Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Tarik Ozmen

19 Relationship Between Dynamic Balance, Jumping Performance and Q-angle in Soccer Players

Authors: Tarik Ozmen

Abstract:

The soccer players need good dynamic balance and jumping performance for dribbling, crossing rival, and to be effective in high balls during soccer game. The quadriceps angle (Q-angle) is used to assess biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint in the musculoskeletal medicine. The Q angle is formed by the intersection of two lines drawing from the anterior superior iliac spine to the centre of the patella and to the midline of the tibia tuberosity. Studies have shown that the Q angle is inversely associated with quadriceps femoris strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Thirty male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 15.23 ± 0.56 years, height, 170 ± 8.37 cm, weight, 61.36 ± 6.04 kg) participated as volunteer in this study. Dynamic balance of the participants were evaluated at directions of anterior (A), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) with Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Each participant was instructed to reach as far as with the non-dominant leg in each of the 3 directions while maintaining dominant leg stance. Leg length was used to normalize excursion distances by dividing the distance reached by leg length and then multiplying the result by 100. The jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump using a contact mat. A universal (standard) goniometer was used to measure the Q angle in standing position. The Q angle was not correlated with directions of SEBT (A: p = 0.32, PM: p = 0.06, PL: p = 0.37). The squat jump height was not correlated with Q-angle (p = 0.21). The findings of this study suggest that there are no significant relationships between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Further studies should investigate relationship between balance ability, athletic performance and Q-angle with larger sample size in soccer players.

Keywords: balance, jump height, Q angle, soccer

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18 An Architectural Approach for the Dynamic Adaptation of Services-Based Software

Authors: Mohhamed Yassine Baroudi, Abdelkrim Benammar, Fethi Tarik Bendimerad

Abstract:

This paper proposes software architecture for dynamical service adaptation. The services are constituted by reusable software components. The adaptation’s goal is to optimize the service function of their execution context. For a first step, the context will take into account just the user needs but other elements will be added. A particular feature in our proposition is the profiles that are used not only to describe the context’s elements but also the components itself. An adapter analyzes the compatibility between all these profiles and detects the points where the profiles are not compatibles. The same Adapter search and apply the possible adaptation solutions: component customization, insertion, extraction or replacement.

Keywords: adaptative service, software component, service, dynamic adaptation

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17 Cost Sensitive Feature Selection in Decision-Theoretic Rough Set Models for Customer Churn Prediction: The Case of Telecommunication Sector Customers

Authors: Emel Kızılkaya Aydogan, Mihrimah Ozmen, Yılmaz Delice

Abstract:

In recent days, there is a change and the ongoing development of the telecommunications sector in the global market. In this sector, churn analysis techniques are commonly used for analysing why some customers terminate their service subscriptions prematurely. In addition, customer churn is utmost significant in this sector since it causes to important business loss. Many companies make various researches in order to prevent losses while increasing customer loyalty. Although a large quantity of accumulated data is available in this sector, their usefulness is limited by data quality and relevance. In this paper, a cost-sensitive feature selection framework is developed aiming to obtain the feature reducts to predict customer churn. The framework is a cost based optional pre-processing stage to remove redundant features for churn management. In addition, this cost-based feature selection algorithm is applied in a telecommunication company in Turkey and the results obtained with this algorithm.

Keywords: churn prediction, data mining, decision-theoretic rough set, feature selection

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16 Processes for Valorization of Valuable Products from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Nadjib Drouiche, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Tarik Ouslimane

Abstract:

Although solar cells manufacturing is a conservative industry, economics drivers continue to encourage innovation, feedstock savings and cost reduction. Kerf slurry waste is a complex product containing both valuable substances as well as contaminants. The valuable substances are: i) high purity silicon, ii) polyethylene glycol, and iii) silicon carbide. The contaminants mainly include metal fragments and organics. Therefore, recycling of the kerf slurry waste is an important subject not only from the treatment of waste but also from the recovery of valuable products. The present paper relates to processes for the recovery of valuable products from the kerf slurry waste in which they are contained, such products comprising nanoparticles, polyethylene glycol, high purity silicon, and silicon carbide.

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, Kerf slurry waste, recycling, silicon carbide

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15 Numerical Simulation of Structural Behavior of NSM CFRP Strengthened RC Beams Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Baris Sayin, Tarik Serhat Bozkurt, Cemil Akcay

Abstract:

The technique using near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites has proved to be an reliable strengthening technique. However, the effects of different parameters for the use of NSM CFRP are not fully developed yet. This study focuses on the development of a numerical modeling that can predict the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with NSM FRP rods exposed to bending loading and the efficiency of various parameters such as CFRP rod size and filling material type are evaluated by using prepared models. For this purpose, three different models are developed and implemented in the ANSYS® software using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The numerical results indicate that CFRP rod size and filling material type are significant factors in the behavior of the analyzed RC beams.

Keywords: numerical model, FEA, RC beam, NSM technique, CFRP rod, filling material

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14 Exoskeleton for Hemiplegic Patients: Mechatronic Approach to Move One Disabled Lower Limb

Authors: Alaoui Hamza, Moutacalli Mohamed Tarik, Chebak Ahmed

Abstract:

The number of people suffering from hemiplegia is growing each year. This lower limb disability affects all the aspects of their lives by taking away their autonomy. This implicates their close relatives, as well as the health system to provide the necessary care they need. The integration of exoskeletons in the medical field became a promising solution to resolve this issue. This paper presents an exoskeleton designed to help hemiplegic people get back the sensation and ability of normal walking. For this purpose, three step models have been created. The first step allows a simple forward movement of the leg. The second method is designed to overcome some obstacles in the patient path, and finally the third step model gives the patient total control over the device. Each of the control methods was designed to offer a solution to the challenges that the patients may face during the walking process.

Keywords: ability of normal walking, exoskeleton, hemiplegic patients, lower limb motion- mechatronics

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13 On the Importance of Quality, Liquidity Level and Liquidity Risk: A Markov-Switching Regime Approach

Authors: Tarik Bazgour, Cedric Heuchenne, Danielle Sougne

Abstract:

We examine time variation in the market beta of portfolios sorted on quality, liquidity level and liquidity beta characteristics across stock market phases. Using US stock market data for the period 1970-2010, we find, first, the US stock market was driven by four regimes. Second, during the crisis regime, low (high) quality, high (low) liquidity beta and illiquid (liquid) stocks exhibit an increase (a decrease) in their market betas. This finding is consistent with the flight-to-quality and liquidity phenomena. Third, we document the same pattern across stocks when the market volatility is low. We argue that, during low volatility times, investors shift their portfolios towards low quality and illiquid stocks to seek portfolio gains. The pattern observed in the tranquil regime can be, therefore, explained by a flight-to-low-quality and to illiquidity. Finally, our results reveal that liquidity level is more important than liquidity beta during the crisis regime.

Keywords: financial crises, quality, liquidity, liquidity risk, regime-switching models

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12 Analytical Study: An M-Learning App Reflecting the Factors Affecting Student’s Adoption of M-Learning

Authors: Ahmad Khachan, Ahmet Ozmen

Abstract:

This study aims to introduce a mobile bite-sized learning concept, a mobile application with social networks motivation factors that will encourage students to practice critical thinking, improve analytical skills and learn knowledge sharing. We do not aim to propose another e-learning or distance learning based tool like Moodle and Edmodo; instead, we introduce a mobile learning tool called Interactive M-learning Application. The tool reconstructs and strengthens the bonds between educators and learners and provides a foundation for integrating mobile devices in education. The application allows learners to stay connected all the time, share ideas, ask questions and learn from each other. It is built on Android since the Android has the largest platform share in the world and is dominating the market with 74.45% share in 2018. We have chosen Google-Firebase server for hosting because of flexibility, ease of hosting and real time update capabilities. The proposed m-learning tool was offered to four groups of university students in different majors. An improvement in the relation between the students, the teachers and the academic institution was obvious. Student’s performance got much better added to better analytical and critical skills advancement and moreover a willingness to adopt mobile learning in class. We have also compared our app with another tool in the same class for clarity and reliability of the results. The student’s mobile devices were used in this experimental study for diversity of devices and platform versions.

Keywords: education, engineering, interactive software, undergraduate education

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11 Crystallized Colored Towels Obtained by Special Coloration of Yarns

Authors: Hasan Eskin, Gizem Özmen, A. Nazmi Çeler

Abstract:

When we examine the home textile development process, it follows a parallel line with the other textile products especially in the garment fabrics in terms of raw materials, production technologies and pattern characteristics. As a result, the expectations of people regarding textile, comfort, pattern (texture) and color properties are increasing. One of the places where comfort is most sought after is bath, pool, sea and baths. In addition to the material and technique that make up the physical structure in woven fabrics, color has an impressive importance with its strong effects. Color is the most prominent element in the fabric, and the color and texture are visually reinforcing. Evaluation of color in fabric is a personal phenomenon. Factors that determine color determination in fabric are the amount of color used, color ratio and its relationship with other colors. In this project; Considering the effect of color dimensions on human, we are talking about the crystallized colored towel that we developed in terms of comfort and texture properties. The basis of the effect created in the towel; It is formed by bending the yarn from its own special blend and the harmonious appearance of the natural crystallized rainbow colors with the pattern effect it determines on the warp yarns by using the weft yarns in the weaving. In addition, by using different weaving techniques and colors, alternatives can be created and personalized patterns can be created. One side of the towel determines the properties related to color, while the pile part determines the comfort characteristics with its soft touch and water absorbency.

Keywords: color effect, comfort, towel, weaving technique

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10 Effecting the Unaffected Through the Effervescent Disk Theory, a Different Perspective of Media Effective Theories

Authors: Tarik Elaujali

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This study examines a new media effective theory was developed by the author, it is called ‘The Effervescent Disk Theory’ (EDT). The theory main goal is to affect the unaffected audience who are either not exposing to a particular message or do not show interest in it. EDT suggest melting down messages that means to be affected within the media materials which are selected willingly by the audience themselves. A certain set of procedures to test EDT hypotheses were taken and illustrated in this study. A sample of 342 respondents (males & females) was collected from Tripoli University in Libya during the academic year 2013-2014. The designated sample is representing students who were failing to pass the English module for beginners’. This study aims to change the students’ negative notion about the importance of learning English, and to put their new idea into action. The theory seeks to affect audience cognition, emotions, and behaviors. EDT was applied in the present study alongside the media dependency theory. EDT hypotheses were confirmed, study results denoted that 73.6 percentage of the students responded positively and passed their English exam for beginners after being exposed selectively to their favorite TV program that contains a dissolved messages about the importance and vitality of learning English language.

Keywords: effervescent disk theory, selective exposure, media dependency, Libyan students

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9 Of Rites of Narration and Representation of Orient and Occident in Thomas Heywood's Fair Maid of the West

Authors: Tarik Bouguerba

Abstract:

Thomas Heywood was an outstanding, prolific playwright of the period, writing both in prose and verse. Unlike Shakespeare in particular, Heywood could be considered as a playwright who was well informed about Morocco and wrote in greater detail about a possible dialogue among cultures. As it is a historical platform for power relations, The Fair Maid of the West recalled the heroism and excitement of English counterattacks against Spain in the Post-Armada period. This paper therefore pins down the acts of narration and representation of Morocco and Moroccans and examines how the Occident has contributed to the production of the Orient and finally attests to the metamorphosis the plot undergoes in Part I and Part II. As an adventure play, The Fair Maid of the West teaches about, informs of and confirms the existing patterns of virtue in European voyagers and at the same time it asserts how honor and chastity are European par excellence whereas villainy and wickedness are Oriental assets. Once taken captive, these virtues and traits are put into task as the plot disentangles. This paper also examines how the play in both parts generates a whole history of stereotypes about Morocco and unexpectedly subverts this stereotype; such a biased mode of narration of the Orient the playwright took up at first was played down at a later phase in the narrative.

Keywords: Heywood, Occident, Orientalism, Stereotype, Virtue

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8 Process for Separating and Recovering Materials from Kerf Slurry Waste

Authors: Tarik Ouslimane, Abdenour Lami, Salaheddine Aoudj, Mouna Hecini, Ouahiba Bouchelaghem, Nadjib Drouiche

Abstract:

Slurry waste is a byproduct generated from the slicing process of multi-crystalline silicon ingots. This waste can be used as a secondary resource to recover high purity silicon which has a great economic value. From the management perspective, the ever increasing generation of kerf slurry waste loss leads to significant challenges for the photovoltaic industry due to the current low use of slurry waste for silicon recovery. Slurry waste, in most cases, contains silicon, silicon carbide, metal fragments and mineral-oil-based or glycol-based slurry vehicle. As a result, of the global scarcity of high purity silicon supply, the high purity silicon content in slurry has increasingly attracted interest for research. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for high purity silicon recovery from kerf slurry waste. Hydrometallurgy is continuously a matter of study and research. However, in this review paper, several new techniques about the process of high purity silicon recovery from slurry waste are introduced. The purpose of the information presented is to improve the development of a clean and effective recovery process of high purity silicon from slurry waste.

Keywords: Kerf-loss, slurry waste, silicon carbide, silicon recovery, photovoltaic, high purity silicon, polyethylen glycol

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7 Identification of Switched Reluctance Motor Parameters Using Exponential Swept-Sine Signal

Authors: Abdelmalek Ouannou, Adil Brouri, Laila Kadi, Tarik

Abstract:

Switched reluctance motor (SRM) has a major interest in a large domain as in electric vehicle driving because of its wide range of speed operation, high performances, low cost, and robustness to run under degraded conditions. The purpose of the paper is to develop a new analytical approach for modeling SRM parameters. Then, an identification scheme is proposed to obtain the SRM parameters. Since the SRM is featured by a highly nonlinear behavior, modeling these devices is difficult. Then, it is convenient to develop an accurate model describing the SRM. Furthermore, it is always operated in the magnetically saturated mode to maximize the energy transfer. Accordingly, it is shown that the SRM can be accurately described by a generalized polynomial Hammerstein model, i.e., the parallel connection of several Hammerstein models having polynomial nonlinearity. Presently an analytical identification method is developed using a chirp excitation signal. Afterward, the parameters of the obtained model have been determined using Finite Element Method analysis. Finally, in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, a comparison between the true and estimate models has been performed. The obtained results show that the output responses are very close.

Keywords: switched reluctance motor, swept-sine signal, generalized Hammerstein model, nonlinear system

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6 DFIG-Based Wind Turbine with Shunt Active Power Filter Controlled by Double Nonlinear Predictive Controller

Authors: Abderrahmane El Kachani, El Mahjoub Chakir, Anass Ait Laachir, Abdelhamid Niaaniaa, Jamal Zerouaoui, Tarik Jarou

Abstract:

This paper presents a wind turbine based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the utility grid through a shunt active power filter (SAPF). The whole system is controlled by a double nonlinear predictive controller (DNPC). A Taylor series expansion is used to predict the outputs of the system. The control law is calculated by optimization of the cost function. The first nonlinear predictive controller (NPC) is designed to ensure the high performance tracking of the rotor speed and regulate the rotor current of the DFIG, while the second one is designed to control the SAPF in order to compensate the harmonic produces by the three-phase diode bridge supplied by a passive circuit (rd, Ld). As a result, we obtain sinusoidal waveforms of the stator voltage and stator current. The proposed nonlinear predictive controllers (NPCs) are validated via simulation on a 1.5 MW DFIG-based wind turbine connected to an SAPF. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory and promising.

Keywords: wind power, doubly fed induction generator, shunt active power filter, double nonlinear predictive controller

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5 Antimicrobial Effect of Toothpastes Containing Fluoride, Xylitol or Xylitol-Probiotic on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in Children

Authors: Eda Arat Maden, Ceyhan Altun, Bilal Ozmen, Feridun Basak

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing fluoride, xylitol or xylitol-probiotic in vivo, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in 13-15 years old children. Method: The study consisted of 60 pediatric patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 received fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Max Fresh), group 2 used xylitol toothpaste (Xyliwhite) and group 3 used xylitol-probiotic toothpaste (PerioBiotic). Subjects were asked to use the allocated dentifrice two times a day, for 6 weeks. We performed tests on the samples of saliva in the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks’ duration following the use of toothpaste. Result and Conclusion: All of the participants of the study stated that they brushed their teeth well twice a day by using the toothpastes given to them for 6 weeks. Majority of the subjects had high counts of salivary mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus at baseline. When the number of cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Lactobacillus) at the start of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste usage are compared with the results measured after 6 weeks, an important decrease is observed in the S. mutans and Lactobacillus bacteria according to the CRT Tests. After the 6-week use of Probiotic toothpaste, the S. mutans (≥105) decreased to 20% from 75% in the group with S. mutans and Lactobacillus (≥105) decreased to 30% from 60% in the group with Lactobacillus. In addition, an important decrease was recorded in the participants with the S. mutans percentage (80% - 45%) and Lactobacillus (70% - 55%) after using the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste for six weeks. On the other hand, it was determined with the Chi-square that there were not important changes between the Xyliwhite toothpaste group and the other groups with S. mutans (80% - 75%) and Lactobacillus (75% -65%). It was also determined after the comparison of the groups that the decrease in the S. mutans was higher than the group using PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste at a significant level, when compared with the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste and Xyliwhite toothpaste. S. mutans were more sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste and to the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste when compared with the Lactobacillus. In the light of the data obtained in this in vivo study, the use of probiotics ensure the balance between the bacterial flora in the oral cavity.

Keywords: lactobacillus, probiotic, Streptococcus mutans, toothpaste

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4 The Analysis of Acute Pancreatitis Patients in a University Hospital

Authors: Adnan Sahin, Ufuk Uylas, Ercument Pasaoglu, Tarik Caga, Enver Ihtiyar, Serdar Erkasap, Ersin Ates, Fatih Yasar

Abstract:

Background: In this study, it was evaluated the demographic features, etiological factors and the management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: 106 patient hospitalized due to acute pancreatitis were retrospectively examined from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015 in Department of General Surgery of ESOGUMF. The data of gender, signs and symptoms, etiological factors, WBC, AST, ALT, Amilase, USG and CT findings treatment options ERCP, and complications, mortality rate were analysed. Results: The mean age of patients were 58.8 (53 men and 53 women). The causes of acute pancreatitis were as follows: gallbladder stone was 89, hyperlipidemia was 5 and idiopathic were 16 patients. Severe pancreatitis was developed in 16 patients in the biliary pancreatitis group and ERCP was performed. Cholecystectomy was performed to all biliary pancreatitis group patients after acute pancreatitis subside. The mean hospital stay period was 9.33 (2-37) day. Discussion and conclusion: Severe acute pancreatitis is a mortal disease. The most common etiological cause of acute pancreatitis is biliary origin. The first line treatment modality of acute pancreatitis is medical. Cholecystectomy should be planned to the all-biliary caused acute pancreatitis patients after the attack subside. ERCP is a useful treatment modality in the case of clinical worsening and suspicion of acute cholangitis. ERCP procedure used 16 patients in our series and these patients have a good morbidity and mean hospital period is lower than the others. We suppose that ERCP procedure should be planned selectively and conservatively.

Keywords: acute pancreatitis, ERCP, morbidity, treatment

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3 Communication and Management of Incidental Pathology in a Cohort of 1,214 Consecutive Appendicectomies

Authors: Matheesha Herath, Ned Kinnear, Bridget Heijkoop, Eliza Bramwell, Alannah Frazetto, Amy Noll, Prajay Patel, Derek Hennessey, Greg Otto, Christopher Dobbins, Tarik Sammour, James Moore

Abstract:

Background: Important incidental pathology requiring further action is commonly found during appendicectomy, macro- and microscopically. It is unknown whether the acute surgical unit (ASU) model affects the management and disclosure of these findings. Methods: An ASU model was introduced at our institution on 01/08/2012. In this retrospective cohort study, all patients undergoing appendicectomy 2.5 years before (traditional group) or after (ASU group) this date were compared. The primary outcomes were rates of appropriate management of the incidental findings and communication of the findings to the patient and to their general practitioner (GP). Results: 1,214 patients underwent emergency appendicectomy; 465 in the traditional group and 749 in the ASU group. 80 (6.6%) patients (25 and 55 in each respective period) had important incidental findings. There were 24 patients with benign polyps, 15 with neuro-endocrine tumour, 11 with endometriosis, 8 with pelvic inflammatory disease, 8 Enterobius vermicularis infection, 7 with low grade mucinous cystadenoma, 3 with inflammatory bowel disease, 2 with diverticulitis, 2 with tubo-ovarian mass, 1 with secondary appendiceal malignancy and none with primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma. One patient had dual pathologies. There was no difference between the traditional and ASU group with regards to communication of the findings to the patient (p=0.44) and their GP (p=0.27), and there was no difference in the rates of appropriate management (p=0.21). Conclusions: The introduction of an ASU model did not change rates of surgeon-to-patient and surgeon-to-GP communication nor affect rates of appropriate management of important incidental pathology during an appendectomy.

Keywords: acute care surgery, appendicitis, appendicectomy, incidental

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2 Modeling of in 738 LC Alloy Mechanical Properties Based on Microstructural Evolution Simulations for Different Heat Treatment Conditions

Authors: M. Tarik Boyraz, M. Bilge Imer

Abstract:

Conventionally cast nickel-based super alloys, such as commercial alloy IN 738 LC, are widely used in manufacturing of industrial gas turbine blades. With carefully designed microstructure and the existence of alloying elements, the blades show improved mechanical properties at high operating temperatures and corrosive environment. The aim of this work is to model and estimate these mechanical properties of IN 738 LC alloy solely based on simulations for projected heat treatment conditions or service conditions. The microstructure (size, fraction and frequency of gamma prime- γ′ and carbide phases in gamma- γ matrix, and grain size) of IN 738 LC needs to be optimized to improve the high temperature mechanical properties by heat treatment process. This process can be performed at different soaking temperature, time and cooling rates. In this work, micro-structural evolution studies were performed experimentally at various heat treatment process conditions, and these findings were used as input for further simulation studies. The operation time, soaking temperature and cooling rate provided by experimental heat treatment procedures were used as micro-structural simulation input. The results of this simulation were compared with the size, fraction and frequency of γ′ and carbide phases, and grain size provided by SEM (EDS module and mapping), EPMA (WDS module) and optical microscope for before and after heat treatment. After iterative comparison of experimental findings and simulations, an offset was determined to fit the real time and theoretical findings. Thereby, it was possible to estimate the final micro-structure without any necessity to carry out the heat treatment experiment. The output of this microstructure simulation based on heat treatment was used as input to estimate yield stress and creep properties. Yield stress was calculated mainly as a function of precipitation, solid solution and grain boundary strengthening contributors in microstructure. Creep rate was calculated as a function of stress, temperature and microstructural factors such as dislocation density, precipitate size, inter-particle spacing of precipitates. The estimated yield stress values were compared with the corresponding experimental hardness and tensile test values. The ability to determine best heat treatment conditions that achieve the desired microstructural and mechanical properties were developed for IN 738 LC based completely on simulations.

Keywords: heat treatment, IN738LC, simulations, super-alloys

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1 The Development and Testing of a Small Scale Dry Electrostatic Precipitator for the Removal of Particulate Matter

Authors: Derek Wardle, Tarik Al-Shemmeri, Neil Packer

Abstract:

This paper presents a small tube/wire type electrostatic precipitator (ESP). In the ESPs present form, particle charging and collecting voltages and airflow rates were individually varied throughout 200 ambient temperature test runs ranging from 10 to 30 kV in increments on 5 kV and 0.5 m/s to 1.5 m/s, respectively. It was repeatedly observed that, at input air velocities of between 0.5 and 0.9 m/s and voltage settings of 20 kV to 30 kV, the collection efficiency remained above 95%. The outcomes of preliminary tests at combustion flue temperatures are, at present, inconclusive although indications are that there is little or no drop in comparable performance during ideal test conditions. A limited set of similar tests was carried out during which the collecting electrode was grounded, having been disconnected from the static generator. The collecting efficiency fell significantly, and for that reason, this approach was not pursued further. The collecting efficiencies during ambient temperature tests were determined by mass balance between incoming and outgoing dry PM. The efficiencies of combustion temperature runs are determined by analysing the difference in opacity of the flue gas at inlet and outlet compared to a reference light source. In addition, an array of Leit tabs (carbon coated, electrically conductive adhesive discs) was placed at inlet and outlet for a number of four-day continuous ambient temperature runs. Analysis of the discs’ contamination was carried out using scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ computer software that confirmed collection efficiencies of over 99% which gave unequivocal support to all the previous tests. The average efficiency for these runs was 99.409%. Emissions collected from a woody biomass combustion unit, classified to a diameter of 100 µm, were used in all ambient temperature trials test runs apart from two which collected airborne dust from within the laboratory. Sawdust and wood pellets were chosen for laboratory and field combustion trials. Video recordings were made of three ambient temperature test runs in which the smoke from a wood smoke generator was drawn through the precipitator. Although these runs were visual indicators only, with no objective other than to display, they provided a strong argument for the device’s claimed efficiency, as no emissions were visible at exit when energised.  The theoretical performance of ESPs, when applied to the geometry and configuration of the tested model, was compared to the actual performance and was shown to be in good agreement with it.

Keywords: electrostatic precipitators, air quality, particulates emissions, electron microscopy, image j

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