Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: mural

13 National Identity in Connecting the Community through Mural Art for Petronas Dagangan Berhad

Authors: Nadiah Mohamad, Wan Samiati Andriana Wan Mohd Daud, M. Suhaimi Tohid, Mohd Fazli Othman, Mohamad Rizal Salleh

Abstract:

This is a collaborative project of the mural art between The Department of Fine Art from Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) and Petronas Dagangan Berhad (PDB), the most leading retailer and marketer of downstream oil and gas products in Malaysia. Five different states in the Peninsular of Malaysia that has been identified in showcasing the National Identity of Malaysia at each Petronas gas station, this also includes the Air Keroh in Melaka, Pasir Pekan in Kelantan, Pontian in Johor, Simpang Pulai in Perak, and also Wakaf Bharu in Terengganu. This project is to analyze the element of national identity that has been demonstrated at the Petronas's Mural. The ultimate aim of the mural is to let the community and local people to be aware about what Malaysians are consists and proud of and how everyone is able to connect with the idea through visual art. The method that is being explained in this research is by using visual data through research and also self-experience in collecting the visual data in identifying what images is considered as the national identity and idea development and visual analysis is being transferred based upon the visual data collection. In this stage, elements and principles of design will be the key in highlighting what is necessary for a work of art. In conclusion, visual image of the National Identity of Malaysia is able to connect to the audience from local and also to the people from outside the country to learn and understand the beauty and diversity of Malaysia as a unique country with art through the wall of five Petronas gas station.

Keywords: community, fine art, mural art, national identity

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12 The Image of Saddam Hussein and Collective Memory: The Semiotics of Ba'ath Regime's Mural in Iraq (1980-2003)

Authors: Maryam Pirdehghan

Abstract:

During the Ba'ath Party's rule in Iraq, propaganda was utilized to justify and to promote Saddam Hussein's image in the collective memory as the greatest Arab leader. Consequently, urban walls were routinely covered with images of Saddam. Relying on these images, the regime aimed to provide a basis for evoking meanings in the public opinion, which would supposedly strengthen Saddam’s power and reconstruct facts to legitimize his political ideology. Nonetheless, Saddam was not always portrayed with common and explicit elements but in certain periods of his rule, the paintings depicted him in an unusual context, where various historical and contemporary elements were combined in a narrative background. Therefore, an understanding of the implied socio-political references of these elements is required to fully elucidate the impact of these images on forming the memory and collective unconscious of the Iraqi people. To obtain such understanding, one needs to address the following questions: a) How Saddam Hussein is portrayed in mural during his rule? b) What of elements and mythical-historical narratives are found in the paintings? c) Which Saddam's political views were subject to the collective memory through mural? Employing visual semiotics, this study reveals that during Saddam Hussein's regime, the paintings were initially simple portraits but gradually transformed into narrative images, characterized by a complex network of historical, mythical and religious elements. These elements demonstrate the transformation of a secular-nationalist politician into a Muslim ruler who tried to instill three major policies in domestic and international relations i.e. the arabization of Iraq, as well as the propagation of pan-arabism ideology (first period), the implementation of anti-Israel policy (second period) and the implementation of anti-American-British policy (last period).

Keywords: Ba'ath Party, Saddam Hussein, mural, Iraq, propaganda, collective memory

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11 Urban Art as an Identity Branding of Kampong Ketandan Surabaya

Authors: R. A. Retno Hastijanti, David Agus Sagita, Arum Lintang Cahyani, Tectona Radike, Andreas Suluh Putra

Abstract:

Surabaya, is one of the oldest cities in Indonesia. Most of the old quarter city of Surabaya is an ancient Kampong. Ketandan is one ancient Kampong in the center of Surabaya, surrounded by a thriving trade area. These conditions make Kampong vulnerably degraded of environmental quality and tended to lose their cultural identity. Norms and values eroded by the rapid development of its local surroundings. Through Kampong conservation programs, Surabaya city government established Ketandan as one of the urban heritage. To achieve the ideal condition of urban heritage, public participation is required. One thing that can generate a motivation for Kampong Ketandan community participation is to rediscover the identity of Kampong Ketandan. This research aims to explore the appropriate method to rediscover the identity of Kampong Ketandan. Through qualitative research methods, based on observations and focus group discussions, it was concluded that mural mentoring program was the best method that can be accepted by the Kampong community to rediscover their identity. Mural as one of the urban art form, able to motivate Kampong community to express their self and bring an icon to their Kampong. The benefits of this research are to provide input to the city government and the private sector to preserve urban heritage, moreover, to transform an urban heritage into a productive space in urban areas in order to enhance city revenues.

Keywords: Kampong, Kampong Ketandan, mural, Surabaya, urban, urban heritage, urban art

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10 Mural Exhibition as a Promotive Strategy to Proper Hygiene and Sanitation Practices among Children: A Case Study from Urban Slum Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: Abdulaziz Kikanga, Kellen Muchira, Styvers Kathuni, Paul Saitoti

Abstract:

Background: Provision of adequate levels of water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools is a strategic objective in achieving universal primary education among children in low and middle-income countries. However, lack of proper sanitation and hygiene practices in schools, especially those in informal settlement has resulted to an increased rate of school absenteeism thereby affecting the education and health outcomes of the children in those setting. Intervention or Response: Catholic Relief Services in Kenya supports five schools in informal settlements of Nairobi by painting of key hygiene messages on school walls to promote proper hygiene and sanitation practices among the school children. The mural exhibitions depict the essence of proper hygiene practices, proper latrine use, and hand washing after visiting the latrine. The artwork is context specific and its aimed at improving the uptake of proper hygiene and sanitation practices among the school children. Review of project related documents was conducted including interviews with the school children. Thematic analysis was used to interpret the qualitative information generated. Results and Lessons Learnt: 12 school children have interviewed on proper hygiene and sanitation practices and the exercise revealed that painted murals were the best communication platforms for creating awareness on proper sanitation on issues relating to water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools. The painting mural provided a strong knowledge base for the formation of healthy habits in both the school and informal settlement. In addition, these sanitation messages on the school walls empower the children to share these practices with their siblings, parents, and other family members thereby acting as agents of change to proper hygiene and sanitation in those informal settlements. The findings revealed that by adopting proper sanitation and hygiene practices, there has been a reduction of school absenteeism due to a decrease in disease related to inadequate sanitation and hygiene in schools. Conclusion: The adoption of proper sanitation in schools entails more than just a painted mural wall. Insights revealed that to have a lasting sanitation and hygiene intervention, there is a need to invest in effective hygiene educational programming that encourages the formation of proper hygiene habits and promotes changes in behavior.

Keywords: education outcomes, informal settlement, mural exhibition, school hygiene and sanitation

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9 Preservation of Artistic Heritage: Effect of Modernization on Antiquities and Traditional Murals in Nigeria

Authors: Uchenna Bella Onu

Abstract:

Traditional art is one of Nigerian cultural heritage. It is an excellent instrument for documentation and identification. Antiquities are priceless and irreplaceable. They are basically preserved for future generations. Sadly, preserving these highly prized cultural heritage is becoming a serious challenge. This paper examines the extent modernization has affected the preservation of traditional art in Nigeria. Particularly hit is the antiquities and traditional murals of eastern part of Nigeria. Participatory visual methods were used for this study. Efforts were made to reach the few surviving and aged mural artists. Oral information was collected from them as well as first hand drawings and some photographs of their works. Findings indicate that modernization has seriously affected the preservation of Nigerian artistic heritage. Further findings show that traditional mural artists are gradually dwindling and dangerously going into extinct. Antiquities are indiscriminately destroyed due to sheer ignorance and the blind quest to fit into the so called modern world.  

Keywords: antiquities, artistic heritage, cultural preservation, drawings, modernization, murals

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8 Anatomy of the Human Mitral Valve Leaflets: Implications for Transcatheter and Surgical Mitral Valve Repair Techniques

Authors: Agata Krawczyk-Ozog, Mateusz K. Holda, Mateusz Koziej, Danuta Sorysz, Zbigniew Siudak, Wieslawa Klimek-Piotrowska, Dariusz Dudek

Abstract:

Introduction: Rapid development of the surgical and less-invasive percutaneous mitral valve repair procedures greatly increase the interest of the mitral valve anatomy. The aim of this study was to characterize morphological variability of the mitral valve leaflets and to provide the size of their particular parts. Materials and Methods: In the study, we included 200 autopsied human hearts from Caucasian individuals (25% females) with mean age 47.5 (±17.9) without any valvular diseases. The morphology of the mitral valve was evaluated. The intercommissural and aorto-mural diameters of the mitral annulus were measured. All leaflets and their scallops were identified. The base and the height of the posteromedial commissure (PM-C), anterolateral commissure (AL-C), anterior leaflet (AL) and posterior leaflet (PL) with their scallops were measured. Results: The intercommissural diameter was 28.0±4.8 mm, the aorto-mural diameter 19.7±4.8 mm, circumference of the mitral annulus 89.9±12.6 mm and the area of the mitral valve 485.4±171.4 mm2. Classical mitral valves (AL+AL-C+PL(P1,P2,P3)+PM-C) were found in 141 (70.5%) specimens. In classical type, the mean AL base and height were 30.8±4.9 mm and 20.6±4.2 mm, while mean PL base and height 45.1±8.2 mm 12.9±2.8 mm respectively. The mean ratio of the AL base to PL base was 0.7±0.2. Variations in PL were found in 55 (27.5%) and in AL in 5 (2.5%) hearts. The most common variations were: valve with one accessory scallop (AcS) between P3 and PM-C (7%); AcS between P1 and AL-C (4%); connections of P2 and P3 scallops (4%); connections of P1 and P2 scallops (3%); AcS in AL (2.5%). All AcS were smaller than the main PL scallops. The mean intertrigonal distance was 21.9±3.8 mm. Conclusions: In all cases, the mitral valve is built by two main leaflets with possible variants in secondary to leaflets scallops (29.5%). The variations are largely associated with PL and are mostly related to the presence of AcS. Anatomically the AL is not divided into scallops, and it occupies 34.5% of the mitral annulus circumference. Understanding the anatomy of the mitral valve leaflets helps to planning and performing mitral valve repair procedures.

Keywords: accessory scallop, commissure, connected scallops, human heart, mitral leaflets, mitral valve

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7 A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop

Authors: John Yahng, Riteesh Bookun

Abstract:

Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenmosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.

Keywords: aneurysm, foot drop, peroneal nerve, popliteal

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6 Case Report: A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop

Authors: John Yahng, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun

Abstract:

Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by 21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.

Keywords: aneurysm, foot drop, peroneal nerve, popliteal

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5 The Guide Presentation: The Grand Palace

Authors: Nuchanat Handumrongkul Danaya Darnsawasdi, Anantachai Aeka

Abstract:

To be a model for performing oral presentations by the tour guides, this research has been conducted. In order to develop French language teaching and studying for tourism, its purpose is to analyze the content used by tour guides. The study employed audio recordings of these presentations as an interview method in authentic situations, having four guides as respondents and information providers. The data was analyzed through content analysis. The results found that the tour guides described eight important items by giving more importance to details at Wat Phra Kaew or the Temple of the Emerald Buddha than at the palaces. They preferred the buildings upon the upper terrace, Buddhist cosmology, the decoration techniques, the royal chapel, the mural paintings, Thai offerings to Buddha images, palaces with architectural features and functions including royal ceremonies and others. This information represents the Thai characteristics of each building and other related content. The findings were used as a manual for guides for how to describe a tourist attraction, especially the temple and other related cultural topics of interest.

Keywords: guide, guide presentation, Grand Palace, Buddhist cosmology

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4 An Investigation of the Influence of the Iranian 1979 Revolution on Tehran’s Public Art

Authors: M. Sohrabi Narciss

Abstract:

Urban spaces of Tehran, the capital of Iran, have witnessed many revolts, movements, and protests during the past few decades. After the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, the 1979 Revolution has had a profound impact on Tehran’s urban space. In 1979, the world watched as Iranians demonstrated en masse against the Pahlavi dynastdy which eventually led to its overthrow. Tehran’s public space is replete with images and artwork that depict the overthrow of the Pahlavi regime and the establishment of an Islamic government in Iran. The public artworks related to the 1979 Islamic Revolution reflect the riots, protests, and strikes that the Iranians underwent during the revolution. Many of these artworks try to revitalize the events that occurred in the 1970s by means of collective memory. Almost 4 decades have passed since the revolution and ever since the public artwork has been affected either directly or indirectly by the Iran-Iraq War, the Green Movement, and the rise and fall of various political forces. The present study is an attempt to investigate Tehran’s urban artwork such as urban sculptures and mural paintings organized and supervised by the government and the graffiti drawn by the critics or the opposition groups. To this end, in addition to the available documents, field research and questionnaires were used to qulaitatively analyze the data. This paper tries to address the following questions: 1) what changes have occurred in Tehran’s urban art? 2) Does the public, revolution-related artwork have an effect on people’s vitality? 3) do Iranians find these artworks appealing or not?

Keywords: public space, Tehran, public art, movement, Islamic revolution

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3 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (Evar) with Endoanchors: For Tandem Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (Aaa) with Hostile Neck & Proximal Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer

Authors: Von Jerick Tenorio, Jonald Lucero, Marivic Vestal, Edwin Tiempo

Abstract:

In patients with hostile aortic neck anatomy, the risks of proximal seal complications and stent migration remain with EVAR despite improved endograft technology. This case report discusses how the technical challenges of the hostile neck anatomy, proximal penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and tortuous femoral access were addressed. The CT aortogram of a 63-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with recurring abdominal discomfort revealed a fusiform infra-renal aneurysm measuring 8.8 cm in length and 5.7 cm in diameter. The proximal landing zone only has a 3 mm healthy neck with a conicity of > 10% and a thrombus of 4 mm thick. Proximal to the aneurysm is a PAU with a circumferential mural thrombus. The right femoral artery is tortuous with > 90o angulation. A 20% oversized Endurant II endograft and Aptus Heli-FX EndoAnchors were deployed as prophylaxis for type I endoleaks and endograft migration consequent to the conical neck and proximal aneurysm extension consequent to the PAU. A stiff Backup Meier guide wire facilitated the deployment of the endograft. Coil embolization of the right internal iliac artery was performed as prophylaxis for type II endoleaks. EndoAnchors can be used as an adjunct to EVAR as prophylaxis for proximal seal complications and stent migration in patients with hostile aortic aneurysm neck anatomy and concomitant proximal PAU.

Keywords: endoAnchors, endoleaks, EVAR, hostile neck

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2 MR Enterography Findings in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Crohn's Disease

Authors: Karolina Siejka, Monika Piekarska, Monika Zbroja, Weronika Cyranka, Maryla Kuczynska, Magdalena Grzegorczyk, Malgorzata Nowakowska, Agnieszka Brodzisz, Magdalena Maria Wozniak

Abstract:

Crohn’s disease is one of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. It is increasing in prevalence worldwide, especially with young people. The disease usually occurs in the second to the fourth decade of life. Traditionally is diagnosed by clinical indicates, endoscopic, and histological findings. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) can demonstrate mural and extramural inflammatory signs and complications, which make it a valuable diagnostic modality. The study included 76 adults and 36 children diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Each patient underwent MRE with intravenous administration of a contrast agent. All the studies were performed using Siemens Aera 1.5T scanner according to a local study protocol. Whenever applicable, MR Enterography findings were verified with endoscopy. Forty adults and all 36 children had an active phase of Crohn’s disease; five adults had a chronic phase of the disease; one adult had both chronic and active inflammatory features. Thirty adults have no sings of pathology. In both adult and pediatric groups the most commonly observed manifestation of active disease was thickened edematous ileum wall (26 adults and 36 children). Adults had Bauhin’s valve edema in 58% cases (n=23) and mesenteric changes in 34% cases (n=9). To compare, 32 children had Bauhin’s valve edema (89%) and, in 23 cases, was found inflammatory infiltration of the peri-intestinal fat (64%). The involvement of the large intestine was more common among children (100%). Complications of Crohn’s disease were found commonly in adults (40% of adults, 22% of children). There were observed 18 fistulas (14 adults, four children) and six abscesses (2 adults, four children). MRE is a reliable method in the evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity, especially of its complications. The lack of radiations makes MRE well-tolerated modality, which can be often repeated, particularly in young patients. The disease had different medical sings depending on age – children often had a more active inflammatory process, but there were more complications in the adult group.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, diagnostics, inflammatory bowel disease, magnetic resonance enterography, MRE

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1 Angiopermissive Foamed and Fibrillar Scaffolds for Vascular Graft Applications

Authors: Deon Bezuidenhout

Abstract:

Pre-seeding with autologous endothelial cells improves the long-term patency of synthetic vascular grafts levels obtained with autografts, but is limited to a single centre due to resource, time and other constraints. Spontaneous in vivo endothelialization would obviate the need for pre-seeding, but has been shown to be absent in man due to limited transanastomotic and fallout healing, and the lack of transmural ingrowth due to insufficient porosity. Two types of graft scaffolds with increased interconnected porosity for improved tissue ingrowth and healing are thus proposed and described. Foam-type polyurethane (PU) scaffolds with small, medium and large, interconnected pores were made by phase inversion and spherical porogen extraction, with and without additional surface modification with covalently attached heparin and subsequent loading with and delivery of growth factors. Fibrillar scaffolds were made either by standard electrospinning using degradable PU (Degrapol®), or by dual electrospinning using non-degradable PU. The latter process involves sacrificial fibres that are co-spun with structural fibres and subsequently removed to increased porosity and pore size. Degrapol samples were subjected to in vitro degradation, and all scaffold types were evaluated in vivo for tissue ingrowth and vascularization using rat subcutaneous model. The foam scaffolds were additionally evaluated in a circulatory (rat infrarenal aortic interposition) model that allows for the grafts to be anastomotically and/or ablumenally isolated to discern and determine endothelialization mode. Foam-type grafts with large (150 µm) pores showed improved subcutaneous healing in terms of vascularization and inflammatory response over smaller pore sizes (60 and 90µm), and vascularization of the large porosity scaffolds was significantly increased by more than 70% by heparin modification alone, and by 150% to 400% when combined with growth factors. In the circulatory model, extensive transmural endothelialization (95±10% at 12 w) was achieved. Fallout healing was shown to be sporadic and limited in groups that were ablumenally isolated to prevent transmural ingrowth (16±30% wrapped vs. 80±20% control; p<0.002). Heparinization and GF delivery improved both mural vascularization and lumenal endothelialization. Degrapol electrospun scaffolds showed decrease in molecular mass and corresponding tensile strength over the first 2 weeks, but very little decrease in mass over the 4w test period. Studies on the effect of tissue ingrowth with and without concomitant degradation of the scaffolds, are being used to develop material models for the finite element modelling. In the case of the dual-spun scaffolds, the PU fibre fraction could be controlled shown to vary linearly with porosity (P = −0.18FF +93.5, r2=0.91), which in turn showed inverse linear correlation with tensile strength and elastic modulus (r2 > 0.96). Calculated compliance and burst pressures of the scaffolds increased with fibre fraction, and compliances matching the human popliteal artery (5-10 %/100 mmHg), and high burst pressures (> 2000 mmHg) could be achieved. Increasing porosity (76 to 82 and 90%) resulted in increased tissue ingrowth from 33±7 to 77±20 and 98±1% after 28d. Transmural endothelialization of highly porous foamed grafts is achievable in a circulatory model, and the enhancement of porosity and tissue ingrowth may hold the key the development of spontaneously endothelializing electrospun grafts.

Keywords: electrospinning, endothelialization, porosity, scaffold, vascular graft

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