Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Baris Sezer

26 Investigating Students’ Acceptance Perception Level of Tablet PCs by a Variety of Variables

Authors: Baris Sezer


A great number of projects have been implemented by Turkey in order to integrate technologies into education. The FATİH Project is intended to integrate technology into all levels of education in Turkey. As part of the FATİH Project that is aimed to complete in 2016, it is intended to initially deliver a tablet PC to every student and teacher. We aimed to detect grade 9 students’ acceptance perception level of tablet PCs during the 2014 – 2015 school year in this study where quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques were used in combination. The study group consisted of 228 grade 9 students of high schools in Istanbul, Ankara, Zonguldak and Bursa in Turkey. Study data was obtained through the “Tablet PC Acceptance Scale” and structured interview forms. Given the results obtained from the study, the mean overall score was 70.08 (3.72 out of 5), which was derived from all the dimensions of the acceptance perception level of tablet PCs in the students’ view. Findings of the study indicate that mean scores for students’ acceptance perception level of tablet PCs did not differ by their gender and their level of use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Focus group interviews with students suggest that students did not effectively and actively use the tablet PCs; instead they used the interactive board during classes.

Keywords: acceptance of technology, student’s view, FATIH project, tablet PCs

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25 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz


Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

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24 Design of a Low Cost Motion Data Acquisition Setup for Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Baris Can Yalcin


Motion sensors have been commonly used as a valuable component in mechatronic systems, however, many mechatronic designs and applications that need motion sensors cost enormous amount of money, especially high-tech systems. Design of a software for communication protocol between data acquisition card and motion sensor is another issue that has to be solved. This study presents how to design a low cost motion data acquisition setup consisting of MPU 6050 motion sensor (gyro and accelerometer in 3 axes) and Arduino Mega2560 microcontroller. Design parameters are calibration of the sensor, identification and communication between sensor and data acquisition card, interpretation of data collected by the sensor.

Keywords: design, mechatronics, motion sensor, data acquisition

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23 The Participation of Refugee Children with Disabilities in Educational Options in Turkey: A Systematic Review

Authors: Robert L. Williamson, Baris Çetin


Turkey, due to its geographic location, finds itself the world’s largest host to refugees worldwide, and this nation has done much to educate their refugee population. Turkey’s considerable experience can inform other nations educating refugee children. This systematic review of the literature examined the context, barriers, and responses to successfully educating refugee children in Turkey. Additionally, because some refugee children may have an identified or unidentified disability, the educational experiences of refugee children with disabilities in Turkey were an ancillary focus. Results indicated that while some educational challenges have been successfully met within Turkey, others remain. Additionally, the education of children with disabilities in Turkey is largely unexamined.

Keywords: disability, education, refugee, systematic review, Turkey

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22 The Effects of Dietary Flaxseed Oil Supplementations on Punicic Acid of the Yolks in Quail Muscle

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil


This experiment was carried out to determine effects of Japanese quail diets which is supplemented with different levels of punicic acids and CLA compositions in Japanese quail. In this study, eighty laying quails at 12 weeks of age were used. They were divided into 4 tretament groups, each group included 20 quails. The diets in treatment groups contained different levels of flaxseed oil. At the end of the experiment lasted for 21 days, 5 quail taken from each group were subjected to analysis. Punicic acid content of muscle were determined by gas chromatography. Twenty five different fatty acid components were determinated in the compositions of quail muscle. No differences were found in oil content among the groups.

Keywords: quail egg yolk, punicic acid, flaxseed oil, gas chromatography

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21 Analytical Investigation of Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthening with Polypropylene Fibers

Authors: Rifat Sezer, Abdulhamid Aryan


The purpose of this study is to research both the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams without fiber and the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams with fiber. For this purpose, the analytical load - displacement curves of the beams were formed and the areas under these curves were compared. According to the results of this comparison, it is concluded that the reinforced concrete beams with polypropylene fiber are more ductile. The dimension of the used beam-samples for analytical model in this study is 20x30 cm, their length is 200 cm and their scale is ½. The reinforced concrete reference-beams are produced as one item and the reinforced concrete beams with P-0.60 kg/m3 polypropylene fiber are produced as one item. The modeling of reinforced concrete beams was utilized with Abaqus software.

Keywords: polypropylene, fiber-reinforced beams, strengthening of the beams, abaqus program

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20 Numerical Simulation of Structural Behavior of NSM CFRP Strengthened RC Beams Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Baris Sayin, Tarik Serhat Bozkurt, Cemil Akcay


The technique using near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites has proved to be an reliable strengthening technique. However, the effects of different parameters for the use of NSM CFRP are not fully developed yet. This study focuses on the development of a numerical modeling that can predict the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with NSM FRP rods exposed to bending loading and the efficiency of various parameters such as CFRP rod size and filling material type are evaluated by using prepared models. For this purpose, three different models are developed and implemented in the ANSYS® software using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The numerical results indicate that CFRP rod size and filling material type are significant factors in the behavior of the analyzed RC beams.

Keywords: numerical model, FEA, RC beam, NSM technique, CFRP rod, filling material

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19 Effects of X and + Tail-Body Configurations on Hydrodynamic Performance and Stability of an Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Kadri Koçer, Sezer Kefeli


This paper proposes a comparison of hydrodynamic performance and stability characteristic for an underwater vehicle which has two type of tail design, namely X and +tail-body configurations. The effects of these configurations on the underwater vehicle’s hydrodynamic performance and maneuvering characteristic will be investigated comprehensively. Hydrodynamic damping coefficients for modeling the motion of the underwater vehicles will be predicted. Additionally, forces and moments due to control surfaces will be compared using computational fluid dynamics methods. In the aviation, the X tail-body configuration is widely used for high maneuverability requirements. However, in the underwater, the + tail-body configuration is more commonly used than the X tail-body configuration for its stability characteristics. Thus it is important to see the effect and differences of the tail designs in the underwater world. For CFD analysis, the incompressible, three-dimensional, and steady Navier-Stokes equations will be used to simulate the flows. Also, k-ε Realizable turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment will be taken. Numerical results is verified with experimental results for verification. The overall goal of this study is to present the advantages and disadvantages of hydrodynamic performance and stability characteristic for X and + tail-body configurations of the underwater vehicle.

Keywords: maneuverability, stability, CFD, tail configuration, hydrodynamic design

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18 A Comparative Assessment of Membrane Bioscrubber and Classical Bioscrubber for Biogas Purification

Authors: Ebrahim Tilahun, Erkan Sahinkaya, Bariş Calli̇


Raw biogas is a valuable renewable energy source however it usually needs removal of the impurities. The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the biogas has detrimental corrosion effects on the cogeneration units. Removal of H2S from the biogas can therefore significantly improve the biogas quality. In this work, a conventional bioscrubber (CBS), and a dense membrane bioscrubber (DMBS) were comparatively evaluated in terms of H2S removal efficiency (RE), CH4 enrichment and alkaline consumption at gas residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Both bioscrubbers were fed with a synthetic biogas containing H2S (1%), CO2 (39%) and CH4 (60%). The results show that high RE (98%) was obtained in the DMBS when gas residence time was 20 min, whereas slightly lower CO2 RE was observed. While in CBS system the outlet H2S concentration was always lower than 250 ppmv, and its H2S RE remained higher than 98% regardless of the gas residence time, although the high alkaline consumption and frequent absorbent replacement limited its cost-effectiveness. The result also indicates that in DMBS when the gas residence time increased to 20 min, the CH4 content in the treated biogas enriched upto 80%. However, while operating the CBS unit the CH4 content of the raw biogas (60%) decreased by three fold. The lower CH4 content in CBS was probably caused by extreme dilution of biogas with air (N2 and O2). According to the results obtained here the DMBS system is a robust and effective biotechnology in comparison with CBS. Hence, DMBS has a better potential for real scale applications.

Keywords: biogas, bioscrubber, desulfurization, PDMS membrane

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17 Analytical Investigation on Seismic Behavior of Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames Strengthened with Precast Diagonal Concrete Panels

Authors: Ceyhun Aksoylu, Rifat Sezer


In this study, a strengthening method applicable without any evacuation process was investigated. In this analytical study, the pushover analysis results carry out by using the software of SAP2000. For this purpose, 1/3 scaled, 1-bay and 2-story R/C seven frames having usual deficiencies faults produced, one of which were not strengthened, but having brick-infill wall and the other 3 frames with infill walls strengthened with various shaped of high strength-precast diagonal concrete panels. The prepared analytical models investigated under reversed-cyclic loading that resembles the seismic effect. As a result of the analytical study, the properties of the reinforced concrete frames, such as strength, rigidity, energy dissipation capacity, etc. were determined and the strengthened models were compared with the unstrengthened one having the same properties. As a result of this study, the contributions of precast diagonal concrete applied on the infill walls of the existing frame systems against seismic effects were introduced with its advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: RC frame, seismic effect, infill wall, strengthening, precast diagonal concrete panel, pushover analysis

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16 Cyber Bullying Victimization of Elementary School Students and Their Reflections on the Victimization

Authors: Merve Sadetas Sezer, Ismail Sahin, Ahmet Oguz Akturk


With the use of developing technology, mostly in communication and entertainment, students spend considerable time on the internet. In addition to the advantages provided by the internet, social isolation brings problems such as addiction. This is one of the problems of the virtual violence. Cyber-bullying is the common name of the intensities which students are exposed on the internet. The purpose of this study designed as a qualitative research is to find out the cyber bullying varieties and its effects on elementary school students. The participants of this research are 6th, 7th and 8th grade students of a primary school and 24 students agreed to participate in the study. The students were asked to fill an interview with semi-structured open-ended questions. According to the results obtained in the research, the most important statements determined by the participants are breaking passwords on social networking sites, slang insult to blasphemy and taking friendship offers from unfamiliar people. According to participants from the research, the most used techniques to prevent themselves from cyber bullying are to complain to the site administrator, closing accounts on social networking sites and countercharging. Also, suggestions were presented according to the findings.

Keywords: bullying, cyber-bullying, elementary, peer-relationship, virtual victimization

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15 Proximate Analysis of Muscle of Helix aspersa Living in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil


The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of variations in the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn (November) in 2015. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and cholesterol analysis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The protein contents of snail muscle were determined with Kjeldahl distillation units. Statistical comparisons were made by using SPSS Software (version 16.0). Thirty different fatty acids of different saturation levels were detected. As the predominant fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1ω9), linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), palmitic acid (C16:0), arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) were found in Helix aspersa. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was identified as the major SFA in autumn. Linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6) have the highest levels among the PUFAs. In the present study, ω3 were found 5.48% in autumn. Linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acid amounts in the autumn decreased significantly but cholesterol content was not affected in Helix aspersa in autumn (November) in 2015.

Keywords: Helix aspersa, fatty acid, SFA, PUFA, cholesterol

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14 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Benzoxazole Derivatives as Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase / Butyrylcholinesterase and Tyrosinase

Authors: Ozlem Temiz-Arpaci, Meryem Tasci, Fatma Sezer Senol, İlkay Erdogan Orhan


Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration of memory and cognition, occurs more frequently in elderly people. Current treatment approaches in this disease with the major therapeutic strategy are based on the AChE and BChE inhibition. On the other hand, tyrosinase inhibition has become a target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) since this enzyme may play a role in neuromelanin formation in the human brain and could be critical in the formation of dopamine neurotoxicity associated with neurodegeneration linked to PD. Also benzoxazoles are structural isosteres of natural nucleotides that can interact with biopolymers so that benzoxazoles showed a lot of different biological activities. In this study, a series of 2,5-disubstituted-benzoxazole derivatives were synthesized and were evaluated as possible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) / butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase. The results demonstrated that the compounds exhibited a weak spectrum of AChE / BChE inhibitory activity ranging between 3.92% - 54.32% except compound 8 which showed no activity against AChE and compound 4 which showed no activity against BChE at the specified molar concentrations. Also, the compounds indicated lower than tyrosinase inhibitory activity of ranging between 8.14% - 22.90% to that of reference (kojic acid).

Keywords: AChE and BChE inhibition, Alzheimer’s disease, benzoxazoles, tyrosinase inhibition

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13 Reliability-based Condition Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines using SHM data

Authors: Caglayan Hizal, Hasan Emre Demirci, Engin Aktas, Alper Sezer


Offshore wind turbines consist of a long slender tower with a heavy fixed mass on the top of the tower (nacelle), together with a heavy rotating mass (blades and hub). They are always subjected to environmental loads including wind and wave loads in their service life. This study presents a three-stage methodology for reliability-based condition assessment of offshore wind-turbines against the seismic, wave and wind induced effects considering the soil-structure interaction. In this context, failure criterions are considered as serviceability limits of a monopile supporting an Offshore Wind Turbine: (a) allowable horizontal displacement at pile head should not exceed 0.2 m, (b) rotations at pile head should not exceed 0.5°. A Bayesian system identification framework is adapted to the classical reliability analysis procedure. Using this framework, a reliability assessment can be directly implemented to the updated finite element model without performing time-consuming methods. For numerical verification, simulation data of the finite model of a real offshore wind-turbine structure is investigated using the three-stage methodology.

Keywords: Offshore wind turbines, SHM, reliability assessment, soil-structure interaction

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12 Determination of Forced Convection Heat Transfer Performance in Lattice Geometric Heat Sinks

Authors: Bayram Sahin, Baris Gezdirici, Murat Ceylan, Ibrahim Ates


In this experimental study, the effects of heat transfer and flow characteristics on lattice geometric heat sinks, where high rates of heat removal are required, were investigated. The design parameters were Reynolds number, the height of heat sink (H), horizontal (Sy) and vertical (Sx) distances between heat sinks. In the experiments, the Reynolds number ranged from 4000 to 20000; heat sink heights were (H) 20 mm and 40 mm; the distances (Sy) between the heat sinks in the flow direction were45 mm, 32 mm, 23.3 mm; the distances (Sx) between the heat sinks perpendicular to the flow direction were selected to be 23.3 mm, 12.5 mm and 6 mm. A total of 90 experiments were conducted and the maximum Nusselt number and minimum friction coefficient were targeted. Experimental results have shown that heat sinks in lattice geometry have a significant effect on heat transfer enhancement. Under the different experimental conditions, the highest increase in Nusselt number was 283% while the lowest increase was calculated as 66% as compared with the straight channel results. The lowest increase in the friction factor was also obtained as 173% according to the straight channel results. It is seen that the increase in heat sink height and flow velocity increased the level of turbulence in the channel, leading to higher Nusselt number and friction factor values.

Keywords: forced convection, heat transfer enhancement, lattice geometric heat sinks, pressure drop

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11 On the End-of-Life Inventory Problem

Authors: Hans Frenk, Sonya Javadi, Semih Onur Sezer


We consider the so-called end of life inventory problem for the supplier of a product in its final phase of the service life cycle. This phase starts when the production of the items stops and continues until the warranty of the last sold item expires. At the beginning of this phase, the supplier places a final order for spare parts to serve customers coming with defective items. At any time during the final phase, the supplier may also decide to switch to an alternative and more cost-effective policy. This alternative policy may be in the form of replacing a defective item with a substitutable product or offering discounts / rebates on new generation products. In this setup, the objective is to find a final order quantity and also a switching time which will minimize the total expected discounted cost. We study this problem under a general cost structure in a continuous-time framework where arrivals of defective items are given by a non-homogeneous Poisson process. We consider four formulations which differ by the nature of the switching time. These formulations are studied in detail and properties of the objective function are derived in each case. Using these properties, we provide exact algorithms for efficient numerical implementations. Numerical examples are provided illustrating the application of these algorithms. In these examples, we also compare the costs associated with these different formulations.

Keywords: End-of-life inventory control, martingales, optimization, service parts

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10 Music for Peace, a Model for Socialization

Authors: Mina Fenercioglu


This study discusses a Turkish music education model similar to El Sistema. The Music for Peace (Baris icin Muzik) program, founded in 2005 by an idealist humanitarian in Istanbul, started as a pilot project with accordion and then with flute in ensembles at the Ulubatlı Hasan Primary School where mostly underprivileged children attend. The program gives complimentary music lessons particularly to deprived children, who at the beginning were prone to crime. With music education, the attitudes of the children turn to a positive aspect. The aim of this initiative provides social and cultural awareness, which serves the same mission as the world known El Sistema. In 2009, the Music for Peace project received Deutsche Bank Urban Age Award, which is a prize presented to enterprises that improve the quality of life in urban environment. Since 2010, the Music for Peace continues the symphonic music education at its own place. In 2011, Music for Peace gained foundation status, and started to accept donations as musical instruments for children who attend the courses. On July 2013, IKSV (Istanbul Culture and Arts Foundation) became the institutional partner of Music for Peace Foundation and in June 2014, the foundation signed up to join El Sistema’s global program. Now in 2015, the foundation has three ensembles: the Music for Peace Orchestra, which consists of two orchestras practicing and performing in different levels; the Music for Peace Chorus, which has joined Istanbul International Polyphonic Choruses Festival; and the recently established Music for Peace Brass Ensemble.

Keywords: El Sistema, music education, music for peace, socialization

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9 Investigation of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Kitchen of Catering

Authors: Çiğdem Sezer, Aksem Aksoy, Leyla Vatansever


This study has been done for the purpose of evaluation of public health and identifying of enterotoxigenic Staphyloccocus aureus in kitchen of catering. In the kitchen of catering, samples have been taken by swabs from surface of equipments which are in the salad section, meat section and bakery section. Samples have been investigated with classical cultural methods in terms of Staphyloccocus aureus. Therefore, as a 10x10 cm area was identified (salad, cutting and chopping surfaces, knives, meat grinder, meat chopping surface) samples have been taken with sterile swabs with helping FTS from this area. In total, 50 samples were obtained. In aseptic conditions, Baird-Parker agar (with egg yolk tellurite) surface was seeded with swabs. After 24-48 hours of incubation at 37°C, the black colonies with 1-1.5 mm diameter and which are surrounded by a zone indicating lecithinase activity were identified as S. aureus after applying Gram staining, catalase, coagulase, glucose and mannitol fermentation and termonuclease tests. Genotypic characterization (Staphylococcus genus and S.aureus species spesific) of isolates was performed by PCR. The ELISA test was applied to the isolates for the identification of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SET) A, B, C, D, E in bacterial cultures. Measurements were taken at 450 nm in an ELISA reader using an Ridascreen-Total set ELISA test kit (r-biopharm R4105-Enterotoxin A, B, C, D, E). The results were calculated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A total of 50 samples of 97 S. aureus was isolated. This number has been identified as 60 with PCR analysis. According to ELISA test, only 1 of 60 isolates were found to be enterotoxigenic. Enterotoxigenic strains were identified from the surface of salad chopping and cutting. In the kitchen of catering, S. aureus identification indicates a significant source of contamination. Especially, in raw consumed salad preparation phase of contamination is very important. This food can be a potential source of food-borne poisoning their terms, and they pose a significant risk to consumers have been identified.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, enterotoxin, catering, kitchen, health

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8 Investigating the Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hilal Keklicek, Baris Cetin, Yeliz Salci, Ayla Fil, Umut Altinkaynak, Kadriye Armutlu


Objectives and Goals: Spasticity is a common symptom characterized with a velocity dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone) in patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). Hypertonic muscles affect the normal plantigrade contact by disturbing accommodation of foot to the ground while walking. It is important to know the differences between healthy and neurologic foot features for management of spasticity related deformities and/or determination of rehabilitation purposes and contents. This study was planned with the aim of investigating the dynamic plantar pressure distribution in individuals with MS and determining the differences between healthy individuals (HI). Methods: Fifty-five individuals with MS (108 foot with spasticity according to Modified Ashworth Scale) and 20 HI (40 foot) were the participants of the study. The dynamic pedobarograph was utilized for evaluation of dynamic loading parameters. Participants were informed to walk at their self-selected speed for seven times to eliminate learning effect. The parameters were divided into 2 categories including; maximum loading pressure (N/cm2) and time of maximum pressure (ms) were collected from heal medial, heal lateral, mid foot, heads of first, second, third, fourth and fifth metatarsal bones. Results: There were differences between the groups in maximum loading pressure of heal medial (p < .001), heal lateral (p < .001), midfoot (p=.041) and 5th metatarsal areas (p=.036). Also, there were differences between the groups the time of maximum pressure of all metatarsal areas, midfoot, heal medial and heal lateral (p < .001) in favor of HI. Conclusions: The study provided basic data about foot pressure distribution in individuals with MS. Results of the study primarily showed that spasticity of lower extremity muscle disrupted the posteromedial foot loading. Secondarily, according to the study result, spasticity lead to inappropriate timing during load transfer from hind foot to forefoot.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, plantar pressure distribution, gait, norm values

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7 Development of Hydrodynamic Drag Calculation and Cavity Shape Generation for Supercavitating Torpedoes

Authors: Sertac Arslan, Sezer Kefeli


In this paper, firstly supercavitating phenomenon and supercavity shape design parameters are explained and then drag force calculation methods of high speed supercavitating torpedoes are investigated with numerical techniques and verified with empirical studies. In order to reach huge speeds such as 200, 300 knots for underwater vehicles, hydrodynamic hull drag force which is proportional to density of water (ρ) and square of speed should be reduced. Conventional heavy weight torpedoes could reach up to ~50 knots by classic underwater hydrodynamic techniques. However, to exceed 50 knots and reach about 200 knots speeds, hydrodynamic viscous forces must be reduced or eliminated completely. This requirement revives supercavitation phenomena that could be implemented to conventional torpedoes. Supercavitation is the use of cavitation effects to create a gas bubble, allowing the torpedo to move at huge speed through the water by being fully developed cavitation bubble. When the torpedo moves in a cavitation envelope due to cavitator in nose section and solid fuel rocket engine in rear section, this kind of torpedoes could be entitled as Supercavitating Torpedoes. There are two types of cavitation; first one is natural cavitation, and second one is ventilated cavitation. In this study, disk cavitator is modeled with natural cavitation and supercavitation phenomenon parameters are studied. Moreover, drag force calculation is performed for disk shape cavitator with numerical techniques and compared via empirical studies. Drag forces are calculated with computational fluid dynamics methods and different empirical methods. Numerical calculation method is developed by comparing with empirical results. In verification study cavitation number (σ), drag coefficient (CD) and drag force (D), cavity wall velocity (U

Keywords: cavity envelope, CFD, high speed underwater vehicles, supercavitation, supercavity flows

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6 PLO-AIM: Potential-Based Lane Organization in Autonomous Intersection Management

Authors: Berk Ecer, Ebru Akcapinar Sezer


Traditional management models of intersections, such as no-light intersections or signalized intersection, are not the most effective way of passing the intersections if the vehicles are intelligent. To this end, Dresner and Stone proposed a new intersection control model called Autonomous Intersection Management (AIM). In the AIM simulation, they were examining the problem from a multi-agent perspective, demonstrating that intelligent intersection control can be made more efficient than existing control mechanisms. In this study, autonomous intersection management has been investigated. We extended their works and added a potential-based lane organization layer. In order to distribute vehicles evenly to each lane, this layer triggers vehicles to analyze near lanes, and they change their lane if other lanes have an advantage. We can observe this behavior in real life, such as drivers, change their lane by considering their intuitions. Basic intuition on selecting the correct lane for traffic is selecting a less crowded lane in order to reduce delay. We model that behavior without any change in the AIM workflow. Experiment results show us that intersection performance is directly connected with the vehicle distribution in lanes of roads of intersections. We see the advantage of handling lane management with a potential approach in performance metrics such as average delay of intersection and average travel time. Therefore, lane management and intersection management are problems that need to be handled together. This study shows us that the lane through which vehicles enter the intersection is an effective parameter for intersection management. Our study draws attention to this parameter and suggested a solution for it. We observed that the regulation of AIM inputs, which are vehicles in lanes, was as effective as contributing to aim intersection management. PLO-AIM model outperforms AIM in evaluation metrics such as average delay of intersection and average travel time for reasonable traffic rates, which is in between 600 vehicle/hour per lane to 1300 vehicle/hour per lane. The proposed model reduced the average travel time reduced in between %0.2 - %17.3 and reduced the average delay of intersection in between %1.6 - %17.1 for 4-lane and 6-lane scenarios.

Keywords: AIM project, autonomous intersection management, lane organization, potential-based approach

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5 Investigation of Aerodynamic and Design Features of Twisting Tall Buildings

Authors: Sinan Bilgen, Bekir Ozer Ay, Nilay Sezer Uzol


After decades of conventional shapes, irregular forms with complex geometries are getting more popular for form generation of tall buildings all over the world. This trend has recently brought out diverse building forms such as twisting tall buildings. This study investigates both the aerodynamic and design features of twisting tall buildings through comparative analyses. Since twisting a tall building give rise to additional complexities related with the form and structural system, lateral load effects become of greater importance on these buildings. The aim of this study is to analyze the inherent characteristics of these iconic forms by comparing the wind loads on twisting tall buildings with those on their prismatic twins. Through a case study research, aerodynamic analyses of an existing twisting tall building and its prismatic counterpart were performed and the results have been compared. The prismatic twin of the original building were generated by removing the progressive rotation of its floors with the same plan area and story height. Performance-based measures under investigation have been evaluated in conjunction with the architectural design. Aerodynamic effects have been analyzed by both wind tunnel tests and computational methods. High frequency base balance tests and pressure measurements on 3D models were performed to evaluate wind load effects on a global and local scale. Comparisons of flat and real surface models were conducted to further evaluate the effects of the twisting form without façade texture contribution. Comparisons highlighted that, the twisting form under investigation shows better aerodynamic behavior both for along wind but particularly for across wind direction. Compared to the prismatic counterpart; twisting model is superior on reducing vortex-shedding dynamic response by disorganizing the wind vortices. Consequently, despite the difficulties arisen from inherent complexity of twisted forms, they could still be feasible and viable with their attractive images in the realm of tall buildings.

Keywords: aerodynamic tests, motivation for twisting, tall buildings, twisted forms, wind excitation

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4 Numerical Modelling of Hydrodynamic Drag and Supercavitation Parameters for Supercavitating Torpedoes

Authors: Sezer Kefeli, Sertaç Arslan


In this paper, supercavitationphenomena, and parameters are explained, and hydrodynamic design approaches are investigated for supercavitating torpedoes. In addition, drag force calculation methods ofsupercavitatingvehicles are obtained. Basically, conventional heavyweight torpedoes reach up to ~50 knots by classic hydrodynamic techniques, on the other hand super cavitating torpedoes may reach up to ~200 knots, theoretically. However, in order to reachhigh speeds, hydrodynamic viscous forces have to be reduced or eliminated completely. This necessity is revived the supercavitation phenomena that is implemented to conventional torpedoes. Supercavitation is a type of cavitation, after all, it is more stable and continuous than other cavitation types. The general principle of supercavitation is to separate the underwater vehicle from water phase by surrounding the vehicle with cavitation bubbles. This situation allows the torpedo to operate at high speeds through the water being fully developed cavitation. Conventional torpedoes are entitled as supercavitating torpedoes when the torpedo moves in a cavity envelope due to cavitator in the nose section and solid fuel rocket engine in the rear section. There are two types of supercavitation phase, these are natural and artificial cavitation phases. In this study, natural cavitation is investigated on the disk cavitators based on numerical methods. Once the supercavitation characteristics and drag reduction of natural cavitationare studied on CFD platform, results are verified with the empirical equations. As supercavitation parameters cavitation number (), pressure distribution along axial axes, drag coefficient (C_?) and drag force (D), cavity wall velocity (U_?) and dimensionless cavity shape parameters, which are cavity length (L_?/d_?), cavity diameter(d_ₘ/d_?) and cavity fineness ratio (〖L_?/d〗_ₘ) are investigated and compared with empirical results. This paper has the characteristics of feasibility study to carry out numerical solutions of the supercavitation phenomena comparing with empirical equations.

Keywords: CFD, cavity envelope, high speed underwater vehicles, supercavitating flows, supercavitation, drag reduction, supercavitation parameters

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3 Evaluation of the Pathogenicity Test of Some Entomopathogenic Fungus Isolates against Tomato Leaf Miner Tuta Absoluta (Meyrick) Larvae [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae])

Authors: Tadesse Kebede, Orkun Baris Kovanci


Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta) is one of the most economically important insect pest in tomatoes production. The use of biological control such as entomopathogen fungi isolates would be a long-term and cost-effective solution to control insects pest. Therefore, identifying the most virulent and pathogenic entomopathogen fungi is one of the basic requirements for effective management options to combat Tomatoes leaf minor (Tutaabasoluta). Furthermore, the pathogenicity and virulence difference among entomopathogenfungus strains is not widely well investıgated. The current study was therefore initiated to test the pathogenicity of some entomopathogenic fungus isolates against Tutaabsoluta. The experiment was conducted at Bursa Uludag University, Agiculutre faculty, horticulture department glasshouse in 2020/2021. Tutabasoluta adult were collected, and masslarvae were reared in a growth chamber. Then, ten third instar larvae were inoculated with four entomopathogen fungi isolates (Beuaveriabassania Ak-10, Beuaveriabassania Ak-14, Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11, and Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-12) with different inoculum suspension (0, 1x10⁶, 1x10⁷,,4 × 10⁸, 4× 10⁹ and 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml) in a factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete block design with three replication. Mortality data assessment was done on the 3rd, 5thand 7th days after treatment and analyzed. The analysis of variance for mortality rate revealed significant variations (p<0.05) among entomoptahogen fungi isolates and conidia concentrations. The results revealed thatMetarhziumanisoplai Ak-12was found to show the lowest mortality percentage80.77%, highest LC50 2.3x108, and the longest incubation period, LT50, 4.9 and LT90, 9.9daysand considered to be less pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Beuaveriabassania Ak-10 isolate showed the highest mortality percentage, 91%, and the lowest LT50, 4, and LT90, 7.6 values at 1×10¹⁰ conidia /ml, followed by Beuaveriabassania Ak-14 and being considered as the most aggressive bio-agent. Metarhziumanisoplai Ak-11 was determined as moderately virulent, having a mortality rate 27-81%. Results also revealed that among conidia concentrations, 1x10⁹ and 1x10¹⁰ suspensions is the most effective, while 1x10⁶ conidia/ml concentration is the least effective. Hence, results indicated that EPF tested were effective against T. absoluta larvae. As the current work revealed the potential variation among entomopathogen fungi isolates and concentration against third instar larvae.

Keywords: tuta absoluta, tomato, metarhizium anisopliae, beauveria bassiana, biological control

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2 Interface Designer as Cultural Producer: A Dialectic Materialist Approach to the Role of Visual Designer in the Present Digital Era

Authors: Cagri Baris Kasap


In this study, how interface designers can be viewed as producers of culture in the current era will be interrogated from a critical theory perspective. Walter Benjamin was a German Jewish literary critical theorist who, during 1930s, was engaged in opposing and criticizing the Nazi use of art and media. ‘The Author as Producer’ is an essay that Benjamin has read at the Communist Institute for the Study of Fascism in Paris. In this article, Benjamin relates directly to the dialectics between base and superstructure and argues that authors, normally placed within the superstructure should consider how writing and publishing is production and directly related to the base. Through it, he discusses what it could mean to see author as producer of his own text, as a producer of writing, understood as an ideological construct that rests on the apparatus of production and distribution. So Benjamin concludes that the author must write in ways that relate to the conditions of production, he must do so in order to prepare his readers to become writers and even make this possible for them by engineering an ‘improved apparatus’ and must work toward turning consumers to producers and collaborators. In today’s world, it has become a leading business model within Web 2.0 services of multinational Internet technologies and culture industries like Amazon, Apple and Google, to transform readers, spectators, consumers or users into collaborators and co-producers through platforms such as Facebook, YouTube and Amazon’s CreateSpace Kindle Direct Publishing print-on-demand, e-book and publishing platforms. However, the way this transformation happens is tightly controlled and monitored by combinations of software and hardware. In these global-market monopolies, it has become increasingly difficult to get insight into how one’s writing and collaboration is used, captured, and capitalized as a user of Facebook or Google. In the lens of this study, it could be argued that this criticism could very well be considered by digital producers or even by the mass of collaborators in contemporary social networking software. How do software and design incorporate users and their collaboration? Are they truly empowered, are they put in a position where they are able to understand the apparatus and how their collaboration is part of it? Or has the apparatus become a means against the producers? Thus, when using corporate systems like Google and Facebook, iPhone and Kindle without any control over the means of production, which is closed off by opaque interfaces and licenses that limit our rights of use and ownership, we are already the collaborators that Benjamin calls for. For example, the iPhone and the Kindle combine a specific use of technology to distribute the relations between the ‘authors’ and the ‘prodUsers’ in ways that secure their monopolistic business models by limiting the potential of the technology.

Keywords: interface designer, cultural producer, Walter Benjamin, materialist aesthetics, dialectical thinking

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1 Verification of the Supercavitation Phenomena: Investigation of the Cavity Parameters and Drag Coefficients for Different Types of Cavitator

Authors: Sezer Kefeli, Sertaç Arslan


Supercavitation is a pressure dependent process which gives opportunity to eliminate the wetted surface effects on the underwater vehicle due to the differences of viscosity and velocity effects between liquid (freestream) and gas phase. Cavitation process occurs depending on rapid pressure drop or temperature rising in liquid phase. In this paper, pressure based cavitation is investigated due to the fact that is encountered in the underwater world, generally. Basically, this vapor-filled pressure based cavities are unstable and harmful for any underwater vehicle because these cavities (bubbles or voids) lead to intense shock waves while collapsing. On the other hand, supercavitation is a desired and stabilized phenomena than general pressure based cavitation. Supercavitation phenomena offers the idea of minimizing form drag, and thus supercavitating vehicles are revived. When proper circumstances are set up, which are either increasing the operating speed of the underwater vehicle or decreasing the pressure difference between free stream and artificial pressure, the continuity of the supercavitation is obtainable. There are 2 types of supercavitation to obtain stable and continuous supercavitation, and these are called as natural and artificial supercavitation. In order to generate natural supercavitation, various mechanical structures are discovered, which are called as cavitators. In literature, a lot of cavitator types are studied either experimentally or numerically on a CFD platforms with intent to observe natural supercavitation since the 1900s. In this paper, firstly, experimental results are obtained, and trend lines are generated based on supercavitation parameters in terms of cavitation number (), form drag coefficientC_D, dimensionless cavity diameter (d_m/d_c), and length (L_c/d_c). After that, natural cavitation verification studies are carried out for disk and cone shape cavitators. In addition, supercavitation parameters are numerically analyzed at different operating conditions, and CFD results are fitted into trend lines of experimental results. The aims of this paper are to generate one generally accepted drag coefficient equation for disk and cone cavitators at different cavitator half angle and investigation of the supercavitation parameters with respect to cavitation number. Moreover, 165 CFD analysis are performed at different cavitation numbers on FLUENT version 21R2. Five different cavitator types are modeled on SCDM with respect tocavitator’s half angles. After that, CFD database is generated depending on numerical results, and new trend lines are generated based on supercavitation parameters. These trend lines are compared with experimental results. Finally, the generally accepted drag coefficient equation and equations of supercavitation parameters are generated.

Keywords: cavity envelope, CFD, high speed underwater vehicles, supercavitation, supercavitating flows, supercavitation parameters, drag reduction, viscous force elimination, natural cavitation verification

Procedia PDF Downloads 58