Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3271

Search results for: flexible optimization

3271 Design of Optimal Proportional Integral Derivative Attitude Controller for an Uncoupled Flexible Satellite Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Martha C. Orazulume, Jibril D. Jiya


Flexible satellites are equipped with various appendages which vibrate under the influence of any excitation and make the attitude of the satellite to be unstable. Therefore, the system must be able to adjust to balance the effect of these appendages in order to point accurately and satisfactorily which is one of the most important problems in satellite design. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller is simple to design and computationally efficient to implement which is used to stabilize the effect of these flexible appendages. However, manual turning of the PID is time consuming, waste energy and money. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to tune the parameters of PID Controller. Simulation results obtained show that PSO tuned PID Controller is able to re-orient the spacecraft attitude as well as dampen the effect of mechanical resonance and yields better performance when compared with manually tuned PID Controller.

Keywords: Attitude Control, Flexible Satellite, Particle Swarm Optimization, PID Controller and Optimization

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3270 A Hybrid Pareto-Based Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk


In this paper, a new hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed for the multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem that is very important and hard combinatorial problem. The Pareto approach is used for solving the multi-objective problem. Several new local search heuristics are integrated into an algorithm based on the critical block concept to enhance the performance of the algorithm. The algorithm is compared with the recently published multi-objective algorithms based on benchmarks selected from the literature. Several metrics are used for quantifying performance and comparison of the achieved solutions. The algorithms are also compared based on the Weighting summation of objectives approach. The proposed algorithm can find the Pareto solutions more efficiently than the compared algorithms in less computational time.

Keywords: swarm-based optimization, local search, Pareto optimality, flexible job shop scheduling, multi-objective optimization

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3269 Optimization of Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Sequence-Dependent Setup Times Using Genetic Algorithm Approach

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Parjapati, Ajai Jain


This paper presents optimization of makespan for ‘n’ jobs and ‘m’ machines flexible job shop scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup time using genetic algorithm (GA) approach. A restart scheme has also been applied to prevent the premature convergence. Two case studies are taken into consideration. Results are obtained by considering crossover probability (pc = 0.85) and mutation probability (pm = 0.15). Five simulation runs for each case study are taken and minimum value among them is taken as optimal makespan. Results indicate that optimal makespan can be achieved with more than one sequence of jobs in a production order.

Keywords: flexible job shop, genetic algorithm, makespan, sequence dependent setup times

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
3268 A Hybrid Distributed Algorithm for Multi-Objective Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk


In this paper, a hybrid distributed algorithm has been suggested for multi-objective dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem. The proposed algorithm is high level, in which several algorithms search the space on different machines simultaneously also it is a hybrid algorithm that takes advantages of the artificial intelligence, evolutionary and optimization methods. Distribution is done at different levels and new approaches are used for design of the algorithm. Apache spark and Hadoop frameworks have been used for the distribution of the algorithm. The Pareto optimality approach is used for solving the multi-objective benchmarks. The suggested algorithm that is able to solve large-size problems in short times has been compared with the successful algorithms of the literature. The results prove high speed and efficiency of the algorithm.

Keywords: distributed algorithms, apache-spark, Hadoop, flexible dynamic job shop scheduling, multi-objective optimization

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3267 Ant Colony Optimization Control for Multilevel STATCOM

Authors: H. Tédjini, Y. Meslem, B. Guesbaoui, A. Safa


Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) are potentially becoming more flexible and more economical local controllers in the power system; and because of the high MVA ratings, it would be expensive to provide independent, equal, regulated DC voltage sources to power the multilevel converters which are presently proposed for STATCOMs. DC voltage sources can be derived from the DC link capacitances which are charged by the rectified ac power. In this paper a new stronger control combined of nonlinear control based Lyapunov’s theorem and Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA) to maintain stability of multilevel STATCOM and the utility.

Keywords: Static Compensator (STATCOM), ant colony optimization (ACO), lyapunov control theory, Decoupled power control, neutral point clamped (NPC)

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3266 A Constrained Neural Network Based Variable Neighborhood Search for the Multi-Objective Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk, Ozan Bahadir


In this paper, a new neural network based variable neighborhood search is proposed for the multi-objective dynamic, flexible job shop scheduling problems. The neural network controls the problems' constraints to prevent infeasible solutions, while the Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) applies moves, based on the critical block concept to improve the solutions. Two approaches are used for managing the constraints, in the first approach, infeasible solutions are modified according to the constraints, after the moves application, while in the second one, infeasible moves are prevented. Several neighborhood structures from the literature with some modifications, also new structures are used in the VNS. The suggested neighborhoods are more systematically defined and easy to implement. Comparison is done based on a multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem that is dynamic because of the jobs different release time and machines breakdowns. The results show that the presented method has better performance than the compared VNSs selected from the literature.

Keywords: constrained optimization, neural network, variable neighborhood search, flexible job shop scheduling, dynamic multi-objective optimization

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3265 A Hybrid Hopfield Neural Network for Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk


In this paper, a new hybrid Hopfield neural network is proposed for the dynamic, flexible job shop scheduling problem. A new heuristic based and easy to implement energy function is designed for the Hopfield neural network, which penalizes the constraints violation and decreases makespan. Moreover, for enhancing the performance, several heuristics are integrated to it that achieve active, and non-delay schedules also, prevent early convergence of the neural network. The suggested algorithm that is designed as a generalization of the previous studies for the flexible and dynamic scheduling problems can be used for solving real scheduling problems. Comparison of the presented hybrid method results with the previous studies results proves its efficiency.

Keywords: dynamic flexible job shop scheduling, neural network, heuristics, constrained optimization

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3264 A Novel Approach of NPSO on Flexible Logistic (S-Shaped) Model for Software Reliability Prediction

Authors: Pooja Rani, G. S. Mahapatra, S. K. Pandey


In this paper, we propose a novel approach of Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization methods for software reliability prediction. We first explain how to apply compound function in neural network so that we can derive a Flexible Logistic (S-shaped) Growth Curve (FLGC) model. This model mathematically represents software failure as a random process and can be used to evaluate software development status during testing. To avoid trapping in local minima, we have applied Particle Swarm Optimization method to train proposed model using failure test data sets. We drive our proposed model using computational based intelligence modeling. Thus, proposed model becomes Neuro-Particle Swarm Optimization (NPSO) model. We do test result with different inertia weight to update particle and update velocity. We obtain result based on best inertia weight compare along with Personal based oriented PSO (pPSO) help to choose local best in network neighborhood. The applicability of proposed model is demonstrated through real time test data failure set. The results obtained from experiments show that the proposed model has a fairly accurate prediction capability in software reliability.

Keywords: software reliability, flexible logistic growth curve model, software cumulative failure prediction, neural network, particle swarm optimization

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3263 Genetic Algorithm for Solving the Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Guilherme Baldo Carlos


The flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP) is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, which can be applied to model several applications in a wide array of industries. This problem will have its importance increase due to the shift in the production mode that modern society is going through. The demands are increasing and for products personalized and customized. This work aims to apply a meta-heuristic called a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve this problem. A GA is a meta-heuristic inspired by the natural selection of Charles Darwin; it produces a population of individuals (solutions) and selects, mutates, and mates the individuals through generations in order to find a good solution for the problem. The results found indicate that the GA is suitable for FJSP solving.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, evolutionary algorithm, scheduling, flexible job-shop scheduling

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3262 Dynamic Synthesis of a Flexible Multibody System

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Abdallah, Imed Khemili, Nizar Aifaoui


This work denotes an insight into dynamic synthesis of multibody systems. A set of mechanism parameters design variable are synthetized based on a desired mechanism response, such as, velocity, acceleration and bodies deformations. Moreover, knowing the work space, for a robot, and mechanism response allow defining optimal parameters mechanism handling with the desired target response. To this end, evolutionary genetic algorithm has been deployed. A demonstrative example for imperfect mechanism has been treated, mainly, a slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. The transversal deflection of the connecting rod has been chosen as response to identify the mechanism design parameters.

Keywords: dynamic response, evolutionary genetic algorithm, flexible bodies, optimization

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3261 Improving Patient-Care Services at an Oncology Center with a Flexible Adaptive Scheduling Procedure

Authors: P. Hooshangitabrizi, I. Contreras, N. Bhuiyan


This work presents an online scheduling problem which accommodates multiple requests of patients for chemotherapy treatments in a cancer center of a major metropolitan hospital in Canada. To solve the problem, an adaptive flexible approach is proposed which systematically combines two optimization models. The first model is intended to dynamically schedule arriving requests in the form of waiting lists whereas the second model is used to reschedule the already booked patients with the goal of finding better resource allocations when new information becomes available. Both models are created as mixed integer programming formulations. Various controllable and flexible parameters such as deviating the prescribed target dates by a pre-determined threshold, changing the start time of already booked appointments and the maximum number of appointments to move in the schedule are included in the proposed approach to have sufficient degrees of flexibility in handling arrival requests and unexpected changes. Several computational experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using historical data provided by the oncology clinic. Our approach achieves outstandingly better results as compared to those of the scheduling system being used in practice. Moreover, several analyses are conducted to evaluate the effect of considering different levels of flexibility on the obtained results and to assess the performance of the proposed approach in dealing with last-minute changes. We strongly believe that the proposed flexible adaptive approach is very well-suited for implementation at the clinic to provide better patient-care services and to utilize available resource more efficiently.

Keywords: chemotherapy scheduling, multi-appointment modeling, optimization of resources, satisfaction of patients, mixed integer programming

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3260 A Modified NSGA-II Algorithm for Solving Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk, Ozan Bahadir


NSGA-II is one of the most well-known and most widely used evolutionary algorithms. In addition to its new versions, such as NSGA-III, there are several modified types of this algorithm in the literature. In this paper, a hybrid NSGA-II algorithm has been suggested for solving the multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem. For a better search, new neighborhood-based crossover and mutation operators are defined. To create new generations, the neighbors of the selected individuals by the tournament selection are constructed. Also, at the end of each iteration, before sorting, neighbors of a certain number of good solutions are derived, except for solutions protected by elitism. The neighbors are generated using a constraint-based neural network that uses various constructs. The non-dominated sorting and crowding distance operators are same as the classic NSGA-II. A comparison based on some multi-objective benchmarks from the literature shows the efficiency of the algorithm.

Keywords: flexible job shop scheduling problem, multi-objective optimization, NSGA-II algorithm, neighborhood structures

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3259 Mathematical Modeling of Switching Processes in Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov, Dmitry Yu. Tarabrin


The operating principle of magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is based on controlling the beam movement under the influence of a magnetic field. Currently, there is a MEMS switch design with a flexible ferromagnetic electrode in the form of a fixed-terminal beam, with an electrode fastened on a straight or cranked anchor. The basic performance characteristics of magnetically controlled MEMS switches (service life, sensitivity, contact resistance, fast response) are largely determined by the flexible electrode design. To ensure the stable and controlled motion of the flexible electrode, it is necessary to provide the optimal design of a flexible electrode.

Keywords: flexible electrode, magnetically controlled MEMS, mathematical modeling, mechanical stress

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3258 The Effects of the Aspect Ratio of a Flexible Cylinder on the Vortex Dynamics

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman


The vortex structures observed in the wake of a flexible cylinder can be significantly different from those of a traditional vibrating, spring mounted, rigid cylinder. These differences can significantly affect the VIV characteristics of the flow and subsequently the VIV response of the cylindrical structures. In this work, we present how the aspect ratio of a flexible cylinder can change the vortex structures in its wake. We will discuss different vortex dynamics which can be observed in the wake of the vibrating flexible cylinder, and how they can affect the vibrational response of the cylinder. Moreover, we will study the transition of these structures versus the aspect ratio of the flexible cylinder. We will discuss how these transitions affect the in-line and transverse forces on the structure. In the end, we will provide general guidelines on the minimum acceptable aspect ratio for the offshore riser studies which may have grave implications for future numerical and experimental works.

Keywords: aspect ratio, flexible cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIV

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3257 Assessment of Memetic and Genetic Algorithm for a Flexible Integrated Logistics Network

Authors: E. Behmanesh, J. Pannek


The distribution-allocation problem is known as one of the most comprehensive strategic decision. In real-world cases, it is impossible to solve a distribution-allocation problem in traditional ways with acceptable time. Hence researchers develop efficient non-traditional techniques for the large-term operation of the whole supply chain. These techniques provide near-optimal solutions particularly for large scales test problems. This paper, presents an integrated supply chain model which is flexible in the delivery path. As the solution methodology, we apply a memetic algorithm with a novelty in population presentation. To illustrate the performance of the proposed memetic algorithm, LINGO optimization software serves as a comparison basis for small size problems. In large size cases that we are dealing with in the real world, the Genetic algorithm as the second metaheuristic algorithm is considered to compare the results and show the efficiency of the memetic algorithm.

Keywords: integrated logistics network, flexible path, memetic algorithm, genetic algorithm

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3256 Curve Fitting by Cubic Bezier Curves Using Migrating Birds Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Mitat Uysal


A new met heuristic optimization algorithm called as Migrating Birds Optimization is used for curve fitting by rational cubic Bezier Curves. This requires solving a complicated multivariate optimization problem. In this study, the solution of this optimization problem is achieved by Migrating Birds Optimization algorithm that is a powerful met heuristic nature-inspired algorithm well appropriate for optimization. The results of this study show that the proposed method performs very well and being able to fit the data points to cubic Bezier Curves with a high degree of accuracy.

Keywords: algorithms, Bezier curves, heuristic optimization, migrating birds optimization

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3255 Optimal Design of RC Pier Accompanied with Multi Sliding Friction Damping Mechanism Using Combination of SNOPT and ANN Method

Authors: Angga S. Fajar, Y. Takahashi, J. Kiyono, S. Sawada


The structural system concept of RC pier accompanied with multi sliding friction damping mechanism was developed based on numerical analysis approach. However in the implementation, to make design for such kind of this structural system consumes a lot of effort in case high of complexity. During making design, the special behaviors of this structural system should be considered including flexible small deformation, sufficient elastic deformation capacity, sufficient lateral force resistance, and sufficient energy dissipation. The confinement distribution of friction devices has significant influence to its. Optimization and prediction with multi function regression of this structural system expected capable of providing easier and simpler design method. The confinement distribution of friction devices is optimized with SNOPT in Opensees, while some design variables of the structure are predicted using multi function regression of ANN. Based on the optimization and prediction this structural system is able to be designed easily and simply.

Keywords: RC Pier, multi sliding friction device, optimal design, flexible small deformation

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3254 A Method for Modeling Flexible Manipulators: Transfer Matrix Method with Finite Segments

Authors: Haijie Li, Xuping Zhang


This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the modeling of robot manipulators with flexible links and joints. This approach combines the Discrete Time Transfer Matrix Method with the Finite Segment Method, in which the flexible links are discretized by a number of rigid segments connected by torsion springs; and the flexibility of joints are modeled by torsion springs. The proposed method avoids the global dynamics and has the advantage of modeling non-uniform manipulators. Experiments and simulations of a single-link flexible manipulator are conducted for verifying the proposed methodologies. The simulations of a three-link robot arm with links and joints flexibility are also performed.

Keywords: flexible manipulator, transfer matrix method, linearization, finite segment method

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3253 Vibration Control of Hermetic Compressors Using Flexible Multi-Body Dynamics Theory

Authors: Armin Amindari


Hermetic compressors are used widely for refrigeration, heat pump, and air conditioning applications. With the improvement of energy conservation and environmental protection requirements, inverter compressors that operates at different speeds have become increasingly attractive in the industry. Although speed change capability is more efficient, passing through resonant frequencies may lead to excessive vibrations. In this work, an integrated vibration control approach based on flexible multi-body dynamics theory is used for optimizing the vibration amplitudes of the compressor at different operating speeds. To examine the compressor vibrations, all the forces and moments exerted on the cylinder block were clarified and minimized using balancers attached to the upper and lower ends of the motor rotor and crankshaft. The vibration response of the system was simulated using Motionview™ software. In addition, mass-spring optimization was adopted to shift the resonant frequencies out of the operating speeds. The modal shapes of the system were studied using Optistruct™ solver. Using this approach, the vibrations were reduced up to 56% through dynamic simulations. The results were in high agreement with various experimental test data. In addition, the vibration resonance problem observed at low speeds was solved by shifting the resonant frequencies through optimization studies.

Keywords: vibration, MBD, compressor, hermetic

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3252 Influence of Flexible Plate's Contour on Dynamic Behavior of High Speed Flexible Coupling of Combat Aircraft

Authors: Dineshsingh Thakur, S. Nagesh, J. Basha


A lightweight High Speed Flexible Coupling (HSFC) is used to connect the Engine Gear Box (EGB) with an Accessory Gear Box (AGB) of the combat aircraft. The HSFC transmits the power at high speeds ranging from 10000 to 18000 rpm from the EGB to AGB. The HSFC is also accommodates larger misalignments resulting from thermal expansion of the aircraft engine and mounting arrangement. The HSFC has the series of metallic contoured annular thin cross-sectioned flexible plates to accommodate the misalignments. The flexible plates are accommodating the misalignment by the elastic material flexure. As the HSFC operates at higher speed, the flexural and axial resonance frequencies are to be kept away from the operating speed and proper prediction is required to prevent failure in the transmission line of a single engine fighter aircraft. To study the influence of flexible plate’s contour on the lateral critical speed (LCS) of HSFC, a mathematical model of HSFC as a elven rotor system is developed. The flexible plate being the bending member of the system, its bending stiffness which results from the contoured governs the LCS. Using transfer matrix method, Influence of various flexible plate contours on critical speed is analyzed. In the above analysis, the support bearing flexibility on critical speed prediction is also considered. Based on the study, a model is built with the optimum contour of flexible plate, for validation by experimental modal analysis. A good correlation between the theoretical prediction and model behavior is observed. From the study, it is found that the flexible plate’s contour is playing vital role in modification of system’s dynamic behavior and the present model can be extended for the development of similar type of flexible couplings for its computational simplicity and reliability.

Keywords: flexible rotor, critical speed, experimental modal analysis, high speed flexible coupling (HSFC), misalignment

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3251 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad


In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN

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3250 A Mean–Variance–Skewness Portfolio Optimization Model

Authors: Kostas Metaxiotis


Portfolio optimization is one of the most important topics in finance. This paper proposes a mean–variance–skewness (MVS) portfolio optimization model. Traditionally, the portfolio optimization problem is solved by using the mean–variance (MV) framework. In this study, we formulate the proposed model as a three-objective optimization problem, where the portfolio's expected return and skewness are maximized whereas the portfolio risk is minimized. For solving the proposed three-objective portfolio optimization model we apply an adapted version of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII). Finally, we use a real dataset from FTSE-100 for validating the proposed model.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, portfolio optimization, skewness, stock selection

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3249 Improved Whale Algorithm Based on Information Entropy and Its Application in Truss Structure Optimization Design

Authors: Serges Mendomo Meye, Li Guowei, Shen Zhenzhong, Gan Lei, Xu Liqun


Given the limitations of the original whale optimization algorithm (WAO) in local optimum and low convergence accuracy in truss structure optimization problems, based on the fundamental whale algorithm, an improved whale optimization algorithm (SWAO) based on information entropy is proposed. The information entropy itself is an uncertain measure. It is used to control the range of whale searches in path selection. It can overcome the shortcomings of the basic whale optimization algorithm (WAO) and can improve the global convergence speed of the algorithm. Taking truss structure as the optimization research object, the mathematical model of truss structure optimization is established; the cross-sectional area of truss is taken as the design variable; the objective function is the weight of truss structure; and an improved whale optimization algorithm (SWAO) is used for optimization design, which provides a new idea and means for its application in large and complex engineering structure optimization design.

Keywords: information entropy, structural optimization, truss structure, whale algorithm

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3248 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh


The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

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3247 Non-Stationary Stochastic Optimization of an Oscillating Water Column

Authors: María L. Jalón, Feargal Brennan


A non-stationary stochastic optimization methodology is applied to an OWC (oscillating water column) to find the design that maximizes the wave energy extraction. Different temporal cycles are considered to represent the long-term variability of the wave climate at the site in the optimization problem. The results of the non-stationary stochastic optimization problem are compared against those obtained by a stationary stochastic optimization problem. The comparative analysis reveals that the proposed non-stationary optimization provides designs with a better fit to reality. However, the stationarity assumption can be adequate when looking at averaged system response.

Keywords: non-stationary stochastic optimization, oscillating water, temporal variability, wave energy

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3246 Two-Stage Approach for Solving the Multi-Objective Optimization Problem on Combinatorial Configurations

Authors: Liudmyla Koliechkina, Olena Dvirna


The statement of the multi-objective optimization problem on combinatorial configurations is formulated, and the approach to its solution is proposed. The problem is of interest as a combinatorial optimization one with many criteria, which is a model of many applied tasks. The approach to solving the multi-objective optimization problem on combinatorial configurations consists of two stages; the first is the reduction of the multi-objective problem to the single criterion based on existing multi-objective optimization methods, the second stage solves the directly replaced single criterion combinatorial optimization problem by the horizontal combinatorial method. This approach provides the optimal solution to the multi-objective optimization problem on combinatorial configurations, taking into account additional restrictions for a finite number of steps.

Keywords: discrete set, linear combinatorial optimization, multi-objective optimization, Pareto solutions, partial permutation set, structural graph

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3245 Thin Film Thermoelectric Generator with Flexible Phase Change Material-Based Heatsink

Authors: Wu Peiqin


Flexible thermoelectric devices are light and flexible, which can be in close contact with any shape of heat source surfaces to minimize heat loss and achieve efficient energy conversion. Among the wide application fields, energy harvesting via flexible thermoelectric generators can adapt to a variety of curved heat sources (such as human body, circular tubes, and surfaces of different shapes) and can drive low-power electronic devices, exhibiting one of the most promising technologies in self-powered systems. The heat flux along the cross-section of the flexible thin-film generator is limited by the thickness, so the temperature difference decreases during the generation process, and the output power is low. At present, most of the heat flow directions of the thin film thermoelectric generator are along the thin-film plane; however, this method is not suitable for attaching to the human body surface to generate electricity. In order to make the film generator more suitable for thermoelectric generation, it is necessary to apply a flexible heatsink on the air sides with the film to maintain the temperature difference. In this paper, Bismuth telluride thermoelectric paste was deposited on polyimide flexible substrate by a screen printing method, and the flexible thermoelectric film was formed after drying. There are ten pairs of thermoelectric legs. The size of the thermoelectric leg is 20 x 2 x 0.1 mm, and adjacent thermoelectric legs are spaced 2 mm apart. A phase change material-based flexible heatsink was designed and fabricated. The flexible heatsink consists of n-octadecane, polystyrene, and expanded graphite. N-octadecane was used as the thermal storage material, polystyrene as the supporting material, and expanded graphite as the thermally conductive additive. The thickness of the flexible phase change material-based heatsink is 2mm. A thermoelectric performance testing platform was built, and its output performance was tested. The results show that the system can generate an open-circuit output voltage of 3.89 mV at a temperature difference of 10K, which is higher than the generator without a heatsink. Therefore, the flexible heatsink can increase the temperature difference between the two ends of the film and improve the output performance of the flexible film generator. This result promotes the application of the film thermoelectric generator in collecting human heat for power generation.

Keywords: flexible thermoelectric generator, screen printing, PCM, flexible heatsink

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3244 Modeling Dynamics and Control of Transversal Vibration of an Underactuated Flexible Plate Using Controlled Lagrangian Method

Authors: Mahmood Khalghollah, Mohammad Tavallaeinejad, Mohammad Eghtesad


The method of Controlled Lagrangian is an energy shaping control technique for under actuated Lagrangian systems. Energy shaping control design methods are appealing as they retain the underlying nonlinear dynamics and can provide stability results that hold over larger domain than can be obtained using linear design and analysis. In the present study, controlled lagrangian is employed for designing a controller in an under actuated rotating flexible plate system. In the system of rotating flexible plate, due to its nonlinear characteristics and coupled dynamics of rigid and flexible components, controller design is a known challenge. In this paper, controller objectives are considered to be vibration reduction of flexible component and position control of the tip of the plate. To achieve the goals, a method based on both kinetic and potential energy shaping is introduced. The stability of the closed-loop system is investigated and proved around its equilibrium points. Moreover, the proposed controller is shown to be robust against disturbance and plant uncertainties.

Keywords: controlled lagrangian, underactuated system, flexible rotating plate, disturbance

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3243 Co-Evolutionary Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm and Firefly Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Authors: R. M. Rizk-Allah


This paper presents co-evolutionary fruit fly optimization algorithm based on firefly algorithm (CFOA-FA) for solving unconstrained optimization problems. The proposed algorithm integrates the merits of fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), firefly algorithm (FA) and elite strategy to refine the performance of classical FOA. Moreover, co-evolutionary mechanism is performed by applying FA procedures to ensure the diversity of the swarm. Finally, the proposed algorithm CFOA- FA is tested on several benchmark problems from the usual literature and the numerical results have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm for finding the global optimal solution.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, fruit fly optimization algorithm, unconstrained optimization problems

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3242 Design and Analysis of Flexible Slider Crank Mechanism

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang


This study presents the optimal design and formulation of a kinematic model of a flexible slider crank mechanism. The objective of the proposed innovative design is to take extra advantage of the compliant mechanism and maximize the fatigue life by applying the Taguchi method. A formulated kinematic model is developed using a Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model (PRBM). By means of mathematic models, the kinematic behaviors of the flexible slider crank mechanism are captured using MATLAB software. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to show the stress distribution. The results show that the optimal shape of the flexible hinge includes a force of 8.5N, a width of 9mm and a thickness of 1.1mm. Analysis of variance shows that the thickness of the proposed hinge is the most significant parameter, with an F test of 15.5. Finally, a prototype is manufactured to prepare for testing the kinematic and dynamic behaviors.

Keywords: kinematic behavior, fatigue life, pseudo-rigid-body model, flexible slider crank mechanism

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