Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1439

Search results for: setting

1439 Heat Setting of Polyester: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan


Heat setting is a commonly used technique in textile industry for treating synthetic fibers. In this study, we examined the effect of heat-setting process on the dyeing properties of polyester fabric. The heat setting conditions were varied, and these conditions would affect the dyeing results. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application method of heat setting process to polyester fabric, and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, heat setting, polyester, dyeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1438 Viability of Eggshells Ash Affecting the Setting Time of Cement

Authors: Fazeera Ujin, Kamran Shavarebi Ali, Zarina Yasmin Hanur Harith


This research paper reports on the feasibility and viability of eggshells ash and its effects on the water content and setting time of cement. An experiment was carried out to determine the quantity of water required in order to follow standard cement paste of normal consistency in accordance with MS EN 196-3:2007. The eggshells ash passing the 90µm sieve was used in the investigation. Eggshells ash with percentage of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% were constituted to replace the cement. Chemical properties of both eggshells ash and cement are compared. From the results obtained, both eggshells ash and cement have the same chemical composition and primary composition which is the calcium compounds. Results from the setting time show that by adding the eggshells ash to the cement, the setting time of the cement decreases. In short, the higher amount of eggshells ash, the faster the rate of setting and apply to all percentage of eggshells ash that were used in this investigation. Both initial and final setting times fulfill the setting time requirements by Malaysian Standard. Hence, it is suggested that eggshells ash can be used as an admixture in concrete mix.

Keywords: construction materials, eggshells ash, solid waste, setting time

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1437 Aesthetic and Social Vision in Abubakar Gimba’s a Toast in the Cemetery

Authors: James Funsho Tope


Being the prolific writer that he is, Gimba’s collection of Short Stories, A Toast in the Cemetery, brings out the themes of decay and corruption in the urban setting through the use of images, symbols, setting and character. Gimba seeks through these media to reveal the decay and corruption in the society. Gimba uses aesthetics to convey his message, thus making a call for change in the fabrics of society.

Keywords: corruption, decay, character, setting, symbolism, images, society

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1436 Price Setting and the Role of Accounting Information

Authors: Chris Durden, Peter Lane


Cost accounting information potentially plays an important role in price setting. According to prior research fixed and variable cost information often is a key influence on pricing decisions. The literature highlights the benefits of applying systematic costing systems for enhanced price setting processes. This paper explores how costing systems are used for pricing decisions in the tourism and hospitality industry relative to other sources of price setting information. Pricing based on full cost information was found to have relatively greater importance and short-term survival and customer oriented objectives were found to be the more important pricing objectives. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a recent analysis of accounting’s role in price setting within the tourism and hospitality industry.

Keywords: cost accounting systems, pricing decisions, cost-plus pricing, market pricing, tourism industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
1435 A Case Study of Open Source Development Practices within a Large Company Setting

Authors: Alma Orucevic-Alagic, Martin Höst


Open source communities have demonstrated that complex and enterprise grade software can be produced, supported, and maintained by self-organizing groups of developers using primarily electronic form of communication. Due to the inherent nature of open source development, a specific set of open source software development practices has evolved. While there is an ongoing research on the topic of applicability of open source development practices within a company setting, still little is known about their benefits and challenges. The objective of this research is to understand if and to what degree open source development practices observed within a mature open source community are aligned with development practices within a large software and hardware company setting. For the purpose of this case study a set of open source development practices that are present in a mature open source community has been identified. Then, development practices of a large, international, hardware and software company based in Sweden were assessed and compared to the identified open source community practices. It is shown that there are many similarities between a mature open source community and a large company setting in regard to software development practices. We also identify practices that exist in open source communities and that are not standard within a company setting, but whose implementation can result in an improved software development efficiency within the company setting.

Keywords: development practices, open source software, innersource, closed open source

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1434 The Use of Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and Ansys Simulation to Predict Concrete Hydration Behavior and Crack Tendency

Authors: Samaila Bawa Muazu


Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a novel plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.

Keywords: concrete hydration, electrical resistivity, restrained shrinkage crack, setting time, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1433 Exploring Goal Setting by Foreign Language Learners in Virtual Exchange

Authors: Suzi M. S. Cavalari, Tim Lewis


Teletandem is a bilingual model of virtual exchange in which two partners from different countries( and speak different languages) meet synchronously and regularly over a period of 8 weeks to learn each other’s mother tongue (or the language of proficiency). At São Paulo State University (UNESP), participants should answer a questionnaire before starting the exchanges in which one of the questions refers to setting a goal to be accomplished with the help of the teletandem partner. In this context, the present presentation aims to examine the goal-setting activity of 79 Brazilians who participated in Portuguese-English teletandem exchanges over a period of four years (2012-2015). The theoretical background is based on goal setting and self-regulated learning theories that propose that appropriate efficient goals are focused on the learning process (not on the product) and are specific, proximal (short-term) and moderately difficult. The data set used was 79 initial questionnaires retrieved from the MulTeC (Multimodal Teletandem Corpus). Results show that only approximately 10% of goals can be considered appropriate. Features of these goals are described in relation to specificities of the teletandem context. Based on the results, three mechanisms that can help learners to set attainable goals are discussed.

Keywords: foreign language learning, goal setting, teletandem, virtual exchange

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1432 The Effect of Goal Setting on Psychological Status and Freestyle Swimming Performance in Young Competitive Swimmers

Authors: Sofiene Amara, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Sabri Gaied Chortane


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of personal goal setting on psychological parameters (cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence) and the 50m freestyle performance. 30 young swimmers participated in this investigation, and was divided into three groups, the first group (G1, n = 10, 14 ± 0.7 years old) was prepared for the competition without a fixed target (method 1), the second group (G2, n = 10, 14 ± 0.9 years old) was oriented towards a vague goal 'Do your best' (method 2), while the third group (G3, n = 10, 14 ± 0, 5 years old) was invited to answer a goal that is difficult to reach according to a goal-setting interval (GST) (method 3). According to the statistical data of the present investigation, the cognitive and somatic anxiety scores in G1 and G3 were higher than in G2 (G1-G2, G3-G2: cognitive anxiety, P = 0.000, somatic anxiety: P = 0.000 respectively). On the other hand, the self-confidence score was lower in G1 compared with the other two groups (G1-G2, G3-G2: P = 0.02, P = 0.03 respectively). Our assessment also shows that the 50m freestyle time performance was improved better by method 3 (pre and post-Test: P = 0.006, -2.5sec, 7.83%), than by method 2 (pre and Post-Test: P = 0.03; -1sec; 3.24%), while, performance remained unchanged in G1 (P > 0.05). To conclude, the setting of a difficult goal by GST is more effective to improve the chronometric performance in the 50m freestyle, but at the same time increased the values ​​of the cognitive and somatic anxiety. For this, the mental trainers and the staff technical, invited to develop models of mental preparation associated with this method of setting a goal to help swimmers on the psychological level.

Keywords: cognitive anxiety, goal setting, performance of swimming freestyle, self-confidence, somatic anxiety

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1431 Determination of Frequency Relay Setting during Distributed Generators Islanding

Authors: Tarek Kandil, Ameen Ali


Distributed generation (DG) has recently gained a lot of momentum in power industry due to market deregulation and environmental concerns. One of the most technical challenges facing DGs is islanding of distributed generators. The current industry practice is to disconnect all distributed generators immediately after the occurrence of islands within 200 to 350 ms after loss of main supply. To achieve such goal, each DG must be equipped with an islanding detection device. Frequency relays are one of the most commonly used loss of mains detection method. However, distribution utilities may be faced with concerns related to false operation of these frequency relays due to improper settings. The commercially available frequency relays are considering standard tight setting. This paper investigates some factors related to relays internal algorithm that contribute to their different operating responses. Further, the relay operation in the presence of multiple distributed at the same network is analyzed. Finally, the relay setting can be accurately determined based on these investigation and analysis.

Keywords: frequency relay, distributed generation, islanding detection, relay setting

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
1430 Host-Guest Interaction in a Homestay Setting a Study Based on Homestays in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia

Authors: Lau Sing Yew


The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyse the host-guests interaction in a homestay setting with the sub context of cultural exchange and cultural differences between both parties. The research were carried out in Malaysia, specifically in the state of Sabah and Sarawak which are more well-known for its’ rural tourism and homestay programs. The research problem addressed here is on the suitability of the homestay setting as a platform for intercultural communication between the host and foreign tourists. The key issues that were discussed include ‘cultural representations’, ‘touristic representations’ and ‘social representations’ which contoured the image that tourists form about destinations and local communities while debating on the benefits and disbenefits of cultural exchange. These issues were deliberated through observation and interviews and it was found that the homestay setting in Malaysia though there are varied types available acts as a suitable platform to encourage intercultural interaction between tourists and local communities.

Keywords: homestay program, Malaysia, host-guest interactions, cultural representations

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
1429 Prediction of Concrete Hydration Behavior and Cracking Tendency Based on Electrical Resistivity Measurement, Cracking Test and ANSYS Simulation

Authors: Samaila Muazu Bawa


Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were separately monitored using non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a plastic ring mould and penetration resistance method respectively. The results show highest resistivity of C30 at the beginning until reaching the acceleration point when C50 accelerated and overtaken the others, and this period corresponds to its final setting time range, from resistivity derivative curve, hydration process can be divided into dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time tests demonstrated the earliest cracking and setting time of C50, therefore, this method conveniently and rapidly determines the concrete’s crack potential. The highest inflection time (ti), the final setting time (tf) were obtained and used with crack time in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range being considered. Finally, ANSYS numerical simulations supports the experimental findings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location that, highest stress concentration is always beneath the artificially introduced expansion joint of C50.

Keywords: concrete hydration, electrical resistivity, restrained shrinkage crack, ANSYS simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
1428 A Review on the Impact of Institutional Setting on Land Use Conflicts in Coastal Areas

Authors: Roni Susman, Thomas Weith


This article explores how institutional setting, mainly from institutionalism, could clearly explain the understanding of land use conflict analysis in coastal areas and has been used in current practices. Institutional setting appears as a guideline that is committed by the stakeholders who are involved directly or indirectly in land management process. This paper is aimed to identify the setting of institutional and to measure how the conflicts occur, how the actors act and influence the process, how is the condition to apply the appropriate framework for adequate solution of land use conflict in coastal area in order to enhance better decisions. To reflect the current practice and use of theories a qualitative review of 150 scientific peer-reviewed papers regarding the issue of land use conflicts in coastal areas as well as institutional process is included. The selection of peer-reviewed papers is obtained through a structured literature survey of the recently published database in a way to investigate the variances of institutional between theory and practices specifically in the case of coastal land management.

Keywords: coastal areas, institutional settings, land use conflict, land governance, actors’ constellation, analytical framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
1427 Study on Compressive Strength and Setting Time of Fly Ash Concrete after Slump Recovery Using Superplasticizer

Authors: Chaiyakrit Raoupatham, Ram Hari Dhakal, Chalermchai Wanichlamlert


Fresh concrete that is on bound to be rejected due to belated use either from delay construction process or unflavored traffic cause delay on concrete delivering can recover the slump and use once again by introduce second dose of superplasticizer(naphthalene based type F) into system. By adding superplasticizer as solution for recover unusable slump loss concrete may affects other concrete properties. Therefore, this paper was observed setting time and compressive strength of concrete after being re-dose with chemical admixture type F (superplasticizer, naphthalene based) for slump recovery. The concrete used in this study was fly ash concrete with fly ash replacement of 0%, 30% and 50% respectively. Concrete mix designed for test specimen was prepared with paste content (ratio of volume of cement to volume of void in the aggregate) of 1.2 and 1.3, water-to-binder ratio (w/b) range of 0.3 to 0.58, initial dose of superplasticizer (SP) range from 0.5 to 1.6%. The setting time of concrete were tested both before and after re-dosed with different amount of second dose and time of dosing. The research was concluded that addition of second dose of superplasticizer would increase both initial and final setting times accordingly to dosage of addition. As for fly ash concrete, the prolongation effect was higher as the replacement of fly ash is increase. The prolongation effect can reach up to maximum about 4 hours. In case of compressive strength, the re-dosed concrete has strength fluctuation within acceptable range of ±10%.

Keywords: compressive strength, fly ash concrete, second dose of superplasticizer, setting times

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1426 Characterizing Multivariate Thresholds in Industrial Engineering

Authors: Ali E. Abbas


This paper highlights some of the normative issues that might result by setting independent thresholds in risk analyses and particularly with safety regions. A second objective is to explain how such regions can be specified appropriately in a meaningful way. We start with a review of the importance of setting deterministic trade-offs among target requirements. We then show how to determine safety regions for risk analysis appropriately using utility functions.

Keywords: decision analysis, thresholds, risk, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1425 A Watermarking Signature Scheme with Hidden Watermarks and Constraint Functions in the Symmetric Key Setting

Authors: Yanmin Zhao, Siu Ming Yiu


To claim the ownership for an executable program is a non-trivial task. An emerging direction is to add a watermark to the program such that the watermarked program preserves the original program’s functionality and removing the watermark would heavily destroy the functionality of the watermarked program. In this paper, the first watermarking signature scheme with the watermark and the constraint function hidden in the symmetric key setting is constructed. The scheme uses well-known techniques of lattice trapdoors and a lattice evaluation. The watermarking signature scheme is unforgeable under the Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption and satisfies other security requirements such as the unremovability security property.

Keywords: short integer solution (SIS) problem, symmetric-key setting, watermarking schemes, watermarked signatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
1424 Corticomotor Excitability after Two Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocols in Ischemic Stroke Patients

Authors: Asrarul Fikri Abu Hassan, Muhammad Hafiz bin Hanafi, Jafri Malin Abdullah


This study is to compare the motor evoked potential (MEP) changes using different settings of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the post-haemorrhagic stroke patient which treated conservatively. The goal of the study is to determine changes in corticomotor excitability and functional outcome after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) therapy regime. 20 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were studied due to haemorrhagic stroke. One of the three settings; (I) Inhibitory setting, or (II) facilitatory setting, or (III) control group, no excitatory or inhibitory setting have been applied randomly during the first meeting. The motor evoked potential (MEP) were recorded before and after application of the rTMS setting. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the Barthel index score. We found pre-treatment MEP values of the lesional side were lower compared to post-treatment values in both settings. In contrast, we found that the pre-treatment MEP values of the non-lesional side were higher compared to post-treatment values in both settings. Interestingly, patients with treatment, either facilitatory setting and inhibitory setting have faster motor recovery compared to the control group. Our data showed both settings might improve the MEP of the upper extremity and functional outcomes in the haemorrhagic stroke patient.

Keywords: Barthel index, corticomotor excitability, motor evoked potential, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, stroke

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1423 Calcium Phosphate Cement/Gypsum Composite as Dental Pulp Capping

Authors: Jung-Feng Lin, Wei-Tang Chen, Chung-King Hsu, Chun-Pin Lin, Feng-Huei Lin


One of the objectives of operative dentistry is to maintain pulp health in compromised teeth. Mostly used methods for this purpose are direct pulp capping and pulpotomy, which consist of placement of biocompatible materials and bio-inductors on the exposed pulp tissue to preserve its health and stimulate repair by mineralized tissue formation. In this study, we developed a material (calcium phosphate cement (CPC)/gypsum composite) as the dental pulp capping material for shortening setting time and improving handling properties. We further discussed the influence of five different ratio of gypsum to CPC on HAP conversion, microstructure, setting time, weight loss, pH value, temperature difference, viscosity, mechanical properties, porosity, and biocompatibility.

Keywords: calcium phosphate cement, calcium sulphate hemihydrate, pulp capping, fast setting time

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1422 Batch-Oriented Setting Time`s Optimisation in an Aerodynamic Feeding System

Authors: Jan Busch, Maurice Schmidt, Peter Nyhuis


The change of conditions for production companies in high-wage countries is characterized by the globalization of competition and the transition of a supplier´s to a buyer´s market. The companies need to face the challenges of reacting flexibly to these changes. Due to the significant and increasing degree of automation, assembly has become the most expensive production process. Regarding the reduction of production cost, assembly consequently offers a considerable rationalizing potential. Therefore, an aerodynamic feeding system has been developed at the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover. In former research activities, this system has been enabled to adjust itself using genetic algorithm. The longer the genetic algorithm is executed the better is the feeding quality. In this paper, the relation between the system´s setting time and the feeding quality is observed and a function which enables the user to achieve the minimum of the total feeding time is presented.

Keywords: aerodynamic feeding system, batch size, optimisation, setting time

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1421 Xiaflex (Collagenase) Impact on the Management of Dupuytren's Disease: Making the Case for Treatment in a Public Healthcare System

Authors: Anthony Barker, Roland Jiang


Dupuytren’s contractures are a debilitating condition affecting the palmar fascia of the hand reducing its function. This case series looks at the minimally-invasive technique of Xiaflex injections and the outcome in a public health setting. 15 patients undertook collagenase injection (Xiaflex, C. histolyticum) injection over the period from September 2015 to May 2017 at Fairfield Hospital, NSW. Their reported outcome post injection and in follow-up was recorded as well as their satisfaction and likelihood to request the procedure in the future. Other treatment modalities include percutaneous needle aponeurotomy, limited palmar fasciotomy, and palmar fasciectomy. A literature review of cost-effectiveness was performed to compare Xiaflex suitability for waitlist reduction in a public setting given average waiting times in the public setting extend past 365 days.

Keywords: Dupuytrens Disease, xiaflex, collagenase, plastic surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1420 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek


The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate

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1419 A Qualitative Study to Explore the Experiences of Muslim Nurses Working in an Acute Setting During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Sujatha Shanmugasundaram


Background: It has been since one year that COVID-19 has emerged into the world. Since then, healthcare professionals facing a great challenge in to fight against this deadly virus. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2021, it is estimated that more than 131 million confirmed cases and 2million deaths around the world due to this pandemic. Nurses are the frontline workers who play a major role in safeguarding the lives of the people in acute care settings. Evidence suggests that there are numbers of research have been carried out on nurses' and healthcare provider’s experiences during the pandemic. But, unfortunately, there are no or little evidence available on Muslim nurse’s perspective. Hence, this research will investigate the experiences of Muslim nurses working in an acute care setting during the pandemic. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore the experiences of Muslim nurses working in an acute setting during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research Methods: A qualitative research approach will be utilized for the study. Semi-structured interview schedule will be used to collect the data. Face to face interviews will be conducted. All interviews will be conducted in Arabic, and it will be audio recorded. Verbatim will be noted. Muslim nurses working in an acute setting will be included in the study. Convenient sampling technique will be used to recruit the participants. Ethical approval will be obtained from the study sites. Strauss and Corbin's thematic analysis will be used to analyze the data. Conclusion: Considering that nurses are the frontline workers, they have a significant role in dealing with this COVID-19. It is a great challenge for the nurses working in an acute care setting. Thus, this study will bring out significant findings that will impact the nursing practice.

Keywords: acute care, COVID-19, experiences, muslim nurses

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1418 A Group Setting of IED in Microgrid Protection Management System

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang, Chao-Fong Yan, Hsin-Yung Chung, Yung-Ruei Chang, Yih-Der Lee, Chen-Min Chan, Chia-Hao Hsu


There are a number of distributed generations (DGs) installed in microgrid, which may have diverse path and direction of power flow or fault current. The overcurrent protection scheme for the traditional radial type distribution system will no longer meet the needs of microgrid protection. Integrating the intelligent electronic device (IED) and a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) with IEC 61850 communication protocol, the paper proposes a microgrid protection management system (MPMS) to protect power system from the fault. In the proposed method, the MPMS performs logic programming of each IED to coordinate their tripping sequence. The GOOSE message defined in IEC 61850 is used as the transmission information medium among IEDs. Moreover, to cope with the difference in fault current of microgrid between grid-connected mode and islanded mode, the proposed MPMS applies the group setting feature of IED to protect system and robust adaptability. Once the microgrid topology varies, the MPMS will recalculate the fault current and update the group setting of IED. Provided there is a fault, IEDs will isolate the fault at once. Finally, the Matlab/Simulink and Elipse Power Studio software are used to simulate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: IEC 61850, IED, group Setting, microgrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
1417 Evaluation of the Accuracy of a ‘Two Question Screening Tool’ in the Detection of Intimate Partner Violence in a Primary Healthcare Setting in South Africa

Authors: A. Saimen, E. Armstrong, C. Manitshana


Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a global human rights violation. It is universally under diagnosed and the institution of timeous multi-faceted interventions has been noted to benefit IPV victims. Currently, the concept of using a screening tool to detect IPV has not been widely explored in a primary healthcare setting in South Africa, and it was for this reason that this study has been undertaken. A systematic random sampling of 1 in 8 women over a period of 3 months was conducted prospectively at the OPD of a Level 1 Hospital. Participants were asked about their experience of IPV during the past 12 months. The WAST-short, a two-question tool, was used to screen patients for IPV. To verify the result of the screening, women were also asked the remaining questions from the WAST. Data was collected from 400 participants, with a response rate of 99.3%. The prevalence of IPV in the sample was 32%. The WAST-short was shown to have the following operating characteristics: sensitivity 45.2%, specificity 98%,positive predictive value 98%, negative predictive value 79%. The WAST-short lacks sufficient sensitivity and therefore is not an ideal screening tool for this setting. Improvement in the sensitivity of the WAST-short in this setting may be achieved by lowering the threshold for a positive result for IPV screening, and modification of the screening questions to better reflect IPV as understood by the local population.

Keywords: domestic violence, intimate partner violence, screening, screening tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1416 The Effects of Goal Setting and Feedback on Inhibitory Performance

Authors: Mami Miyasaka, Kaichi Yanaoka


Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; symptoms often manifest during childhood. In children with ADHD, the development of inhibitory processes is impaired. Inhibitory control allows people to avoid processing unnecessary stimuli and to behave appropriately in various situations; thus, people with ADHD require interventions to improve inhibitory control. Positive or negative reinforcements (i.e., reward or punishment) help improve the performance of children with such difficulties. However, in order to optimize impact, reward and punishment must be presented immediately following the relevant behavior. In regular elementary school classrooms, such supports are uncommon; hence, an alternative practical intervention method is required. One potential intervention involves setting goals to keep children motivated to perform tasks. This study examined whether goal setting improved inhibitory performances, especially for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms. We also focused on giving feedback on children's task performances. We expected that giving children feedback would help them set reasonable goals and monitor their performance. Feedback can be especially effective for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms because they have difficulty monitoring their own performance, perceiving their errors, and correcting their behavior. Our prediction was that goal setting by itself would be effective for children with mild ADHD-related symptoms, and goal setting based on feedback would be effective for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms. Japanese elementary school children and their parents were the sample for this study. Children performed two kinds of go/no-go tasks, and parents completed a checklist about their children's ADHD symptoms, the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, and the Conners 3rd edition. The go/no-go task is a cognitive task to measure inhibitory performance. Children were asked to press a key on the keyboard when a particular symbol appeared on the screen (go stimulus) and to refrain from doing so when another symbol was displayed (no-go stimulus). Errors obtained in response to a no-go stimulus indicated inhibitory impairment. To examine the effect of goal-setting on inhibitory control, 37 children (Mage = 9.49 ± 0.51) were required to set a performance goal, and 34 children (Mage = 9.44 ± 0.50) were not. Further, to manipulate the presence of feedback, in one go/no-go task, no information about children’s scores was provided; however, scores were revealed for the other type of go/no-go tasks. The results revealed a significant interaction between goal setting and feedback. However, three-way interaction between ADHD-related inattention, feedback, and goal setting was not significant. These results indicated that goal setting was effective for improving the performance of the go/no-go task only with feedback, regardless of ADHD severity. Furthermore, we found an interaction between ADHD-related inattention and feedback, indicating that informing inattentive children of their scores made them unexpectedly more impulsive. Taken together, giving feedback was, unexpectedly, too demanding for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms, but the combination of goal setting with feedback was effective for improving their inhibitory control. We discuss effective interventions for children with ADHD from the perspective of goal setting and feedback. This work was supported by the 14th Hakuho Research Grant for Child Education of the Hakuho Foundation.

Keywords: attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, feedback, goal-setting, go/no-go task, inhibitory control

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
1415 Alkali Activation of Fly Ash, Metakaolin and Slag Blends: Fresh and Hardened Properties

Authors: Weiliang Gong, Lissa Gomes, Lucile Raymond, Hui Xu, Werner Lutze, Ian L. Pegg


Alkali-activated materials, particularly geopolymers, have attracted much interest in academia. Commercial applications are on the rise, as well. Geopolymers are produced typically by a reaction of one or two aluminosilicates with an alkaline solution at room temperature. Fly ash is an important aluminosilicate source. However, using low-Ca fly ash, the byproduct of burning hard or black coal reacts and sets slowly at room temperature. The development of mechanical durability, e.g., compressive strength, is slow as well. The use of fly ashes with relatively high contents ( > 6%) of unburned carbon, i.e., high loss on ignition (LOI), is particularly disadvantageous as well. This paper will show to what extent these impediments can be mitigated by mixing the fly ash with one or two more aluminosilicate sources. The fly ash used here is generated at the Orlando power plant (Florida, USA). It is low in Ca ( < 1.5% CaO) and has a high LOI of > 6%. The additional aluminosilicate sources are metakaolin and blast furnace slag. Binary fly ash-metakaolin and ternary fly ash-metakaolin-slag geopolymers were prepared. Properties of geopolymer pastes before and after setting have been measured. Fresh mixtures of aluminosilicates with an alkaline solution were studied by Vicat needle penetration, rheology, and isothermal calorimetry up to initial setting and beyond. The hardened geopolymers were investigated by SEM/EDS and the compressive strength was measured. Initial setting (fluid to solid transition) was indicated by a rapid increase in yield stress and plastic viscosity. The rheological times of setting were always smaller than the Vicat times of setting. Both times of setting decreased with increasing replacement of fly ash with blast furnace slag in a ternary fly ash-metakaolin-slag geopolymer system. As expected, setting with only Orlando fly ash was the slowest. Replacing 20% fly ash with metakaolin shortened the set time. Replacing increasing fractions of fly ash in the binary system by blast furnace slag (up to 30%) shortened the time of setting even further. The 28-day compressive strength increased drastically from < 20 MPa to 90 MPa. The most interesting finding relates to the calorimetric measurements. The use of two or three aluminosilicates generated significantly more heat (20 to 65%) than the calculated from the weighted sum of the individual aluminosilicates. This synergetic heat contributes or may be responsible for most of the increase of compressive strength of our binary and ternary geopolymers. The synergetic heat effect may be also related to increased incorporation of calcium in sodium aluminosilicate hydrate to form a hybrid (N,C)A-S-H) gel. The time of setting will be correlated with heat release and maximum heat flow.

Keywords: alkali-activated materials, binary and ternary geopolymers, blends of fly ash, metakaolin and blast furnace slag, rheology, synergetic heats

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1414 Spatial Setting in Translation: A Comparative Evaluation of translations from Pre-Islamic Poetry

Authors: Raja Lahiani


This study is concerned with scrutinising translations into English and French of references to locations in the desert of pre-Islamic Arabia. These references are used in the Source Text (ST) within a poetic image. Reference is made to the names of three different mountains in Arabia, namely Qatan, Sitar, and Yadhbul. As these mountains are referred to in the context of the poet’s description of the density and expansion of the clouds, it is crucial to know that while Sitar and Yadhbul are close to each other, Qatan is far away from them. This distance was functional for the poet to describe the expansion of the clouds. This reflects the spacious place (desert) he handled, and the fact that it was possible for him to physically see what he described. The purpose of this image is for the poet to communicate the vastness of the space he managed to see as he was in a moment of contemplation. Thus, knowledge of this characteristic about the setting is capital for the receiver to understand the communicative function of the verse. A corpus of eighteen translations is gathered. These vary between verse and prose renderings. The methodology adopted in this research work is comparative. Comparison is conducted at both the synchronic and diachronic levels; every translation shall be compared to the ST and then to previous translations. The comparative work will prove at the end that the translators who target historical facts do not necessarily succeed in preserving the image of the ST. It also proves that the more recent the translation is, the deeper the translator’s awareness is the link between imagery, setting, and point of view. Since the late eighteenth century and until nowadays, pre-Islamic poetry has been translated into Western languages. Translators differ as to motives, sources, priorities and intellectual backgrounds. A translator's skopoi undoubtedly affect the way s/he handles aspects of the ST. When it comes to culture-specific aspects and details related to setting, the problem is even more complex. Setting is a very important factor that reveals a great deal of the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as this is remote in place, historical framework and literary tradition from its translators. History is present in pre-Islamic poetry, which justifies the important literature that has been written to extract information and data from it. These are imbedded not only by signalling given facts, events, and meditations but also by means of references to specific locations and landmarks that used to exist at the time. Spatial setting is an integral part of a literary text as it places it within its historical context. The importance of the translator’s awareness of spatial anthropological data before indulging in the process of translation is tested. This is also crucial in measuring the effect of setting loss and setting gain in translation. The findings of this research would ultimately evaluate the extent to which a comparative methodology is reliable in investigating the role of spatial setting awareness in translation.

Keywords: historical context, translation, comparative literature, spatial setting

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1413 The Effect of TiO₂ and SiO₂ Nanoparticles Addition to Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement on Compressive Strength, Microhardness, Setting Time and Color change

Authors: Amal Magdi El Shahawi, Mai Mahmoud Elbatanony


Glass ionomer cements (GICs) with their low wear, low mechanical strength properties, extended setting rate, and high initial moisture sensitivity; represent major obstacles for their extensive clinical use. Such deficiencies limit their use in stressbearing areas and contribute to restoration failure. Hence, various alterations have been introduced to enhance the physicomechanical properties of GICs. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of adding TiO₂ and SiO₂ nanoparticles on compressive strength (CS), surface microhardness, setting time and color change of conventional glass ionomer cement. Materials and Methods: Conventional glass ionomer (GC Gold Label Luting& Lining Cement. Tokyo, Japan), TiO₂ powder (32 nm in size)( Alfa Aesar, Germany), and SiO₂ nanofillers ( Sigma Aldrich, USA) were used. TiO₂ (2.5 wt%) and SiO2 (2.5 wt%) were added to the conventional glass ionomer and samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The tested properties of the experimental group were compared with that of the conventional GIC. Surface microhardness was tested using Vicker’s Hardness tester (NEXUS 4000 TM, INNOVATEST, model no.4503, Netherlands), while compressive strength was tested using universal testing machine (Shimadzu 5KN Autograph AG-Xplus, Japan). The effect on setting time was evaluated according to ASTM C266, using Gillmore Needle Apparatus, while color change was evaluated by using spectrophotometer( Cary 5000 UV-VIS-NIR, USA ). Results: A higher statistically significant mean Hardness value was revealed by the experimental group (95.368±17.84), in comparison to control group (35.922±1.64) (p=0.00). Regarding the compressive strength a higher statistically significant mean value was revealed by the control group (115.936±9.61), in comparison to experimental group (35.922±)(p=0.00). Longer setting time was recorded for the experimental group, meanwhile there was no change in color for experimental group (E= 2.13). Conclusions: addition of 2.5 wt% TiO₂ and 2.5 wt% SiO₂ to the conventional glass ionomer increased surface microhardness, increased setting time and decreased the compressive strength. The additives used has no effect on color of the tested GIC. Conventional glass ionomer loaded with TiO₂ and SiO₂ nanofillers showed higher surface hardness results compared to the conventional glass ionomer while regarding compressive strength, the conventional type showed higher compressive results, there was no change in colour but the experimental samples recorded longer setting time compared to the conventional glass ionomer.

Keywords: glass ionomer, hardness, compressive strength, setting time

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1412 Estimation of the Effect of Initial Damping Model and Hysteretic Model on Dynamic Characteristics of Structure

Authors: Shinji Ukita, Naohiro Nakamura, Yuji Miyazu


In considering the dynamic characteristics of structure, natural frequency and damping ratio are useful indicator. When performing dynamic design, it's necessary to select an appropriate initial damping model and hysteretic model. In the linear region, the setting of initial damping model influences the response, and in the nonlinear region, the combination of initial damping model and hysteretic model influences the response. However, the dynamic characteristics of structure in the nonlinear region remain unclear. In this paper, we studied the effect of setting of initial damping model and hysteretic model on the dynamic characteristics of structure. On initial damping model setting, Initial stiffness proportional, Tangent stiffness proportional, and Rayleigh-type were used. On hysteretic model setting, TAKEDA model and Normal-trilinear model were used. As a study method, dynamic analysis was performed using a lumped mass model of base-fixed. During analysis, the maximum acceleration of input earthquake motion was gradually increased from 1 to 600 gal. The dynamic characteristics were calculated using the ARX model. Then, the characteristics of 1st and 2nd natural frequency and 1st damping ratio were evaluated. Input earthquake motion was simulated wave that the Building Center of Japan has published. On the building model, an RC building with 30×30m planes on each floor was assumed. The story height was 3m and the maximum height was 18m. Unit weight for each floor was 1.0t/m2. The building natural period was set to 0.36sec, and the initial stiffness of each floor was calculated by assuming the 1st mode to be an inverted triangle. First, we investigated the difference of the dynamic characteristics depending on the difference of initial damping model setting. With the increase in the maximum acceleration of the input earthquake motions, the 1st and 2nd natural frequency decreased, and the 1st damping ratio increased. Then, in the natural frequency, the difference due to initial damping model setting was small, but in the damping ratio, a significant difference was observed (Initial stiffness proportional≒Rayleigh type>Tangent stiffness proportional). The acceleration and the displacement of the earthquake response were largest in the tangent stiffness proportional. In the range where the acceleration response increased, the damping ratio was constant. In the range where the acceleration response was constant, the damping ratio increased. Next, we investigated the difference of the dynamic characteristics depending on the difference of hysteretic model setting. With the increase in the maximum acceleration of the input earthquake motions, the natural frequency decreased in TAKEDA model, but in Normal-trilinear model, the natural frequency didn’t change. The damping ratio in TAKEDA model was higher than that in Normal-trilinear model, although, both in TAKEDA model and Normal-trilinear model, the damping ratio increased. In conclusion, in initial damping model setting, the tangent stiffness proportional was evaluated the most. In the hysteretic model setting, TAKEDA model was more appreciated than the Normal-trilinear model in the nonlinear region. Our results would provide useful indicator on dynamic design.

Keywords: initial damping model, damping ratio, dynamic analysis, hysteretic model, natural frequency

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1411 Optimal Protection Coordination in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations

Authors: Abdorreza Rabiee, Shahla Mohammad Hoseini Mirzaei


The advantages of distributed generations (DGs) based on renewable energy sources (RESs) leads to high penetration level of DGs in distribution network. With incorporation of DGs in distribution systems, the system reliability and security, as well as voltage profile, is improved. However, the protection of such systems is still challenging. In this paper, at first, the related papers are reviewed and then a practical scheme is proposed for coordination of OCRs in distribution system with DGs. The coordination problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization problem with the object function of minimizing total operating time of OCRs. The proposed method is studied based on a simple test system. The optimization problem is solved by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) to calculate the optimal time dial setting (TDS) and also pickup current setting of OCRs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method and its applicability.

Keywords: distributed generation, DG, distribution network, over current relay, OCR, protection coordination, pickup current, time dial setting, TDS

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1410 MLOps Scaling Machine Learning Lifecycle in an Industrial Setting

Authors: Yizhen Zhao, Adam S. Z. Belloum, Goncalo Maia Da Costa, Zhiming Zhao


Machine learning has evolved from an area of academic research to a real-word applied field. This change comes with challenges, gaps and differences exist between common practices in academic environments and the ones in production environments. Following continuous integration, development and delivery practices in software engineering, similar trends have happened in machine learning (ML) systems, called MLOps. In this paper we propose a framework that helps to streamline and introduce best practices that facilitate the ML lifecycle in an industrial setting. This framework can be used as a template that can be customized to implement various machine learning experiment. The proposed framework is modular and can be recomposed to be adapted to various use cases (e.g. data versioning, remote training on cloud). The framework inherits practices from DevOps and introduces other practices that are unique to the machine learning system ( versioning). Our MLOps practices automate the entire machine learning lifecycle, bridge the gap between development and operation.

Keywords: cloud computing, continuous development, data versioning, DevOps, industrial setting, MLOps

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