Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: Pankaj Negi

48 In situ Biodegradation of Endosulfan, Imidacloprid, and Carbendazim Using Indigenous Bacterial Cultures of Agriculture Fields of Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Geeta Negi, Pankaj, Anjana Srivastava, Anita Sharma

Abstract:

In the present study, the presence of endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim, in the soil /vegetables/cereals and water samples was observed in agriculture fields of Uttarakhand. In view of biodegradation of these pesticides, nine bacterial isolates were recovered from the soil samples of the fields which tolerated endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim from 100 to 200 µg/ml. Three bacterial consortia used for in vitro bioremediation experiments were three bacterial isolates for carbendazim, imidacloprid and endosulfan, respectively. Maximum degradation (87 and 83%) of α and β endosulfan respectively was observed in soil slurry by consortium. Degradation of Imidacloprid and carbendazim under similar conditions was 88.4 and 77.5% respectively. FT-IR analysis of biodegraded samples of pesticides in liquid media showed stretching of various bonds. GC-MS of biodegraded endosulfan sample in soil slurry showed the presence of non-toxic intermediates. A pot trial with Bacterial treatments lowered down the uptake of pesticides in onion plants.

Keywords: biodegradation, carbendazim, consortium, endosulfan

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
47 Sliding Mode Control and Its Application in Custom Power Device: A Comprehensive Overview

Authors: Pankaj Negi

Abstract:

Nowadays the demand for receiving the high quality electrical energy is being increasing as consumer wants not only reliable but also quality power. Custom power instruments are of the most well-known compensators of power quality in distributed network. This paper present a comprehensive review of compensating custom power devices mainly DSTATCOM (distribution static compensator),DVR (dynamic voltage restorer), and UPQC (unified power quality compensator) and also deals with sliding mode control and its applications to custom power devices. The sliding mode control strategy provides robustness to custom power device and enhances the dynamic response for compensating voltage sag, swell, voltage flicker, and voltage harmonics. The aim of this paper is to provide a broad perspective on the status of compensating devices in electric power distribution system and sliding mode control strategies to researchers and application engineers who are dealing with power quality and stability issues.

Keywords: active power filters(APF), custom power device(CPD), DSTATCOM, DVR, UPQC, sliding mode control (SMC), power quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
46 Dripping Modes of Newtonian Liquids: The Effect of Nozzle Inclination

Authors: Amaraja Taur, Pankaj Doshi, Hak Koon Yeoh

Abstract:

The dripping modes for a Newtonian liquid of viscosity µ emanating from an inclined nozzle at flow rate Q is investigated experimentally. As the liquid flow rate Q increases, starting with period-1 with satellite drops, the system transitions to period-1 dripping without satellite, then to limit cycle before showing chaotic responses. Phase diagrams shows the changes in the transitions between the different dripping modes for different nozzle inclination angle θ is constructed in the dimensionless (Q, µ) space.

Keywords: dripping, inclined nozzle, phase diagram, satellite

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
45 Blind Data Hiding Technique Using Interpolation of Subsampled Images

Authors: Singara Singh Kasana, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

In this paper, a blind data hiding technique based on interpolation of sub sampled versions of a cover image is proposed. Sub sampled image is taken as a reference image and an interpolated image is generated from this reference image. Then difference between original cover image and interpolated image is used to embed secret data. Comparisons with the existing interpolation based techniques show that proposed technique provides higher embedding capacity and better visual quality marked images. Moreover, the performance of the proposed technique is more stable for different images.

Keywords: interpolation, image subsampling, PSNR, SIM

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
44 Association of Work Pattern with the Well-Being and Happiness: Evidence from Married Women Working in Delhi, India

Authors: Kanchan Negi

Abstract:

Background: Modern work culture has driven demands for people to work long hours and weekends and take work to home at times. Research on the health effects of these exhaustive temporal work patterns is scant or contradictory. This study examines the relationship between work patterns and well-being (including happiness) in a sample of working women. Method: Primary data of 360 currently married women working in the education, health, banking and IT sector in Delhi, India, were analysed. Logistic regression was used to estimate physical and psychological well-being and happiness across work characteristics. Results: Relative to 35–40 hours/week, working longer related to poor well-being (ß=0.75, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.39). Compared with not working weekends, working most or all weekends is related to poor physical (ß=0.34, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.61) and psychological well-being (ß=0.50, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.79). Rigid work patterns (ß=0.17, 95% CI −0.09 to 0.42) are also related to poor well-being. Conclusion: Decreased well-being and unhappiness are significantly linked to strenuous and rigid work patterns, suggesting that modern work culture may contribute to poor well-being. Flexible timings, compensatory holidays, work-from-home, and daycare facilities for young ones must be welcomed by companies to ease the dual burden of homemakers and career makers.

Keywords: happiness, well-being, work pattern, working women

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
43 Role of Television in Constructing Gender for Young Women

Authors: Bhavna Negi

Abstract:

Several studies highlight the significance of media in constructing realities around us. According to Forbes magazine the demand of televisions has increased several times in the developing nations. A recent survey reveals that 112 million Indian households have a television, with 61 percent accessing cable. The space and visibility of television has enormously grown over the last decade in Indian homes. This small box has indeed taken a large place in their daily routines. The multi channel viewing and TRPs puzzle the Indian audience. This medium creates and constructs social images and roles which form internal representation about societal functioing. According to National Council of Applied Economic Research about twenty seven percent Indian literate youth watches TV for recreation. The present study finds about the role of television and its impact on young college going women with reference to family based serials shown on television. It is interesting to see how young women perceive the popular family soaps and define norms, roles and spaces for a woman and a man. The paper further examines the subtle messages given to young women through television serials. It draws insights into the relationship between the contemporary Indian women and the images conceptualized and communicated on television.

Keywords: media, women, gender, social roles

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
42 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Das, Niranjan Kumar, Prasun Chakraborti

Abstract:

Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: high temperature tribology, oxidation, turbostratic graphite, wear

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41 Type A Quadricuspid Aortic Valve; Rarer than a Four-Leaf Clover, an Example of Availability Heuristic

Authors: Frazer Kirk, Rohen Skiba, Pankaj Saxena

Abstract:

The natural history of the QAV is poorly understood due to the exceeding rarity of the condition. Incidence rates vary between 0.00028-1%. Classically patients present with Aortic Regurgitation (AR) between 40-60 years of age experiencing palpitations, chest pain, or heart failure. (1, 2) Echocardiography is the mainstay of diagnosis for this condition; however, given the rarity of this condition, it can easily be overlooked, as demonstrated here. The case report that follows serves as a reminder of the condition to reduce the innate cognitive bias to overlook the diagnosis due to the availability heuristic. Intraoperative photography, echocardiographic and magnetic resonance imaging from this case for reference to demonstrate that while the diagnosis of Aortic regurgitation was recognized early, the valve morphology was underappreciated.

Keywords: quadricuspid aortic valve, cardiac surgery, echocardiography, congenital

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
40 Beyond Taguchi’s Concept of the Quality Loss Function

Authors: Atul Dev, Pankaj Jha

Abstract:

Dr. Genichi Taguchi looked at quality in a broader term and gave an excellent definition of quality in terms of loss to society. However the scope of this definition is limited to the losses imparted by a poor quality product to the customer only and are considered during the useful life of the product and further in a certain situation this loss can even be zero. In this paper, it has been proposed that the scope of quality of a product shall be further enhanced by considering the losses imparted by a poor quality product to society at large, due to associated environmental and safety related factors, over the complete life cycle of the product. Moreover, though these losses can be further minimized with the use of techno-safety interventions, the net losses to society however can never be made zero. This paper proposes an entirely new approach towards defining product quality and is based on Taguchi’s definition of quality.

Keywords: existing concept, goal post philosophy, life cycle, proposed concept, quality loss function

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
39 CO2 Sequestration for Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: A New Approach

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

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The global warming due to the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is the most prominent issue of environment that the world is facing today. To solve this problem at global level, sequestration of CO2 in deep and unmineable coal seams has come out as one of the attractive alternatives to reduce concentration in atmosphere. This sequestration technology is not only going to help in storage of CO2 beneath the sub-surface but is also playing a major role in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) by displacing the adsorbed methane. This paper provides the answers for the need of CO2 injection in coal seams and how recovery is enhanced. We have discussed the recent development in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery and the economic scenario of the same. The effect of injection on the coal reservoir has also been discussed. Coal is a good absorber of CO2. That is why the sequestration of CO2 is emerged out to be a great approach, not only for storage purpose but also for enhancing coal bed methane recovery.

Keywords: global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 sequestration, enhance coal bed methane (ECBM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
38 Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge

Authors: Aseem Rajvanshi, Pankaj Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 °C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.

Keywords: crude oil, copper strip corrosion test, dropping point, penetration test

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
37 Transient Performance Analysis of Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GI-JLT)

Authors: Sangeeta Singh, Pankaj Kumar, P. N. Kondekar

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In this paper, the transient device performance analysis of n-type Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GIJLT)has been evaluated. 3-D Bohm Quantum Potential (BQP)transport device simulation has been used to evaluate the delay and power dissipation performance. GI-JLT has a number of desirable device parameters such as reduced propagation delay, dynamic power dissipation, power and delay product, intrinsic gate delay and energy delay product as compared to Gate-all-around transistors GAA-JLT. In addition to this, various other device performance parameters namely, on/off current ratio, short channel effects (SCE), transconductance Generation Factor(TGF) and unity gain cut-off frequency (fT) and subthreshold slope (SS) of the GI-JLT and Gate-all-around junctionless transistor(GAA-JLT) have been analyzed and compared. GI-JLT shows better device performance characteristics than GAA-JLT for low power and high frequency applications, because of its larger gate electrostatic control on the device operation.

Keywords: gate-inside junctionless transistor GI-JLT, gate-all-around junctionless transistor GAA-JLT, propagation delay, power delay product

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
36 Categorization of Biosolids, a Vital Biological Resource for Sustainable Agriculture

Authors: Susmita Sharma, Pankaj Pathak

Abstract:

Biosolids are by-products of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment process. The generation of the biosolids is increasing at an alarming rate due to the implementation of strict environmental legislation to improve the quality of discharges from wastewater treatment plant. As such, proper management and safe disposal of sewage sludge have become a worldwide topic of research. Biosolids, rich in organic matter and essential micro and macronutrients; can be used as a soil conditioner, to cut fertilizer costs and create favorable conditions for vegetation. However, it also contains pathogens and heavy metals which are undesirable as they are harmful to both humans and the environment. Therefore, for safe utilization of biosolids for land application purposes, categorization of the contaminant and pathogen is mandatory. In this context, biosolids collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Maharashtra are utilized to determine its physical, chemical and microbiological attributes. This study would ascertain, if the use of these materials from the specific site, are suitable for agriculture. Further, efforts have also been made to present the internationally acceptable legal standards and guidelines for biosolids management or application.

Keywords: biosolids, sewage, heavy metal, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
35 Status of Herpetofauna of Trans-Himalayan Region of Ladakh, India

Authors: Dimpi A. Patel, Pankaj Raina, Ramesh Chinnasamy, Sunetro Ghosal

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The herpetological fauna of Ladakh has been surveyed few times till 1999. In 2019, a rapid survey to document current herpetofaunal composition was undertaken in which a total of 6 species belonging to 2 orders and five families along with their altitudinal ranges were recorded. We present a revised checklist of reptiles found in Ladakh trans Himalayas based on historical records and recent field surveys. Records for erroneously reported species in literature are discussed and recommended for removal from the list from this region. For several species, new elevation range records have been recorded. This paper contributes to the present status of the richness of reptiles and amphibians in the region by documenting the composition and ecological distribution of the herpetofauna of unstudied sites. Species-specific temperature and humidity regimes were also recorded during the survey periods. Our study creates baseline information for future ecological and behavioral studies on the herpetofauna of the region by providing habitat preferences and distribution in detail.

Keywords: amphibians, distribution, diversity, reptiles, trans-Himalaya

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
34 Effect of Incorporation of Seaweed Extract in Gelatin Based Film on Physic-Chemical and Bioactive Properties of Film

Authors: Shekhar U. Kadam, S. K. Pankaj, Brijesh K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen, Colm P. O’Donnell

Abstract:

Brown seaweed L. hyperborea is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of incorporation of L. hyperborea extract to bovine gelatin film on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of film. Films with fraction of 25% by weight of bovine gelatin sample were cast with addition of glycerol as a plasticizer. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the films showed higher levels with addition of seaweed extract. Also film appearance properties such as film thickness, color and light transparency were evaluated. Film appearance was slightly modified whereas microstructure of films showed rough patches at 50% level of extract in the film. Hydrophilicity and glass transition temperature of the films also increased with increased level of seaweed extract. It was found that seaweed extract can be incorporated within gelatin and casein for development of biofunctional films.

Keywords: Laminaria hyperborea, ultrasound, seaweed extract, bovine gelatin film, antioxidant, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
33 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey, Pankaj Kumar

Abstract:

Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: seaweeds, Ulva, CMF, furan

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
32 Solar Still Absorber Plate Modification and Exergy Analysis

Authors: Dudul Das, Pankaj Kalita, Sangeeta Borah

Abstract:

Freshwater availability in the world is as low as 1% of total water available and in many geographical locations dissolved fluoride and arsenic are serious problem. In India availability of freshwater will be stressed by 2025, so the availability saline water from sea is a hope for the people of Indian sub-continent, but saline water is not drinkable it need to be processed, which again require a huge amount of energy. So the most easy and handy option in such situation for all those problems is solar still, this investigation presents various scopes for improvement of its efficiency. Experiments showed that by increasing the absorber plate area through better design can increase the distillate output by two fold and by using jute wicks in the modified absorber plate increases the output up to three times that of conventional solar still available in the Department of Energy, Tezpur University. The experiment is carried out at constant water depth of 8.5 cm and glass cover inclination of 27o facing South. The exergy analysis carried out clearly resulted that with the use of jute wick and baffle plated basin the efficiency achieved more than the simple baffle plated basin. The Instantaneous exergy without jute wick ranges from 2.5% to 4.5% while using jute it ranges from 1.5% to 5.15%.

Keywords: fluoride, absorber plate, jute wick, instantaneous exergy

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
31 Impact of Chimerism on Y-STR DNA Determination: Sex Mismatch Analysis

Authors: Anupuma Raina, Ajay P. Balayan, Prateek Pandya, Pankaj Shrivastava, Uma Kanga, Tulika Seth

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DNA fingerprinting analysis aids in personal identification for forensic purposes and has always been a driving motivation for law enforcement agencies in almost all countries since its inception. The introduction of DNA markers (Y-STR) has allowed for greater precision and higher discriminatory power in forensic testing. A criminal/ person committing crime after bone marrow transplantation is a rare situation but not an impossible one. Keeping such a situation in mind, a study was carried out to find out the best biological sample to be used for personal identification, especially in forensic situation. We choose a female patient (recipient) and a male donor. The pre transplant sample (blood) and post transplant samples (blood, buccal swab, hair roots) were collected from the recipient (patient). The same were compared with the blood sample of the donor using DNA FP technique. Post transplant samples were collected at different interval of time (15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The study was carried out using Y-STR kit at 23 loci. The results determined discusses the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on Y-STR. Hair sample was found the most suitable sample which had no donor DNA profiling up to 90 days.

Keywords: bone marrow transplantation, chimerism, DNA profiling, Y-STR

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
30 Study of Strontium Sorption onto Indian Bentonite

Authors: Pankaj Pathak, Susmita Sharma

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Incessant industrial growth fulfill the energy demand of present day society, at the same time it produces huge amount of waste which could be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature. These wastes are coming out from different sources viz, nuclear power, thermal power, coal mines which contain different types of contaminants and one of the emergent contaminant is strontium, used in the present study. The isotope of strontium (Sr90) is radioactive in nature with half-life of 28.8 years and permissible limit of strontium in drinking water is 1.5 ppm. Above the permissible limit causes several types of diseases in human being. Therefore, safe disposal of strontium into ground becomes a biggest challenge for the researchers. In this context, bentonite is being used as an efficient material to retain strontium onto ground due to its specific physical, chemical and mineralogical properties which exhibits higher cation exchange capacity and specific surface area. These properties influence the interaction between strontium and bentonite, which is quantified by employing a parameter known as distribution coefficient. Batch test was conducted, and sorption isotherms were modelled at different interaction time. The pseudo first-order and pseudo second order kinetic models have been used to fit experimental data, which helps to determine the sorption rate and mechanism.

Keywords: bentonite, interaction time, sorption, strontium

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
29 Pharmacovigilance: An Empowerment in Safe Utilization of Pharmaceuticals

Authors: Pankaj Prashar, Bimlesh Kumar, Ankita Sood, Anamika Gautam

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Pharmacovigilance (PV) is a rapidly growing discipline in pharmaceutical industries as an integral part of clinical research and drug development over the past few decades. PV carries a breadth of scope from drug manufacturing to its regulation with safer utilization. The fundamental steps of PV not only includes data collection and verification, coding of drugs with adverse drug reactions, causality assessment and timely reporting to the authorities but also monitoring drug manufacturing, safety issues, product quality and conduction of due diligence. Standardization of adverse event information, collaboration of multiple departments in different companies, preparation of documents in accordance to both governmental as well as non-governmental organizations (FDA, EMA, GVP, ICH) are the advancements in discipline of PV. De-harmonization, lack of predictive drug safety models, improper funding by government, non-reporting, and non-acceptability of ADRs by developing countries and reports directly from patients to the monitoring centres respectively are the major road backs of PV. Mandatory pharmacovigilance reporting, frequent inspections, funding by government, educating and training medical students, pharmacists and nurses in this segment can bring about empowerment in PV. This area needs to be addressed with a sense of urgency for the safe utilization of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: pharmacovigilance, regulatory, adverse event, drug safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
28 A Cross-Sectional Study on Smartphone Addiction, Sleep Hygiene, and Perceived Stress

Authors: Kriti Singh, Saurabh Tripathi, Pankaj Chaudhary, Abid Ali Ansari, Seema Nigam

Abstract:

Introduction: The introduction of android and iOS has changed our lives dramatically over the past few years. The new generation is more dependent on their mobile phones for carrying out their daily pursuits. Smartphones have revolutionized our lives. The cutdown in rates of mobile network services has been affecting us drastically. A new type of dependence is seen among the people for Smartphones. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the state of addiction among the group of medical students, along with its association with sleep hygiene and anxiety. Material and Method: Study included 50 individuals in the age group of 18-35 years. Smartphone Addiction Scale Short Version, Sleep Hygiene Index, and Perceived Stress Scales were used conducting the study. Results: Mean age of 22 years (12%). The majority of subjects were 20-year olds (15 out of 50), the majority were males with few females. Mean Smartphone addiction score 39 (very severe), Mean Sleep Hygiene Index score 26.76 (moderate maladaptive hygiene and Mean Perceived Stress score of 19.92 (moderate stress). Conclusion: In majority students were found to have a very severe Smartphone Addiction with moderate sleep hygiene and a moderate level of perceived stress. The Smartphone was being used was for surfing social media applications.

Keywords: addiction perceived stress, sleep hygiene index, smartphone

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
27 Analysis of Interpolation Factor in Pulse Shaping Filter on MRC for CDMA 2000 Systems

Authors: Pankaj Verma, Gagandeep Singh Walia, Padma Devi, H. P. Singh

Abstract:

Code Division Multiple Access 2000 operates on various RF channel bandwidths 1.2288 or 3.6864 Mcps. CDMA offers high bandwidth and wireless broadband services but the efficiency gets decreased because of many interfering factors like fading, interference, scattering, diffraction, refraction, reflection etc. To reduce the spectral bandwidth is one of the major concerns in modern day technology and this is achieved by pulse shaping filter. This paper investigates the effect of diversity (MRC), interpolation factor in Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filter for the QPSK and BPSK modulation schemes. It is made possible to send information with minimum inter symbol interference and within limited bandwidth with proper pulse shaping technique. Bit error rate (BER) performance is analyzed by applying diversity technique by varying the interpolation factor for Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). Interpolation factor increases the original sampling rate of a sequence to a higher rate and reduces the interference and diversity reduces the fading.

Keywords: CDMA2000, root raised cosine, roll off factor, ISI, diversity, interference, fading

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26 Carbon Capture and Storage: Prospects in India

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

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The demand of energy is increasing at every part of the world. Thus, use of fossil fuel is efficient which results in large liberation of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Tons of this CO2 raises the risk of dangerous climate changes. To minimize the risk carbon capture and storage (CCS) has to be used so that the emitted carbon dioxide do not reach the atmosphere. CCS is being considered as one of the options that could have a major role to play in India.With the growing awareness towards the global warming, carbon capture and sequestration has a great importance. New technologies and theories are in use to capture CO2. This paper contains the methodology and technologies that is in use to capture carbon dioxide in India. The present scenario of CCS is also being discussed. CCS is playing a major role in enhancing recovery of oil (ERO). Both the purpose 1) minimizing percentage of carbon dioxide in atmosphere and 2) enhancing recovery of oil are fulfilled from the CCS. The CO2 is usually captured from coal based power plant and from some industrial sources and then stored in the geological formations like oil and gas reservoir and deep aquifers or in oceans. India has large reservoirs of coal which are being used for storing CO2, as coal is a good absorbent of CO2. New technologies and studies are going on for injection purposes. Government has initiated new plans for CCS as CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive. A discussion is done on new schemes that should bring up CCS plans and approaches. Stakeholders are welcomed for suitability of CCS. There is still a need to potentially capture the CO2 and avail its storage in developing country like India.

Keywords: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), carbon dioxide (CO2), enhance oil recovery, geological formations, stakeholders

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25 Optimization of End Milling Process Parameters for Minimization of Surface Roughness of AISI D2 Steel

Authors: Pankaj Chandna, Dinesh Kumar

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The present work analyses different parameters of end milling to minimize the surface roughness for AISI D2 steel. D2 Steel is generally used for stamping or forming dies, punches, forming rolls, knives, slitters, shear blades, tools, scrap choppers, tyre shredders etc. Surface roughness is one of the main indices that determines the quality of machined products and is influenced by various cutting parameters. In machining operations, achieving desired surface quality by optimization of machining parameters, is a challenging job. In case of mating components the surface roughness become more essential and is influenced by the cutting parameters, because, these quality structures are highly correlated and are expected to be influenced directly or indirectly by the direct effect of process parameters or their interactive effects (i.e. on process environment). In this work, the effects of selected process parameters on surface roughness and subsequent setting of parameters with the levels have been accomplished by Taguchi’s parameter design approach. The experiments have been performed as per the combination of levels of different process parameters suggested by L9 orthogonal array. Experimental investigation of the end milling of AISI D2 steel with carbide tool by varying feed, speed and depth of cut and the surface roughness has been measured using surface roughness tester. Analyses of variance have been performed for mean and signal-to-noise ratio to estimate the contribution of the different process parameters on the process.

Keywords: D2 steel, orthogonal array, optimization, surface roughness, Taguchi methodology

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24 A Review on the Challenge and Need of Goat Semen Production and Artificial Insemination in Nepal

Authors: Pankaj K. Jha, Ajeet K. Jha, Pravin Mishra

Abstract:

Goat raising is a popular livestock sub-commodity of mixed farming system in Nepal. Besides food and nutritional security, it has an important role in the economy of many peoples. Goat breeding through AI is commonly practiced worldwide. It is a very basic tool to speed up genetic improvement and increase productivity. For the goat genetic improvement program, the government of Nepal has imported some specialized exotic goat breeds and semen. Some progress has been made in the initiation of selective breeding within the local breeds and practice of AI with imported semen. Importance of AI in goats has drawn more attention among goat farmers. However, importing semen is not a permanent solution at national level; rather, it is more important to develop and establish its own frozen semen production technique. Semen quality and its relationship with fertility are said to be a major concern in animal production, hence accurate measurement of semen fertilizing potential is of great importance. The survivability of sperm cells depends on semen quality. Survivability of sperm cells is assessed through visual and microscopic evaluation of spermatozoal progressive motility and morphology. In Nepal, there is lack of scientific information on seminal attributes of buck semen, its dilution, cooling and freezing technique under management conditions of Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this review was to provide brief information about breeding system, semen production and artificial insemination in Nepalese goat.

Keywords: artificial insemination, goat, Nepal, semen

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23 Paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) Arylesterase and Lactonase Activities, Polymorphism and Conjugated Dienes in Gastroenteritis in Paediatric Population

Authors: M. R. Mogarekar, Shraddha V. More, Pankaj Kumar

Abstract:

Gastroenteritis, the third leading killer of children in India today is responsible for 13% of all deaths in children <5 years of age and kills an estimated 300,000 children in India each year. We decided to investigate parameters which can help in early disease detection and prompt treatment. Serum paraoxonase is calcium dependent esterase which is widely distributed among tissues such as liver, kidney, and intestine and is located in the chromosomal region 7q21.3 22.1. Studies show the presence of excessive reactive oxygen metabolites and antioxidant imbalance in the gastrointestinal tract leading to oxidative stress in gastroenteritis. To our knowledge, this is the first ever study done. The objective of present study is to investigate the role of paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) status i.e arylesterase and lactonase activities and Q192R polymorphism and conjugated dienes, in gastroenteritis of paediatric population. The study and control group consists of 40 paediatric patients with and without gastroenteritis. Paraoxonase arylesterase and lactonase activities were assessed and phenotyping was determined. Conjugated dienes were also assessed. PON 1 arylesterase activities in cases (61.494±13.220) and controls (70.942±15.385) and lactonase activities in cases (15.702±1.036) and controls (17.434±1.176) were significantly decreased (p<0.05). There is no significant difference of phenotypic distribution in cases and controls. Conjugated dienes were found significantly increased in patients (0.086±0.024) than the control group (0.064±0.019) (p<0.05). Paraoxonase 1 activities (arylesterase and lactonase) and conjugated dienes may be useful in risk assessment and management in gastroenteritis in paediatric population.

Keywords: paraoxonase 1 polymorphism, arylesterase, lactonase, conjugated dienes, p-nitrophenylacetate, DHC

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22 Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Framed Structure with Steel Bracing and Supplemental Energy Dissipation

Authors: Swanand Patil, Pankaj Agarwal

Abstract:

In past few decades, seismic performance objectives have shifted from earthquake resistance to earthquake resilience of the structures, especially for the lifeline buildings. Features such as negligible post-earthquake damage and replaceable damaged components, makes energy dissipating systems a valid choice for a seismically resilient building. In this study, various energy dissipation devices are applied on an eight-storey moment resisting RC building model. The energy dissipating devices include both hysteresis-based and viscous type of devices. The seismic response of the building is obtained for different positioning and mechanical properties of the devices. The investigation is carried forward to the deficiently ductile RC frame also. The performance assessment is done on the basis of drift ratio, mode shapes and displacement response of the model structures. Nonlinear dynamic analysis shows largely improved displacement response. The damping devices improve displacement response more efficiently in the deficient ductile frames than that in the perfectly moment resisting frames. This finding is important considering the number of deficient buildings in India and the world. The placement and mechanical properties of the dampers prove to be a crucial part in modelling, analyzing and designing of the structures with supplemental energy dissipation.

Keywords: earthquake resilient structures, lifeline buildings, retrofitting of structures, supplemental energy dissipation

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21 Design and Fabrication of a Smart Quadruped Robot

Authors: Shivani Verma, Amit Agrawal, Pankaj Kumar Meena, Ashish B. Deoghare

Abstract:

Over the decade robotics has been a major area of interest among the researchers and scientists in reducing human efforts. The need for robots to replace human work in different dangerous fields such as underground mining, nuclear power station and war against terrorist attack has gained huge attention. Most of the robot design is based on human structure popularly known as humanoid robots. However, the problems encountered in humanoid robots includes low speed of movement, misbalancing in structure, poor load carrying capacity, etc. The simplification and adaptation of the fundamental design principles seen in animals have led to the creation of bio-inspired robots. But the major challenges observed in naturally inspired robot include complexity in structure, several degrees of freedom and energy storage problem. The present work focuses on design and fabrication of a bionic quadruped walking robot which is based on different joint of quadruped mammals like a dog, cheetah, etc. The design focuses on the structure of the robot body which consists of four legs having three degrees of freedom per leg and the electronics system involved in it. The robot is built using readily available plastics and metals. The proposed robot is simple in construction and is able to move through uneven terrain, detect and locate obstacles and take images while carrying additional loads which may include hardware and sensors. The robot will find possible application in the artificial intelligence sector.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, bionic, quadruped robot, degree of freedom

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20 Paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) Arylesterase Activity and Apolipoprotein B: Predictors of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Mukund Ramchandra Mogarekar, Pankaj Kumar, Shraddha Vilas More

Abstract:

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as myocardial cell death due to prolonged ischemia as a consequence of atherosclerosis. TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), Apo B, and lipoprotein(a) was found as atherogenic factors while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was anti-atherogenic. Methods and Results: The study group consists of 40, MI subjects and 40 healthy individuals in control group. PON 1 Arylesterase activity (ARE) was measured by using phenylacetate. Phenotyping was done by double substrate method, serum AOPP by using chloramine T and Apo B by Turbidimetric immunoassay. PON 1 ARE activities were significantly lower (p< 0.05) and AOPPs & Apo B were higher in MI subjects (p> 0.05). Trimodal distribution of QQ, QR, and RR phenotypes of study population showed no significant difference among cases and controls (p> 0.05). Univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed independent association of TC, HDL, LDL, AOPP, Apo B, and PON 1 ARE activity with MI and multiple forward binary logistic regression showed PON 1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI. Conclusions: Decrease in PON 1 ARE activity in MI subjects than in controls suggests increased oxidative stress in MI which is reflected by significantly increased AOPP and Apo B. PON1 polymorphism of QQ, QR and RR showed no significant difference in protection against MI. Univariate and multiple binary logistic regression showed PON1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI.

Keywords: advanced oxidation protein product, apolipoprotein B, PON 1 arylesterase activity, myocardial infarction

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19 Effect of Scrotal Circumference on Freezability of Bangladeshi Crossbred Bulls

Authors: Ajeet K. Jha, Pankaj K. Jha, Pravin Mishra

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the freezability of crossbred bulls’ semen at early age. Semen of three consecutive collections at 7 days interval from 12 crossbred bulls 17 was evaluated. The age at first collection was 15 to 20 months. Evaluation of semen was done soon after collection. Triladyl, Minitub, Germany was used as extender and was frozen using standard semen freezing protocol. Post-thaw sperm motility was evaluated. Morphology of paraformaldehyde fixed spermatozoa was evaluated under differential interference phase contrast microscopy and the viability of spermatozoa was evaluated by using stain SYBR-14 (1 mM/ml) and propidium iodide (2.41 mM/ml) under an epifluorescent microscopy. Scrotal circumference was correlated with all possible measures in all groups of crossbred bulls. Volume of semen, sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, initial sperm motility, post-thaw sperm motility, proportion of normal spermatozoa and proportion of live spermatozoa were compared among individual bull within and between two groups of crossbred bulls. A significant positive correlation was observed between scrotal circumference and volume of semen and between scrotal circumference and the total number of sperm production per ejaculate (r = 0.72, p < 0.04). Significant variation was observed in different semen parameters among individual bulls within the same group (p < 0.05) but no significant variation was found between two groups of crossbred bulls. Out of 12 bulls, semen freezability of 10 bulls was found satisfactory while semen of 2 bulls (Local × Friesian) was unsatisfactory. In conclusion, crossbred bulls aged 18 months having scrotal circumference > 30 cm produce freezable quality semen.

Keywords: Bangladesh, crossbred bull, scrotal circumference, semen freezability

Procedia PDF Downloads 73