Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: HPMC

24 Coating Solutions: Study of Rheology Behavior

Authors: D. Abid, A. Guettar, A. Toubane, A. Bouda, K. Daoud

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study coating formulations rheology. Fourteen solutions were prepared with Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) percentage which varies from 2 to 20 %, Ethyl cellulose (EC) percentage varying from 1 to 3 % and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) percentage which vary from 1 to 3%, Opadry solution (25%) was used as a reference for this study. Two behaviors appeared obviously ‘pseudo plastic’ and ‘dilatant’ related to the percentage of HPMC, this allowed us to define that HPMC is the polymer which influence the behavior of coating solutions.

Keywords: rheology, opadry, HPMC, B1-B6 tablets

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23 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Floating Tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

Authors: Gajera Lalit, Shah Pranav, Shah Shailesh

Abstract:

Venlafaxine hydrochloride has a short elimination half-life of 5 ± 2 hr, and absorption window in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The conventional tablets need to be administered two to three times a day and possess an oral bioavailability of 45%. The purpose of this study was to formulate gastroretentive effervescent floating tablets of Venlafaxine HCl. Different grades of HPMC namely K15M, K4M, K100M and E15LV were employed as swelling polymers whereas sodium bicarbonate was employed as gas generating agent. The direct compression method was employed for the formulation of tablets. The tablets were evaluated in terms of hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, water uptake, in-vitro floating behavior and in-vitro drug release study. All the formulations exhibited very short floating lag time of < 1 min and total floating time of 12 hr. Formulation L3 containing 25 mg and 75 mg of HPMC E15 LV and HPMC K15M respectively exhibited complete drug release within 12 hrs.

Keywords: venlafaxine HCl, hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose, floating gastro retentive tablets, in-vitro drug release, non-fickian diffusion

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22 Exploring the Effect of Cellulose Based Coating Incorporated with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on Shelf Life Extension of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata blanco) Cultivar

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Muhammad Nadeem

Abstract:

Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) is nutritious and perishable fruit with high juice content, and also rich source of vitamin-C. In Pakistan, kinnow export is limited due to inadequate post-harvest handling and lack of satisfactory storage practices. Considering these issues, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coating in combination with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on shelf life extension of kinnow. Fruits were treated with different levels of CaCl2 and MgSO4 followed by HPMC coating (3 and 5%) and stored at 10°C with 80% relative humidity for 6 weeks. Fruits were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters on weekly basis. During this study lower fruit firmness (0.24Nm-2), loss in weight (0.64%) and ethylene production (0.039 µL•kg-1•hr-1) was observed in fruits treated with 1% CaCl2 + 1% MgSO4 + 5% HPMC (T6) during storage of 42 days. Minimum chilling injury indexes 0.22% and 0.61% were recorded in treatments T4 and T6, respectively. T6 showed higher values of titerable acidity (0.29%) and ascorbic acid contents (39.82mg/100g). Minimum TSS (9.62°Brix) was found in fruits of T6. Overall T6 showed significantly better results for various parameters, as compared to all other treated and control fruits.

Keywords: firmness, kinnow coating, physicochemical, storage

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21 Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Matrix Formulation and Its Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation

Authors: Swapnila V. Shinde, Hemant P. Joshi, Sumit R. Dhas, Dhananjaysingh B. Rajput

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to develop hydro-dynamically balanced system for atenolol, β-blocker as a single unit floating tablet. Atenolol shows pH dependent solubility resulting into a bioavailability of 36%. Thus, site specific oral controlled release floating drug delivery system was developed. Formulation includes novice use of rate controlling polymer such as locust bean gum (LBG) in combination of HPMC K4M and gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate. Tablet was prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for physico-mechanical properties. The statistical method was utilized to optimize the effect of independent variables, namely amount of HPMC K4M, LBG and three dependent responses such as cumulative drug release, floating lag time, floating time. Graphical and mathematical analysis of the results allowed the identification and quantification of the formulation variables influencing the selected responses. To study the gastrointestinal transit of the optimized gastro-retentive formulation, in vivo gamma scintigraphy was carried out in six healthy rabbits, after radio labeling the formulation with 99mTc. The transit profiles demonstrated that the dosage form was retained in the stomach for more than 5 hrs. The study signifies the potential of the developed system for stomach targeted delivery of atenolol with improved bioavailability.

Keywords: floating tablet, factorial design, gamma scintigraphy, antihypertensive model drug, HPMC, locust bean gum

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20 Reduction of the Cellular Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 by a Mucoadhesive Nasal Spray

Authors: Adam M. Pitz, Gillian L. Phillipson, Jayant E. Khanolkar, Andrew M. Middleton

Abstract:

New emerging evidence suggests that the nose is the predominant route for entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the host. A virucidal suspension test (conforming in principle to the European Standard EN14476) was conducted to determine whether a commercial liquid gel intranasal spray containing 1% of the mucoadhesive hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could inhibit the cellular infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Virus was added to the test product samples and to controls in a 1:8 ratio and mixed with one part bovine serum albumin as an interfering substance. The test samples were pre-equilibrated to 34 ± 2°C (representing the temperature of the nasopharynx) with the temperature maintained at 34 ± 2°C for virus contact times of 1, 5 and 10 minutes. Neutralized aliquots were inoculated onto host cells (Vero E6 cells, ATCC CRL-1586). The host cells were then incubated at 36 ± 2°C for a period of 7 days. The residual infectious virus in both test and controls was detected by viral-induced cytopathic effect. The 50% tissue culture infective dose per mL (TCID50/mL) was determined using the Spearman-Karber method with results reported as the reduction of the virus titer due to treatment with test product, expressed as log10. The controls confirmed the validity of the results with no cytotoxicity or viral interference observed in the neutralized test product samples. The HPMC formulation reduced SARS-CoV-2 titer, expressed as log10TCID50, by 2.30 ( ± 0.17), 2.60 ( ± 0.19), and 3.88 ( ± 0.19) with the respective contact times of 1, 5 and 10 minutes. The results demonstrate that this 1% HPMC gel formulation can reduce the cellular infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus with an increasing viral inhibition observed with increasing exposure time. This 1% HMPC gel is well tolerated and can reside, when delivered via nasal spray, for up to one hour in the nasal cavity. We conclude that this intranasal gel spray with 1% HPMC repeat-dosed every few hours may offer an effective preventive or early intervention solution to limit the transmission and impact of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus.

Keywords: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, mucoadhesive nasal spray, respiratory viruses, SARS-CoV-2

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19 Formulation and Evaluation of Colon-Specific Drug Delivery System of Zaltoprofen

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. P. Vadnere, G. Vidya Sagar

Abstract:

Compression coating is one of the strategies for delivering drug to the colon based on Gastrointestinal PH and transit time concept. The main aim of these formulations to develop rapidly disintegrating Zaltoprofen core tablets compression-coated with a mixture of time-dependent hydrophilic swellable polymer HPMC K 15 and PH responsive soluble polymer Chitosan and Guar gum in different ratios. The effect of the proportion of HPMC, Chitosan and Guar gum in the coat on premature drug release in upper part (Stomach and small intestine) of GIT and the amount of drug release in colon target area was studied. The formulations are carried out by using Direct Compression method. Sodium starch Glycolate used for rapid disintegration. FTIR used for Drug-Polymer Interaction studies. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, in-vitro disintegration, in-Vitro dissolution and in-vitro kinetic study.

Keywords: zaltoprofen, chitosan, formulation, drug delivery

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18 Improvement of Thermal Stability in Ethylene Methyl Acrylate Composites for Gasket Application

Authors: Pemika Ketsuwan, Pitt Supaphol, Manit Nithitanakul

Abstract:

A typical used of ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) gasket is in the manufacture of optical lens, and often, they are deteriorated rapidly due to high temperature during the process. The objective of this project is to improve the thermal stability of the EMA copolymer gasket by preparing EMA with cellulose and silica composites. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) were used in preparing of EMA/cellulose composites and fumed silica (SiO2) was used in preparing EMA/silica composites with different amounts of filler (3, 5, 7, 10, 15 wt.%), using a twin screw extruder at 160 °C and the test specimens were prepared by the injection molding machine. The morphology and dispersion of fillers in the EMA matrix were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The thermal stability of the composite was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing. The developed composites were found to enhance thermal and mechanical properties when compared to that of the EMA copolymer alone.

Keywords: ethylene methyl acrylate, HPMC, Silica, Thermal stability

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17 Arothron Stellatus Fish Skin Collagen Based Composite Biosheet Incorporated with Mupirocin as a Potential Dermal Substitute for Skin Tissue Regeneration

Authors: Giriprasath Ramanathan, Sivakumar Singaravelu, M. D. Raja, Uma Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam

Abstract:

Collagen is the abundant protein found in the skin of the animal body that has been designed to provide adequate structural support for the adhesion of cells. The dressing material widely used for tissue engineering and biomedical application has to posses good swelling and biological property for the absorption of exudates and cell proliferation. Acid solubilised collagen from the fish skin of the Arothron stellatus was extracted. The collagen with hydroxypropyl and carboxy methyl cellulose has the better biological property to enhance the healing efficiency. The inter property of collagen with interesting perspectives in the tissue engineering process leads to the development of biomaterial with natural polymer with biologically derived collagen. Keeping this as an objective, the composite biomaterial was fabricated to improve the wound healing and biological properties. In this study the collagen from Arothron stellatus fish skin (ACO) was uniformly blended separately with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) as biosheets. The casted biosheets were impregnated with mupirocin to get rid of infection from the microbes. Further, the results obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile studies and biocompatibility of the biosheets were assessed. The swelling, porosity and degradation of the casted biosheets were studied to make the biosheets as a suitable wound dressing material. ACO-HPMC and ACO-CMC biosheets both showed good results, but ACO-HPMC biosheet showed better results than ACO-CMC and hence it can be used as a potential dermal substitute in skin tissue engineering.

Keywords: arothron stellatus, biocompatibility, collagen, tensile strenght

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16 Design and Development of Sustained Release Floating Tablet of Stavudine

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. Vidya Sagar, G. P. Vadnere

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to prolong the gastric residence time of Stavudine by developing gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS). Moreover, to study influence of different polymers on its release rate using gas-forming agents, like sodium bicarbonate, citric acid. Floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using PVP K-30 as a binder and the other polymers include Pullulan Gum, HPMC K100M, six different formulations with the varying concentrations of polymers were prepared and the tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, Haunsner ratio, angle of repose, compressibility index, post compression physical characteristics, in vitro release, buoyancy, floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) and swelling index. All the formulations showed good floating lag time i.e. less than 3 mins. The batch containing combination of Pullulan Gum and HPMC 100M (i.e. F-6) showed total floating lag time more than 12 h., the highest swelling index among all the prepared batches. The drug release was found to follow zero order kinetics.

Keywords: Suavudine, floating, total floating time (TFT), gastric residence

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15 Formulation of Extended-Release Gliclazide Tablet Using a Mathematical Model for Estimation of Hypromellose

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of gliclazide in the form of extended-release tablet in 30 and 60 mg dosage forms was performed using hypromellose (HPMC K4M) as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with references Diamicron MR 30 and 60 mg tablets. The effect of size of powder particles, the amount of hypromellose in formulation, hardness of tablets, and also the effect of halving the tablets were investigated on drug release profile. A mathematical model which describes hypromellose behavior in initial times of drug release was proposed for the estimation of hypromellose content in modified-release gliclazide 60 mg tablet. This model is based on erosion of hypromellose in dissolution media. The model is applicable to describe release profiles of insoluble drugs. Therefore, by using dissolved amount of drug in initial times of dissolution and the model, the amount of hypromellose in formulation can be predictable. The model was used to predict the HPMC K4M content in modified-release gliclazide 30 mg and extended-release quetiapine 200 mg tablets.

Keywords: Gliclazide, hypromellose, drug release, modified-release tablet, mathematical model

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14 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Levetiracetam for Better Epileptic Treatment

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release oral matrix tablets of anti epileptic drug levetiracetam. The sustained release matrix tablets of levetiracetam were prepared using hydrophilic matrix hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release retarding polymer by wet granulation method. Prior to compression, FTIR studies were performed to understand the compatibility between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients used in the study. The tablets were characterized by physical and chemical parameters and results were found in acceptable limits. In vitro release study was carried out for the tablets using 0.1 N HCl for 2 hours and in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for remaining time up to 12 hours. The effect of polymer concentration was studied. Different dissolution models were applied to drug release data in order to evaluate release mechanisms and kinetics. The drug release data fit well to zero order kinetics. Drug release mechanism was found as a complex mixture of diffusion, swelling and erosion.

Keywords: levetiracetam, sustained-release, hydrophilic matrix tablet, HPMC grade K 100 MCR, wet granulation, zero order release kinetics

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13 Development, Optimization and Characterization of Gastroretentive Multiparticulate Drug Delivery System

Authors: Swapnila V. Vanshiv, Hemant P. Joshi, Atul B. Aware

Abstract:

Current study illustrates the formulation of floating microspheres for purpose of gastroretention of Dipyridamole which shows pH dependent solubility, with the highest solubility in acidic pH. The formulation involved hollow microsphere preparation by using solvent evaporation technique. Concentrations of rate controlling polymer, hydrophilic polymer, internal phase ratio, stirring speed were optimized to get desired responses, namely release of Dipyridamole, buoyancy of microspheres, entrapment efficiency of microspheres. In the formulation, the floating microspheres were prepared by using ethyl cellulose as release retardant and HPMC as a low density hydrophilic swellable polymer. Formulated microspheres were evaluated for their physical properties such as particle size and surface morphology by optical microscopy and SEM. Entrapment efficiency, floating behavior and drug release study as well the formulation was evaluated for in vivo gastroretention in rabbits using gamma scintigraphy. Formulation showed 75% drug release up to 10 hr with entrapment efficiency of 91% and 88% buoyancy till 10 hr. Gamma scintigraphic studies revealed that the optimized system was retained in the gastric region (stomach) for a prolonged period i.e. more than 5 hr.

Keywords: Dipyridamole microspheres, gastroretention, HPMC, optimization method

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12 Formulation and Evaluation of Lisinopril Microspheres for Nasal Delivery

Authors: S. S. Patil, R. M. Mhetre, S. V. Patil

Abstract:

Lisinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure in prophylactic treatment after myocardial infarction and in diabetic nephropathy. However, it is very poorly absorbed from gastro-intestinal tract. Intranasal administration is an ideal alternative to the parenteral route for systemic drug delivery. Formulating multiparticulate system with mucoadhesive polymers provide a significant increase in the nasal residence time. The aim of the present approach was to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional dosage forms of lisinopril by formulating intranasal microspheres with Carbopol 974P NF and HPMC K4 M along with film forming polymer ethyl cellulose.The microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The prepared microspheres were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, particle size, and surface morphology, degree of swelling, ex vivo mucoadhesion, drug release, ex vivo diffusion studies. All formulations has shown entrapment efficiency between 80 to more than 95%, mucoadhesion was more than 80 % and drug release up to 90 %. Ex vivo studies revealed tht the improved bioavailability of drug compared to oral drug administration. Both in vitro and in vivo studies conclude that combination of Carbopol and HPMC based microspheres shown better results than single carbopol based microspheres for the delivery of lisinopril.

Keywords: microspheres, lisinopril, nasal delivery, solvent evaporation method

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11 Effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) Coating in Combination with MGSO4 on Some Guava Cultivars

Authors: Muhammad Randhawa, Muhammad Nadeem

Abstract:

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a vital source of minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber and antioxidants. Owing to highly perishable nature and proning towards chilling injury, diseases, insect-pests and physical damage the main drawbacks of guava after harvesting, present study was designed. Due to its delicacy in physiology, economic importance, effects of pre and postharvest factors and maturity indices, guava fruits should be given prime importance for good quality attributes. In this study guava fruits were stored at 10°C with 80% relative humidity after treating with different levels of sulphate salt of magnesium followed by dipping in cellulose based edible coating hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). The main objective of this coating was to enhance the shelf life of guava by inhibiting the respiration and also by binding the dissolved solids with salt application. Characterization for quality attributes including physical, physiological and bio chemical analysis was performed after every 7 days interval till the fruit remains edible during the storage period of 4 weeks. Finally, data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded on statistical basis that Surahi variety (treated with 5% MgSO4) showed best storage stability and kept its original quality up to almost 23 days during storage.

Keywords: edible coating, guava cultivars, physicochemical attributes, storage

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10 Combined Effect of Gluten-Free Superfoods and by-Products from Ecuador to Evaluate the Functional and Sensory Properties of Breadmaking

Authors: Andrea Vasquez, Pedro Maldonado-Alvarado

Abstract:

In general, 'gluten-free' foods like breadmaking products provide functional or nutraceutical benefits for the consumer's health and increased their demand on the market. In Ecuador, there is an overproduction of superfoods, and the food by-products are undervalued. For the first time, to the author's best knowledge, gluten-free bread mixtures from quinoa and banana flour, cassava starch, lupine flour (LF), or whey protein (WP) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and transglutaminase (TG) were evaluated on their functional and sensory properties. Free amino groups and thiols, rheology, and electrophoresis SDS PAGE were performed to analyze the crosslinking of TG at different concentrations with HC or PL proteins. Dough characterization, pasting properties were evaluated, respectively, by a MIXOLAB and a rheometer with a pasting cell. The texture, porosity, and loaf volume were characterized using a texturometer, ImageJ software, and breadmaking ability, respectively. Finally, a breadmaking aptitude and sensorial bread acceptability were performed. A significant decrease in the content of free amino groups (0.16 to 0.11 and 0.46 to 0.36 mM/mg of protein) and free thiol groups (0.37 to 0.21 and 1.79 to 1.32 mM/mg protein) was observed when 1.0% and 0.5% TG were added to LF and WP, respectively. In apparent viscosity analysis, the action of TG on HC proteins changes their viscosity, while the viscosity of LF is not modified by TG. Results of electrophoresis in PL showed bands of higher molecular weight of different fragments of proteins with 1% TG. Formulation with 59.8, 39.9, 160.8, 6.0, 1.0, and 1.5% of, respectively, QF, BF, CS, LF or WP, TG, and HPMC had the best properties in dough parameters, pasting parameters (lower pasting temperature and higher peak viscosity), best crumb structure, lower crumb hardness and higher loaf volume (2.24 and 2.28 mL/g). All the loaves of bread were acceptable in baking aptitude and general acceptability.

Keywords: breadmaking, gluten-free, superfoods, by-products, Ecuador

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9 Identifying and Optimizing the Critical Excipients in Moisture Activated Dry Granulation Process for Two Anti TB Drugs of Different Aqueous Solubilities

Authors: K. Srujana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar

Abstract:

Isoniazide (INH) a freely water soluble and pyrazinamide (Z) a practically water insoluble first line anti tubercular (TB) drugs were identified as candidates for optimizing the Moisture Activated Dry Granulation (MADG) process. The work focuses on identifying the effect of binder type and concentration as well as the effect of magnesium stearate level on critical quality attributes of Disintegration time (DT) and in vitro dissolution test when the tablets are processed by the MADG process. Also, the level of the drug concentration, binder concentration and fluid addition during the agglomeration stage of the MADG process was evaluated and optimized. For INH, it was identified that for tablets with HPMC as binder at both 2% w/w and 5% w/w level and Magnesium stearate upto 1%w/w as lubrication the DT is within 1 minute and the dissolution rate is the fastest (> 80% in 15 minutes) as compared to when PVP or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. Regarding the process, fast disintegrating and rapidly dissolving tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 25% w/w 0% w/w binder and 0.033%. w/w. At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is also slower. For pyrazinamide,it was identified that for the tablets with 2% w/w level of each of PVP as binder and Cross Caramellose Sodium disintegrant the DT is within 2 minutes and the dissolution rate is the fastest(>80 in 15 minutes)as compared to when HPMC or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. This may be attributed to the fact that PVP may be acting as a solubilizer for the practically insoluble Pyrazinamide. Regarding the process,fast dispersing and rapidly disintegrating tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 10% w/w,25% w/w binder and 1% w/w.At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is comparatively slower and less complete.

Keywords: agglomeration stage, isoniazide, MADG, moisture distribution stage, pyrazinamide

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8 Formulation and Evaluation of Solid Dispersion of an Anti-Epileptic Drug Carbamazepine

Authors: Sharmin Akhter, M. Salahuddin, Sukalyan Kumar Kundu, Mohammad Fahim Kadir

Abstract:

Relatively insoluble candidate drug like carbamazepine (CBZ) often exhibit incomplete or erratic absorption; and hence wide consideration is given to improve aqueous solubility of such compound. Solid dispersions were formulated with an aim of improving aqueous solubility, oral bioavailability and the rate of dissolution of Carbamazepine using different hydrophyllic polymer like Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 6000, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 4000, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 cps, poloxamer 407 and povidone k 30. Solid dispersions were prepared with different drug to polymer weight ratio by the solvent evaporation method where methanol was used as solvent. Drug-polymer physical mixtures were also prepared to compare the rate of dissolution. Effects of different polymer were studied for solid dispersion formulation as well as physical mixtures. These formulations were characterized in the solid state by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Solid state characterization indicated CBZ was present as fine particles and entrapped in carrier matrix of PEG 6000 and PVP K30 solid dispersions. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies showed the stability of CBZ and absence of well-defined drug-polymer interactions. In contrast to the very slow dissolution rate of pure CBZ, dispersions of drug in polymers considerably improved the dissolution rate. This can be attributed to increased wettability and dispersibility, as well as decreased crystallinity and increase in amorphous fraction of drug. Solid dispersion formulations containing PEG 6000 and Povidone K 30 showed maximum drug release within one hour at the ratio of 1:1:1. Even physical mixtures of CBZ prepared with both carriers also showed better dissolution profiles than those of pure CBZ. In conclusions, solid dispersions could be a promising delivery of CBZ with improved oral bioavailability and immediate release profiles.

Keywords: carbamazepine, FTIR, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 CPS, PEG 6000, PEG 4000, poloxamer 407, water solubility, povidone k 30, SEM, solid dispersion

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7 Formulation and In vivo Evaluation of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Long Acting Tablet

Authors: Abdulwahhab Khedr, Tamer Shehata, Hanaa El-Ghamry

Abstract:

Venlafaxine HCl is a novel antidepressant drug used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Conventional therapeutic regimens with venlafaxine HCl immediate-release dosage forms require frequent dosing due to short elimination half-life of the drug and reduced bioavailability. Hence, this study was carried out to develop sustained-release dosage forms of venlafaxine HCl to reduce its dosing frequency, to improve patient compliance and to reduce side effects of the drug. The polymers used were hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, xanthan gum, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, Carbopol 940 and ethyl cellulose. The physical properties of the prepared tablets including tablet thickness, diameter, weight uniformity, content uniformity, hardness and friability were evaluated. Also, the in-vitro release of venlafaxine HCl from different matrix tablets was studied. Based on physical characters and in-vitro release profiles, certain formulae showing promising sustained-release profiles were subjected to film coating with 15% w/v EC in dichloromethane/ethanol mixture (1:1 ratio) using 1% w/v HPMC as pore former and 30% w/w dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer. The optimized formulations were investigated for drug-excipient compatibility using FTIR and DSC studies. Physical evaluation of the prepared tablets fulfilled the pharmacopoeial requirements for tablet friability test, where the weight loss of the prepared formulae did not exceed 1% of the weight of the tested tablets. Moderate release was obtained from tablets containing HPMC. FTIR and DSC studies for such formulae revealed the absence of any type of chemical interaction between venlafaxine HCl and the used polymers or excipients. Forced swimming test in rats was used to evaluate the antidepressant activity of the selected matrix tablets of venlafaxine HCl. Results showed that formulations significantly decreased the duration of animals’ immobility during the 24 hr-period of the test compared to non-treated group.

Keywords: antidepressant, sustained-release, matrix tablet, venlafaxine hydrochloride

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6 Design and Development of Mucoadhesive Buccal Film Bearing Itraconazole

Authors: Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Kamta Prasad Namdeo, Surendra Bodhake

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive films for buccal administration of itraconazole using film-forming and mucoashesive polymers. Buccal films of chitosan bearing Itraconazole were prepared by solvent casting technique. The films have been evaluated in terms of film weight, thickness, density, surface pH, FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, bioadhesion, swelling properties, and in vitro drug release studies. It was found that film formulations of 2 cm2 size having weight in the range of 204 ± 0.76 to 223 ± 2.09 mg and film thickness were in the range of 0.44 ± 0.11 to 0.57 ± 0.19 mm. Density of the films was found to be 0.102 to 0.126 g/ml. Drug content was found to be uniform in the range of 8.23 ± 0.07 to 8.73 ± 0.09 mg/cm2 for formulation A1 to A4. Maximum bioadhesion force was recorded for HPMC buccal films (A2) i.e. 0.57 ± 0.47 as compared to other films. In vitro residence time was in range of 1.7 ± 0.12 to 7.65 ± 0.15 h. The drug release studies show that formulations follow non-fickian diffusion. These mucoadhesive formulations could offer many advantages in comparison to traditional treatments.

Keywords: biovariability, buccal patches, itraconazole, Mucoadhesion

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5 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

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4 Enhancement of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Solubility via Solid Dispersion Technique

Authors: Tamer M. Shehata, Heba S. Elsewedy, Mashel Al Dosary, Alaa Elshehry, Mohamed A. Khedr, Maged E. Mohamed

Abstract:

Objective: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) is a well-known herbicide widely used as a weed killer. Recently, 2,4-D was rediscovered as a new anti-inflammatory agent through in silico as well as in-vivo experiments. However, poor solubility of 2,4-D could represent a problems during pharmaceutical development in addition to lower bioavailability. Solid dispersion (SD) refers to a group of solid products consisting of at least two different components, usually a hydrophobic drug and hydrophilic matrix. It is well known technique for enhancing drug solubility. Therefore, selecting SD as a tool for enhancing 2,4-D could be of great interest to the formulator. Method: In our project, several polymers were investigated (such as PEG, HPMC, citric acid and others) in addition to drug polymer ratios and its effect on solubility. Evaluation of drug polymer interaction was investigated through both Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, in-vivo evaluation was performed for the best selected preparation through inflammatory response of rat induce hind paw. Results: Results indicated that, citric acid 2,4-D and in ratio of 0.75 : 1 showed modified the dissolution profile of the drug. The FTIR resltes indicated no significant chemical interaction, however DSC showed shifting of the drug melting point. Finally, Carragenan induced rat hind paw edema showed significant reduction of the drug solid dispersion in comparison to the pure drug, indicating rapid and complete absorption of the drug in solid dispersion form. Conclusion: Solid dispersion technology can be utilized efficiently to enhance the solubility of 2,4-D.

Keywords: solid dispersion, 2, 4-D solubility, carragenan induced edema

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3 Preparation and Optimization of Curcumin-HPβCD Complex Bioadhesive Vaginal Films for Vaginal Candidiasis by Factorial Design

Authors: Umme Hani, H. G. Shivakumar, M. D. Younus Pasha

Abstract:

The purpose of this work was to design and optimize a novel vaginal drug delivery system for more effective treatment against vaginal candidiasis. To achieve a better therapeutic efficacy and patient compliance in the treatment for vaginal candidiasis, herbal antifungal agent Curcumin which is 2.5 fold more potent than fluconazole at inhibiting the adhesion of candida albicans has been formulated in a bio-adhesive vaginal film. Curcumin was formulated in bio-adhesive film formulations that could be retained in the vagina for prolonged intervals. The polymeric films were prepared by solvent evaporation and optimized for various physicodynamic and aesthetic properties. Curcumin HPβCD (Hydroxypropyl β Cyclodextrin) was first developed to increase the solubility of curcumin. The formation of the Curcumin HPβCD complex was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and FT-IR and evaluated for its solubility. Curcumin HPβCD complex was formulated in a bio-adhesive film using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934P and characterized. DSC and FT-IR data of Curcumin HPβCD indicate there was complex formation between the drug and HPβCD. The little moisture content (8.02±0.34% w/w) was present in the film, which helps them to remain stable and kept them from being completely dry and brittle. The mechanical properties, tensile strength, and percentage elongation at break reveal that the formulations were found to be soft and tough. The films showed good peelability, relatively good swelling index, and moderate tensile strength and retained vaginal mucosa up to 8 h. The developed Curcumin vaginal film could be a promising safe herbal medication and can ensure longer residence at the vagina and provide an efficient therapy for vaginal candidiasis.

Keywords: curcumin, curcumin-HPβCD complex, bio-adhesive vaginal film, vaginal candidiasis, 23 factorial design

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2 Development of Biodegradable Wound Healing Patch of Curcumin

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari

Abstract:

The objective of the present research work is to develop a topical biodegradable dermal patch based formulation to aid accelerated wound healing. It is always better for patient compliance to be able to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and overall therapeutic efficacy. In present study optimized formulation using biodegradable components was obtained evaluating polymers and excipients (HPMC K4M, Ethylcellulose, Povidone, Polyethylene glycol and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity, and strength. Molten gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in acidic medium was mixed with stirring to Gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added with the aid of DCM and Methanol in an optimized ratio of 60:40 to get homogenous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in the final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23°C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2°C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2°C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2°C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as tested in vivo with correlation factor R2>0.9. In in vivo study administration of one dose in equivalent quantity per 2 days was applied topically. The data demonstrated a significant improvement with percentage wound contraction in contrast to control and plain drug respectively in given period. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and in vivo performance.

Keywords: wound healing, biodegradable, polymers, patch

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1 Branched Chain Amino Acid Kinesio PVP Gel Tape from Extract of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technology

Authors: Doni Dermawan

Abstract:

Modern sports competition as a consequence of the increase in the value of the business and entertainment in the field of sport has been demanding athletes to always have excellent physical endurance performance. Physical exercise is done in a long time, and intensive may pose a risk of muscle tissue damage caused by the increase of the enzyme creatine kinase. Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) is an essential amino acid that is composed of leucine, isoleucine, and valine which serves to maintain muscle tissue, keeping the immune system, and prevent further loss of coordination and muscle pain. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a kind of leguminous plants that are rich in Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) where every one gram of protein pea contains 82.7 mg of leucine; 56.3 mg isoleucine; and 56.0 mg of valine. This research aims to develop Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) from pea extract is applied in dosage forms Gel PVP Kinesio Tape technology using Ultrasound-assisted Extraction. The method used in the writing of this paper is the Cochrane Collaboration Review that includes literature studies, testing the quality of the study, the characteristics of the data collection, analysis, interpretation of results, and clinical trials as well as recommendations for further research. Extraction of BCAA in pea done using ultrasound-assisted extraction technology with optimization variables includes the type of solvent extraction (NaOH 0.1%), temperature (20-250C), time (15-30 minutes) power (80 watt) and ultrasonic frequency (35 KHz). The advantages of this extraction method are the level of penetration of the solvent into the membrane of the cell is high and can increase the transfer period so that the BCAA substance separation process more efficient. BCAA extraction results are then applied to the polymer PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) Gel powder composed of PVP K30 and K100 HPMC dissolved in 10 mL of water-methanol (1: 1) v / v. Preparations Kinesio Tape Gel PVP is the BCAA in the gel are absorbed into the muscle tissue, and joints through tensile force then provides stimulation to the muscle circulation with variable pressure so that the muscle can increase the biomechanical movement and prevent damage to the muscle enzyme creatine kinase. Analysis and evaluation of test preparation include interaction, thickness, weight uniformity, humidity, water vapor permeability, the levels of the active substance, content uniformity, percentage elongation, stability testing, release profile, permeation in vitro and in vivo skin irritation testing.

Keywords: branched chain amino acid, BCAA, Kinesio tape, pea, PVP gel, ultrasound-assisted extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 210