas in China has shown its great significance in promoting urban-rural integration and new-style urbanization, enhancing regional capacity for sustainable rural development and optimizing human settlement environment. The purpose of this study is to find capital operation mechanism in rural area and rural planning guidance in China. Based on case studies in Chinese rural areas, two types of capital operation mechanism in rural areas are summed up: intervention in the field of agriculture promoting the upgrading and innovation of agricultural industry chain, intervention in rural life and leisure areas updating rural connotation and form. In the light of experiences in Japan and Taiwan, it is proposed that government's norms and guidance, rural investment intensity and rural self-organization are three important factors for capital to drive rural development. It is also found that the unique land tenure and rural governance tradition are two important factors effecting the combination of capital and rural regions in China, which requires full attention in rational policy-making and rural planning. It comes to a conclusion as four directions of the overall reform of the rural planning: targeting at enhancing the viability of rural and sustainable capacity, encouraging differences in investment incentives and planning policies, providing land usage in the rural areas with planning support and reforming the village system. Directional guidance is also made for different types of capital investments, suggesting that capital should be rooted in agriculture and rural land to benefit farmers and update human settlements.

Keywords: capital, rural areas, rural planning, rural governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
2133 Effect of Rural Entrepreneurship in Rural Development in Nigeria: A Study of Selected Entrepreneurs in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Ifeanyi Charles Otuokere, Victoria Nneoma Nnochiri

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship generally and specifically within the rural communities in Nigeria is a fast means of bringing development within the communities. This is made possible by utmost maximization and management of available local resources to develop rural areas through good management of these local resources. This study anchors on the rural development paradigm and the integrated rural development theories to understudy the knowledge of rural entrepreneurs on rural economic development. The research study made use of surveys and descriptive analysis. The assessable population for the study, which was randomly selected, is 100 rural entrepreneurs from ten rural communities within the Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The study made use of both primary and secondary as a source of data collection with much emphasis on a primary source, although secondary data such as journals, textbooks electronic sources were also utilised. A carefully structured questionnaire drafted to extract raw data was administered to selected entrepreneurs. The findings of the study showed that developments within rural communities can only be achieved through rural entrepreneurship. This is evidenced in increased output, job creation, and most importantly, reduction of rural to urban migration, among other things. Recommendations were also made based on these findings; the researchers recommended that infrastructural developments should be made available in the rural communities and government policies should create enabling environments along with other assistance to help these rural entrepreneurs achieve their sole aim.

Keywords: economic developments, rural communities, rural development, rural entrepreneurship

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2132 The Role of the General Budget in the Agricultural and Rural Development as an Alternative Economic outside the Hydrocarbons Sector

Authors: Kherbache Radhwane

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the nature of the strategy of agricultural and rural development, through the fiscal policy adopted by the government throughout programs included in the general budget of the state represented in the national program of agricultural and rural development. This study concluded that the general balance play an important role in the design of the strategy of agricultural and rural development despite the numerous problems clear in the result of the precedent plans of agricultural and rural development. Based on that we suggest that more importance should be accorded to the agricultural and rural field and that it should be one among economic alternatives to the collection of petroleum, as the countryside is the future.

Keywords: general balance, political economy, strategy of agricultural and rural development, economic alternatives, collection of petroleum

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
2131 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

Abstract:

As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: financial problems, the problems of tourism businesses, tourism businesses, tourism sector in Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 391