Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 130

Search results for: tactical urbanism

130 Tactical Urbanism and Sustainability: Tactical Experiences in the Promotion of Active Transportation

Authors: Aline Fernandes Barata, Adriana Sansão Fontes

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The overvaluation of the use of automobile has detrimentally affected the importance of pedestrians within the city and consequently its public spaces. As a way of treating contemporary urban paradigms, Tactical Urbanism aims to recover and activate spaces through fast and easily-applied actions that demonstrate the possibility of large-scale and long-term changes in cities. Tactical interventions have represented an important practice of redefining public spaces and urban mobility. The concept of Active Transportation coheres with the idea of sustainable urban mobility, characterizing the means of transportation through human propulsion, such as walking and cycling. This paper aims to debate the potential of Tactical Urbanism in promoting Active Transportation by revealing opportunities of transformation in the urban space of contemporary cities through initiatives that promote the protection and valorization of the presence of pedestrians and cyclists in cities, and that subvert the importance of motorized vehicles. In this paper, we present the character of these actions in two different ways: when they are used as tests for permanent interventions and when they have pre-defined start and end periods. Using recent initiatives to illustrate, we aim to discuss the role of small-scale actions in promoting and incentivizing a more active, healthy, sustainable and responsive urban way of life, presenting how some of them have developed through public policies. For that, we will present some examples of tactical actions that illustrate the encouragement of Active Transportation and trials to balance the urban opportunities for pedestrians and cyclists. These include temporary closure of streets, the creation of new alternatives and more comfortable areas for walking and cycling, and the subversion of uses in public spaces where the usage of cars are predominant.

Keywords: tactical urbanism, active transportation, sustainable mobility, non-motorized means

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
129 The Effectiveness of Teaching Games for Understanding in Improving the Hockey Tactical Skills and State Self-Confidence among 16 Years Old Students

Authors: Wee Akina Sia Seng Lee, Shabeshan Rengasamy, Lim Boon Hooi, Chandrakalavaratharajoo, Mohd Ibrahim K. Azeez

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This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Teaching Games For Understanding (TGFU) in improving the hockey tactical skills and state self-confidence among 16-year-old students. Two hundred fifty nine (259) school students were selected for the study based on the intact sampling method. One class was used as the control group (Boys=60, Girls=70), while another as the treatment group (Boys=60, Girls=69) underwent intervention with TGFU in physical education class conducted twice a week for four weeks. The Games Performance Assessment Instrument was used to observe the hockey tactical skills and The State Self-Confidence Inventory was used to determine the state of self-confidence among the students. After four weeks, ANCOVA analysis indicated the treatment groups had significant improvement in hockey tactical skills with F (1, 118) =313.37, p < .05 for school boys, and F (1, 136) =92.62, p < .05 for school girls. The Mann Whitney U test also showed the treatment groups had significant improvement in state self-confidence with U=428.50, z= -7.22, p < .05, r=.06 for school boys. ANCOVA analysis also showed the treatment group had significant improvement in state self-confidence with F (1, 136) =74.40, p < .05 for school girls. This indicates that TGFU in a 40 minute physical education class conducted twice a week for four weeks can significantly improve the hockey tactical skills and state self-confidence among 16-year-old students. The findings give new knowledge to PE teachers to implement the TGFU method as it enhances the hockey tactical skills and state self-confidence among 16-year-old students. Some recommendation was suggested for future research.

Keywords: Teaching Games For Understanding (TGFU), traditional teaching, hockey tactical skills, state self-confidence

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128 Modelling of the Fire Pragmatism in the Area of Military Management and Its Experimental Verification

Authors: Ivana Mokrá

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The article deals with modelling of the fire pragmatism in the area of military management and its experimental verification. Potential approaches are based on the synergy of mathematical and theoretical ideas, operational and tactical requirements and the military decision-making process. This issue has taken on importance in recent times, particularly with the increasing trend of digitized battlefield, the development of C4ISR systems and intention to streamline the command and control process at the lowest levels of command. From fundamental and philosophical point of view, these new approaches seek to significantly upgrade and enhance the decision-making process of the tactical commanders.

Keywords: military management, decision-making process, strike modeling, experimental evaluation, pragmatism, tactical strike modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
127 An Integral Sustainable Design Evaluation of the 15-Minute City and the Processes of Transferability to Cities of the Global South

Authors: Chitsanzo Isaac

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Across the world, the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has challenged urban systems and policy frameworks, highlighting societal vulnerabilities and systemic inequities among many communities. Measures of confinement and social distancing to contain the Covid-19 virus have fragmented the physical and social fabric of cities. This has caused urban dwellers to reassess how they engage with their urban surroundings and maintain social ties. Urbanists have presented strategies that would allow communities to survive and even thrive, in extraordinary times of crisis like the pandemic. Tactical Urbanism, particularly the 15-Minute City, has gained popularity. It is considered a resilient approach in the global north, however, it’s transferability to the global south has been called into question. To this end, this paper poses the question: to what extent is the 15-Minute City framework integral sustainable design, and are there processes that make it adoptable by cities in the global south? This paper explores four issues using secondary quantitative data analysis and convergence analysis in the Paris and Blantyre urban regions. First, it questions how the 15-Minute City has been defined and measured, and how it impacts urban dwellers. Second, it examines the extent to which the 15-minute city performs under the lens of frameworks such as Wilber’s integral theory and Fleming’s integral sustainable design theory. Thirdly this work examines the processes that can be transferred to developing cities which foster community resilience through the perspectives of experience, behaviors, cultures, and systems. Finally, it reviews the principal ways in which a multi-perspective reality can be the basis for resilient community design and sustainable urban development. This work will shed a light on the importance of a multi-perspective reality as a means of achieving sustainable urban design goals in developing urban areas.

Keywords: 15-minute city, developing cities, global south, community resilience, integral sustainable design, systems thinking, complexity, tactical urbanism

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126 The Effects of Leadership on the Claim of Responsibility

Authors: Katalin Kovacs

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In most forms of violence the perpetrators intend to hide their identities. Terrorism is different. Terrorist groups often take responsibility for their attacks, and consequently they reveal their identities. This unique characteristic of terrorism has been largely overlooked, and scholars are still puzzled as to why terrorist groups claim responsibility for their attacks. Certainly, the claim of responsibility is worth analysing. It would help to have a clearer picture of what terrorist groups try to achieve and how, but also to develop an understanding of the strategic planning of terrorist attacks and the message the terrorists intend to deliver. The research aims to answer the question why terrorist groups choose to claim responsibility for some of their attacks and not for others. In order to do so the claim of responsibility is considered to be a tactical choice, based on the assumption that terrorists weigh the costs and benefits of claiming responsibility. The main argument is that terrorist groups do not claim responsibility in cases when there is no tactical advantage gained from claiming responsibility. The idea that the claim of responsibility has tactical value offers the opportunity to test these assertions using a large scale empirical analysis. The claim of responsibility as a tactical choice depends on other tactical choices, such as the choice of target, the internationality of the attack, the number of victims and whether the group occupies territory or operates as an underground group. The structure of the terrorist groups and the level of decision making also affects the claim of responsibility. Terrorists on the lower level are less disciplined than the leaders. This means that the terrorists on lower levels pay less attention to the strategic objectives and engage easier in indiscriminate violence, and consequently they would less like to claim responsibility. Therefore, the research argues that terrorists, who are on a highest level of decision making would claim responsibility for the attacks as those are who takes into account the strategic objectives. As most studies on terrorism fail to provide definitions; therefore the researches are fragmented and incomparable. Separate, isolated researches do not support comprehensive thinking. It is also very important to note that there are only a few researches using quantitative methods. The aim of the research is to develop a new and comprehensive overview of the claim of responsibility based on strong quantitative evidence. By using well-established definitions and operationalisation the current research focuses on a broad range of attributes that can have tactical values in order to determine circumstances when terrorists are more likely to claim responsibility.

Keywords: claim of responsibility, leadership, tactical choice, terrorist group

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
125 Characteristics of New Town Planning between Neighborhood Unit and New Urbanism in Korea

Authors: In Su Na, Dongyeon Seo, Hwanyong Kim

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This research focuses on new town planning methodology in aspects of Neighborhood Unit Formula and New Urbanism. In Korea, there were built many new towns since 1980’s. The urban design concepts also shifted variously in land use, transportation, open spaces and architectural design. This research aims to find out urban design planning and factors in each new town planning through comparison of four new town cases in aspects of land use, transportation and building design of metropolitan area of Seoul. In conclusion the recent new town has created an area with a unique place that has not been seen in the early new town, and it has a certain aspect that is in line with the planning principles of New Urbanism.

Keywords: compact city, neighborhood unit formula, new town planning, new urbanism

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124 Time Pressure and Its Effect at Tactical Level of Disaster Management

Authors: Agoston Restas

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Introduction: In case of managing disasters decision makers can face many times such a special situation where any pre-sign of the drastically change is missing therefore the improvised decision making can be required. The complexity, ambiguity, uncertainty or the volatility of the situation can require many times the improvisation as decision making. It can be taken at any level of the management (strategic, operational and tactical) but at tactical level the main reason of the improvisation is surely time pressure. It is certainly the biggest problem during the management. Methods: The author used different tools and methods to achieve his goals; one of them was the study of the relevant literature, the other one was his own experience as a firefighting manager. Other results come from two surveys that are referred to; one of them was an essay analysis, the second one was a word association test, specially created for the research. Results and discussion: This article proves that, in certain situations, the multi-criteria, evaluating decision-making processes simply cannot be used or only in a limited manner. However, it can be seen that managers, directors or commanders are many times in situations that simply cannot be ignored when making decisions which should be made in a short time. The functional background of decisions made in a short time, their mechanism, which is different from the conventional, was studied lately and this special decision procedure was given the name recognition-primed decision. In the article, author illustrates the limits of the possibilities of analytical decision-making, presents the general operating mechanism of recognition-primed decision-making, elaborates on its special model relevant to managers at tactical level, as well as explore and systemize the factors that facilitate (catalyze) the processes with an example with fire managers.

Keywords: decision making, disaster managers, recognition primed decision, model for making decisions in emergencies

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123 An Approach towards Intelligent Urbanism in New Communities

Authors: Sherine Shafik Aly, Farida Ahmed El Mallah

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Technology is a quoted keyword nowadays in all fields; it has been recently thought of and integrated into urban development. This research explains the role of technology in establishing intelligent urbanism to create a convivial and sustainable environment for people to live in. Cities are downgrading socially, economically and environmentally. A framework is to be developed where these three pillars are involved in the planning, design, and spreading of technology to create convivial environments. The aim of this research is achieved by highlighting the importance and approaches of intelligent urbanism, it’s characteristics and principles, then analyzing some relevant examples to achieve a set of guidelines.

Keywords: convivial, intelligent, technology, urban development

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
122 Integrated Risk Management as a Framework for Organisational Success

Authors: Olakunle Felix Adekunle

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Risk management is recognised as an essential tool to tackle the inevitable uncertainty associated with business and projects at all levels. But it frequently fails to meet expectations, with projects continuing to run late, over budget or under performing, and business is not gaining the expected benefits. The evident disconnect which often occurs between strategic vision and tactical project delivery typically arises from poorly defined project objectives and inadequate attention to the proactive management of risks that could affect those objectives. One of the main failings in the traditional approach to risk management arises from a narrow focus on the downside, restricted to the technical or operational field, addressing tactical threats to processes, performance or people. This shortcoming can be overcome by widening the scope of risk management to encompass both strategic risks and upside opportunities, creating an integrated approach which can bridge the gap between strategy and tactics. Integrated risk management addresses risk across a variety of levels in the organisation, including strategy and tactics, and covering both opportunity and threat. Effective implementation of integrated risk management can produce a number of benefits to the organisation which are not available from the typical limited-scope risk process. This paper explores how to expand risk management to deliver strategic advantage while retaining its use as a tactical tool.

Keywords: risk management, success, organization, strategy, project, tactis, vision

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121 An Analysis of the Differences between Three Levels Water Polo Players Based on Indicators of Efficiency

Authors: Mladen Hraste, Igor Jelaska, Ivan Granic

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The scope of this research is the identification and explanation of differences of three levels of water polo players in some parameters of effectiveness. The sample for this study was 132 matches of the Adriatic Water Polo League in the 2013/14 competition season. Using the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple comparisons of mean ranks for all groups at the significance level of α=0, 05, the hypothesis that there are significant differences between groups of respondents in ten of the seventeen variables of effectiveness was confirmed. There is a reasonable possibility that the differences are caused by the degree of learned and implemented tactical knowledge, the degree of scoring ability and the best selection for certain roles in the team. The results of this study can be applied to selection of teams and players, for the selection of the appropriate match concept and for organizing training process.

Keywords: scoring abilities, selection, tactical knowledge, water polo effectiveness

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120 Practicing Spectacular Urbanism in China: Mega-Events, the City of the Spectacle, and Spatialization of State Power

Authors: George Lin

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This study examines a practice in which Chinese municipal governments actively pursue momentary and spectacular urbanism through the hosting of mega-events as an instrument to reproduce urban space for the enhancement of place competitiveness and advancement of political career. Practicing event-driven spectacular urbanism is found to have a short-term impact upon the economy and an effect upon the career advancement of the party secretary more than the mayor. Hosting mega-events has been used as a means to create “a harmonious society” and unified social space whereby grievance and discontents are grossed over, ignored, excluded and marginalized. Geographically, a new urban space has been created for the central city to reassert/consolidate its leading competitive position in the regional and national economy at the expense of the disadvantaged and marginalized. Findings of this research call for a critical re-evaluation of the sophisticated state-space inter-relations in the ongoing processes of planetary urbanization and global urban revolution in which China has taken an important part.

Keywords: Chinese cities, mega events, urbanism, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
119 The City of Images: Urban Mobility Policies and Extra-Small Tactical Projects for Promoting the Quality of Urban Life of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Everyday City

Authors: Valentina Talu, Giulia Tola

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Current researches and applications aimed at exploring the role of spatial configuration as a means for improving the autonomy of people with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), almost exclusively focus on the definition of criteria for the design of closed, separated, private spaces devoted only to people - mainly children - with ASD. In fact, very few researches specifically investigate the relation between the city and people with autism, focusing on their sensory experiences related to the interaction with the urban environment. The growing incidence of ASD and the need to guarantee during adulthood the actual opportunity to exercise the achieved level of autonomy and independency, emphasizes the necessity to ‘broaden’ the research perspective by investigating also the specific contribution of urban mobility policies and urban design to the enhancement of the quality of life of people with ASD. Starting from these considerations, the paper describes an ongoing research focused on the relation between the city and people with autism spectrum disorder, with the specific aim of promoting their possibility of walking across the city at the neighborhood scale, thus making the access to relevant urban spaces and services possible. In the first part, the paper proposes a framework for illustrating the commonly recurring problems that people with ASD face in their daily life when they interact with the urban environment (with reference to the capability approach). Subsequently, with the support of an in depth analysis of existing contributions (researches and projects) and an exchange with different experts (neuropsychiatrists, teachers, parents), are identified two urban requirements, then 'translated' into an integrated system of urban mobility policies and extra-small tactical project aimed at enhancing the actual possibility for people with ASD of walking through the city autonomously and safely. According to this vision, the promotion of the autonomy of people with ASD through the adoption of mobility policies and micro tactical urban projects can represent an opportunity for promoting and improving the overall quality of urban life.

Keywords: city and people with ASD, quality of urban life of disadvantaged people, urban capabilities, urban design

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118 Adopting the Transition Management Model as a Tool for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Nigeria

Authors: Ali Bakari Mohammed

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Transitioning is a continuous process of radical change in a society which involves co-evolution of institutional, technological, socio-cultural, and ecological developments at different scales and levels. Transition management model is a methodology that influences structural change of complex systems over a period (0-30 years) by experimenting and implementing new techniques. A transition management in the context of groundwater is a radical change from the current operate and control system to a next generation integrated and sustainable system that takes into account quality protection and sustained supply into the future. This study evaluates the transition management model in adopting it as a viable tool for the attainment of sustainable groundwater management. The outcome of the evaluation shows that there are three levels (strategic, tactical and operational) of operating the transition management model. At the strategic level, long-term goals for sustainable groundwater management are formulated, at the tactical level activities such as inter institutional networking, negotiation, planning and financing are carried out, and at the operational level, transition experiments and strategic niche management are carried out at the societal level. Overall, different actors and set of activities are required to partake at each management level. The outcome of this paper will provide basis for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 in Nigeria.

Keywords: transition management, groundwater, sustainable management, tool, Nigeria

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117 Historiography of European Urbanism in the 20th Century in Slavic Languages

Authors: Aliaksandr Shuba, Max Welch Guerra, Martin Pekar

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The research is dedicated to the Historiography of European urbanism in the 20th century with its critical analysis of transnational oriented sources in Slavic languages. The goal of this research was to give an overview of Slavic sources on this subject. In the research, historians, who wrote in influential historiographies on architecture and urbanism in the 20th century history in Slavic languages from Eastern, Central and South-eastern Europe, are analysed. The analysis of historiographies in Slavic languages includes diverse sources from around Europe with authors, who examined European Urbanism in the 20th century through a global prism of or their own perspectives. The main publications are from the second half of the 20th century and the early 21st century with Soviet and Post-Soviet discourses. The necessity to analyse Slavic sources was a result of historiography of urbanism establishment as a discipline in the 20th century and by the USSR, Czechslovak, and Yugoslavian academics, who created strong historiographic bases for a development of their urban historiographic schools for wide studies and analysis of architectural and urban ideas and projects with their history in the early 1970s. That is analyzed in this research within Slavic publications, which often have different perspectives and discourses to Anglo-Saxon, and these bibliographic sources can bring a diversity of new ideas in contemporary academic discourse of the European urban historiography. The publications in Slavic languages are analyzed according to the following aspects: where, when, which types, by whom, and to whom the sources were written. The critical analysis of essential sources on the Historiography of European urbanism in the 20th century with an accomplishment through their comparison and interpretation. The authors’ autonomy is analysed as a central point, along with the influence of the Communist Party and state control on the interpretation of the history of urbanism in Central, Eastern and South-eastern Europe with the main dominant topics and ideas from the second half of the 20th century. Cross-national Slavic Historiographic sources and their perspectives are compared to the main transnational Anglo-Saxon Historiographic topics as some of the dominant subjects are hypothetically similar and others have more local or national oriented directions. Some of the dominant subjects, topics, and subtopics are hypothetically similar, while the others have more local or national oriented directions because of the authors’ autonomy and influences of the Communist Party with the state control in Slavic Socialists countries that were illustrated in this research.

Keywords: European urbanism, historiography, different perspectives, 20th century

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116 Intercultural Urbanism: Interpreting Cultural Inclusion in Traditional Precincts of Contemporary Cities: A Case of Mattancherry

Authors: Amrutha Jayan

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The cities are attractors of the human population, offering opportunities for economic activities for different linguistic, cultural, and ethnic groups. The urban form and design of the city impact the life of these people. Social and cultural exclusions result in spatial segregation and gentrification. The spaces provided in cities must be inclusive for all these communities for them to feel part of the city and contribute to society. Intercultural urbanism is a theory and practice of city building, planning, and design of urban spaces and architectures that are cognizant of the social impact of the built environment. The postulate acknowledges cultural differences and opportunities for cultural exchange. Literature on intercultural urbanism, culture and space, spatial justice, and cultural inclusion are analyzed to identify parameters contributing to intercultural placemaking. A qualitative study on Mattancherry shows how the precinct has sustained throughout the years with different communities living together within a radius of 5 km, creating a diverse and vibrant environment. The research identifies the urban elements that contribute to intercultural interactions and maintain the synergy between these communities. The public spaces, porous edges, built-form, streets, and accessibility contribute to chance encounters and intercultural interactivity. The research seeks to find the factors that contribute to intercultural placemaking.

Keywords: intercultural urbanism, cultural inclusion, spatial justice, public space

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
115 Criticism and Theorizing of Architecture and Urbanism in the Creativity Cinematographic Film

Authors: Wafeek Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed

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In the era of globalization, the camera of the cinematographic film plays a very important role in terms of monitoring and documenting what it was and distinguished the built environment of architectural and Urbanism. Moving the audience to the out-going backward through the cinematographic film and its stereophonic screen by which the picture appears at its best and its coexistence reached now its third dimension. The camera has indicated to the city shape with its paths, (alley) lanes, buildings and its architectural style. We have seen the architectural styles in its cinematic scenes which remained a remembrance in its history, in spite of the fact that some of which has been disappearing as what happened to ‘Boulak Bridge’ in Cairo built by ‘Eiffel’ and it has been demolished, but it remains a remembrance we can see it in the films of ’Usta Hassan’and A Crime in the Quiet Neighborhood. The purpose of the fundamental research is an attempt to reach a critical view of the idea of criticism and theorizing for Architecture and Urbanism in the cinematographic film and their relationship and reflection on the ‘audience’ understanding of the public opinion related to our built environment of Architectural and Urbanism with its problems and hardness. It is like as a trial to study the Architecture and Urbanism of the built environment in the cinematographic film and hooking up (linking) a realistic view of the governing conceptual significance thereof. The aesthetic thought of our traditional environment, in a psychological and anthropological framework, derives from the cinematic concept of the Architecture and Urbanism of the place and the dynamics of the space. The architectural space considers the foundation stone of the cinematic story and the main background of the events therein, which integrate the audience into a romantic trip to the city through its symbolized image of the spaces, lanes [alley], etc. This will be done through two main branches: firstly, Reviewing during time pursuit of the Architecture and Urbanism in the cinematographic films the thirties ago in the Egyptian cinema [onset from the film ‘Bab El Hadid’ to the American University at a film of ‘Saidi at the American University’]. The research concludes the importance of the need to study the cinematic films which deal with our societies, their architectural and Urbanism concerns whether the traditional ones or the contemporary and their crisis (such as the housing crisis in the film of ‘Krakoun in the street’, etc) to study the built environment with its architectural dynamic spaces through a modernist view. In addition, using the cinema as an important Media for spreading the ideas, documenting and monitoring the current changes in the built environment through its various dramas and comedies, etc. The cinema is considered as a mirror of the society and its built environment over the epochs. It assured the unique case constituted by cinema with the audience (public opinion) through a sense of emptiness and forming the mental image related to the city and the built environment.

Keywords: architectural and urbanism, cinematographic architectural, film, space in the film, media

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114 Multimedia Design in Tactical Play Learning and Acquisition for Elite Gaelic Football Practitioners

Authors: Michael McMahon

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The use of media (video/animation/graphics) has long been used by athletes, coaches, and sports scientists to analyse and improve performance in technical skills and team tactics. Sports educators are increasingly open to the use of technology to support coach and learner development. However, an overreliance is a concern., This paper is part of a larger Ph.D. study looking into these new challenges for Sports Educators. Most notably, how to exploit the deep-learning potential of Digital Media among expert learners, how to instruct sports educators to create effective media content that fosters deep learning, and finally, how to make the process manageable and cost-effective. Central to the study is Richard Mayers Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Mayers Multimedia Learning Theory proposes twelve principles that shape the design and organization of multimedia presentations to improve learning and reduce cognitive load. For example, the Prior Knowledge principle suggests and highlights different learning outcomes for Novice and Non-Novice learners, respectively. Little research, however, is available to support this principle in modified domains (e.g., sports tactics and strategy). As a foundation for further research, this paper compares and contrasts a range of contemporary multimedia sports coaching content and assesses how they perform as learning tools for Strategic and Tactical Play Acquisition among elite sports practitioners. The stress tests applied are guided by Mayers's twelve Multimedia Learning Principles. The focus is on the elite athletes and whether current coaching digital media content does foster improved sports learning among this cohort. The sport of Gaelic Football was selected as it has high strategic and tactical play content, a wide range of Practitioner skill levels (Novice to Elite), and also a significant volume of Multimedia Coaching Content available for analysis. It is hoped the resulting data will help identify and inform the future instructional content design and delivery for Sports Practitioners and help promote best design practices optimal for different levels of expertise.

Keywords: multimedia learning, e-learning, design for learning, ICT

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113 The Analysis of Changes in Urban Hierarchy of Isfahan Province in the Fifty-Year Period (1956-2006)

Authors: Hamidreza Joudaki, Yousefali Ziari

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The appearance of city and urbanism is one of the important processes which have affected social communities. Being industrialized urbanism developed along with each other in the history. In addition, they have had simple relationship for more than six thousand years, that is, from the appearance of the first cities. In 18th century by coming out of industrial capitalism, progressive development took place in urbanism in the world. In Iran, the city of each region made its decision by itself and the capital of region (downtown) was the only central part and also the regional city without any hierarchy, controlled its realm. However, this method of ruling during these three decays, because of changing in political, social and economic issues that have caused changes in rural and urban relationship. Moreover, it has changed the variety of performance of cities and systematic urban network in Iran. Today, urban system has very vast imbalanced apace and performance. In Isfahan, the trend of urbanism is like the other part of Iran and systematic urban hierarchy is not suitable and normal. This article is a quantitative and analytical. The statistical communities are Isfahan Province cities and the changes in urban network and its hierarchy during the period of fifty years (1956 -2006) has been surveyed. In addition, those data have been analyzed by model of Rank and size and Entropy index. In this article Iran cities and also the factor of entropy of primate city and urban hierarchy of Isfahan Province have been introduced. Urban residents of this Province have been reached from 55 percent to 83% (2006). As we see the analytical data reflects that there is mismatching and imbalance between cities. Because the entropy index was.91 in 1956.And it decreased to.63 in 2006. Isfahan city is the primate city in the whole of these periods. Moreover, the second and the third cities have population gap with regard to the other cities and finally, they do not follow the system of rank-size.

Keywords: urban network, urban hierarchy, primate city, Isfahan province, urbanism, first cities

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112 The Approach of New Urbanism Model to Identify the Sustainability of 'Kampung Kota'

Authors: Nadhia Maharany Siara, Muammal, Ilham Nurhakim, Rofifah Yusadi, M. Adie Putra Tanggara, I. Nyoman Suluh Wijaya

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Urbanization in urban areas has impact to the demand of land use for housing, and it began to occur development in the high-density area called Kampung Kota. Kampung Kota grows and develops without planning or organically. The existence of Kampung Kota, becoming identity of the city development in Indonesia, gives self-identity to the city planning in Indonesia, but the existence of Kampung Kota in the development of the city in Indonesia is often considered as a source of environment, health, and social problems. This cause negative perception about the sustainability of Kampung Kota. This research aims to identify morphology and sustainability level of Kampung Kota in Polehan Sub-District, Blimbing District, Malang City. So far, there have not been many studies that define sustainability of Kampung Kota especially from the perspective of Kampung Kota morphology as a part of urban housing areas. This research took place in in Polehan Sub-District, Blimbing District, Malang City which is one of the oldest Kampung Kota in Malang City. Identification of the sustainability level in this research is done by defining the morphology of Kampung Kota in Polehan Sub-District, Blimbing District, Malang City with a descriptive approach to the observation case (Kampung Kota Polehan Sub-District). After that, definition of sustainability level is defined by quantifying the spatial structure by using the criteria from the new urbanism model which consist of buildings and populations density, compactness, diversity and mix land uses and sustainable transportation. In this case, the use of new urbanism model approach is very appropriate. New Urbanism is a design-driven strategy that is based on traditional forms to minimize urban sprawl in the suburbs. The result obtained from this study is the hometown of the level of sustainability in Polehan Sub-District, Blimbing District, Malang City of 3.2 and can be considered to have a good sustainability.

Keywords: Kampung Kota, new urbanism model, sustainability, urban morphology

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111 Analyzing the Role of Visual Preferences for Designing of Urban Leftover Spaces

Authors: Jasim Azhar, Morten Gjerde

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A city’s space is comprehended as a phenomenon that emerges from the ongoing negotiation between the constructed environment, urban processes, and bodily experience. Many spaces do not represent a static notion but are continually challenged and reconstituted. The ability to recognize those leftover spaces in the urban context is an integral part of an urban redevelopment process, where structured and layered approaches become useful in understanding to transform these spaces into places. Contemporary urban leftover spaces exist as a result of several factors and are present in every major city that often disrupts the flow of districts by creating visually unappealing places. These spaces can be designed, transformed and integrated so as to achieve environmental gains and social preferences. The paper explores how those small changes in visual quality of an urban leftover spaces in Wellington city influence a person’s experience significantly and its potential usage. These spaces can be seen as a catalyst for a change through an ecological sustainability’s framework. A creative and flexible design would lead to psychologically healthy places by improving the image of a city from within. The qualitative research is undertaken through the visual preference studies which will inform the planning initiatives by knowing what people feel about those visual changes in these leftover spaces. Those visual preferences can guide behavior and the emotional responses of different users for the redesign of those spaces with the meaningful attributes. The research is driven by the hypothesis that if the attributes are made visible, the likelihood of stimulating the interest of users should increase.

Keywords: leftover spaces, visual preferences, tactical urbanism, ecological sustainability

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110 Supply Chain Resource Optimization Model for E-Commerce Pure Players

Authors: Zair Firdaous, Fourka Mohamed, Elfelsoufi Zoubir

Abstract:

The arrival of e-commerce has changed the supply chain management on the operational level as well as on the organization and strategic and even tactical decisions of the companies. The optimization of resources is an issue that is needed on the tactical and operational strategic plan. This work considers the allocation of resources in the case of pure players that have launched online sales. The aim is to improve the level of customer satisfaction and maintaining the benefits of e-retailer and of its cooperators and reducing costs and risks. We first modeled the B2C chain with all operations that integrates and possible scenarios since online retailers offer a wide selection of personalized service. The personalized services that online shopping companies offer to the clients can be embodied in many aspects, such as the customizations of payment, the distribution methods, and after-sales service choices. Every aspect of customized service has several modes. At that time, we analyzed the optimization problems of supply chain resource in customized online shopping service mode. Then, we realized an optimization model and algorithm for the development based on the analysis of the of the B2C supply chain resources. It is a multi-objective optimization that considers the collaboration of resources in operations, time and costs but also the risks and the quality of services as well as dynamic and uncertain characters related to the request.

Keywords: supply chain resource, e-commerce, pure-players, optimization

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109 Re-Envisioning Modernity: Transformations of Postwar Suburban Landscapes

Authors: Shannon Clayton

Abstract:

In an effort to explore the potential transformation of North American postwar suburbs, this M.Arch thesis actively engages in the ongoing critique of modernism from the mid 20th century to the present. Contemporary urban design practice has emerged out of the reaction to orthodox modernism. Typically, new suburban development falls into one of two strategies; an attempt to replicate pre-war fabric that never existed, or a reliance on high-density to create instant urbanism. In both cases, the critical role of architecture has been grossly undervalued. Ironically, it is the denial of suburbia’s inherent modernity that has served to prevent genuine place-making. As history demonstrates, modernism is not antithetical to architecture and place. In the postwar years, a critical discussion emerged amongst architects, which sought to evolve modernism beyond functionalism. This was demonstrated through critical discussions on image, experience, and monumentality. As well as increased interest in civic space, and investigations into mat urbanism and the megastructure. The undercurrent within these explorations was a belief that the scale and complexity of modern development could become an opportunity to create urbanism, rather than squander it. This critical discourse has continued through architectural work in the Netherlands and Denmark since the early 1990s, where an emphasis on visual variety, human scale, and public interaction has been given high priority. This thesis applies principles from this ongoing dialogue, and identifies hidden potential within existing North American suburban networks. As a result, the project re-evaluates the legacy of the master plan from a contemporary perspective.

Keywords: urbanism, modernism, suburbia, place-making

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108 Community Empowerment: The Contribution of Network Urbanism on Urban Poverty Reduction

Authors: Lucia Antonela Mitidieri

Abstract:

This research analyzes the application of a model of settlements management based on networks of territorial integration that advocates planning as a cyclical and participatory process that engages early on with civic society, the private sector and the state. Through qualitative methods such as participant observation, interviews with snowball technique and an active research on territories, concrete results of community empowerment are obtained from the promotion of productive enterprises and community spaces of encounter and exchange. Studying the cultural and organizational dimensions of empowerment allows building indicators such as increase of capacities or community cohesion that can lead to support local governments in achieving sustainable urban development for a reduction of urban poverty.

Keywords: community spaces, empowerment, network urbanism, participatory process

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107 Sponge Urbanism as a Resilient City Design to Overcome Urban Flood Risk, for the Case of Aluva, Kerala, India

Authors: Gayathri Pramod, Sheeja K. P.

Abstract:

Urban flooding has been seen rising in cities for the past few years. This rise in urban flooding is the result of increasing urbanization and increasing climate change. A resilient city design focuses on 'living with water'. This means that the city is capable of accommodating the floodwaters without having to risk any loss of lives or properties. The resilient city design incorporates green infrastructure, river edge treatment, open space design, etc. to form a city that functions as a whole for resilience. Sponge urbanism is a recent method for building resilient cities and is founded by China in 2014. Sponge urbanism is the apt method for resilience building for a tropical town like Aluva of Kerala. Aluva is a tropical town that experiences rainfall of about 783 mm per month during the rainy season. Aluva is an urbanized town which faces the risk of urban flooding and riverine every year due to the presence of Periyar River in the town. Impervious surfaces and hard construction and developments contribute towards flood risk by posing as interference for a natural flow and natural filtration of water into the ground. This type of development is seen in Aluva also. Aluva is designed in this research as a town that have resilient strategies of sponge city and which focusses on natural methods of construction. The flood susceptibility of Aluva is taken into account to design the spaces for sponge urbanism and in turn, reduce the flood susceptibility for the town. Aluva is analyzed, and high-risk zones for development are identified through studies. These zones are designed to withstand the risk of flooding. Various catchment areas are identified according to the natural flow of water, and then these catchment areas are designed to act as a public open space and as detention ponds in case of heavy rainfall. Various development guidelines, according to land use, is also prescribed, which help in increasing the green cover of the town. Aluva is then designed to be a completely flood-adapted city or sponge city according to the guidelines and interventions.

Keywords: climate change, flooding, resilient city, sponge city, sponge urbanism, urbanization

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106 Parametric Urbanism: A Climate Responsive Urban Form for the MENA Region

Authors: Norhan El Dallal

Abstract:

The MENA region is a challenging, rapid urbanizing region, with a special profile; culturally, socially, economically and environmentally. Despite the diversity between different countries of the MENA region they all share similar urban challenges where extensive interventions are crucial. A climate sensitive region as the MENA region requires special attention for development, adaptation and mitigation. Integrating climatic and environmental parameters into the planning process to create a responsive urban form is the aim of this research in which “Parametric Urbanism” as a trend serves as a tool to reach a more sustainable urban morphology. An attempt to parameterize the relation between the climate and the urban form in a detailed manner is the main objective of the thesis. The aim is relating the different passive approaches suitable for the MENA region with the design guidelines of each and every part of the planning phase. Various conceptual scenarios for the network pattern and block subdivision generation based on computational models are the next steps after the parameterization. These theoretical models could be applied on different climatic zones of the dense communities of the MENA region to achieve an energy efficient neighborhood or city with respect to the urban form, morphology, and urban planning pattern. A final criticism of the theoretical model is to be conducted showing the feasibility of the proposed solutions economically. Finally some push and pull policies are to be proposed to help integrate these solutions into the planning process.

Keywords: parametric urbanism, climate responsive, urban form, urban and regional studies

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105 High Performance Computing and Big Data Analytics

Authors: Branci Sarra, Branci Saadia

Abstract:

Because of the multiplied data growth, many computer science tools have been developed to process and analyze these Big Data. High-performance computing architectures have been designed to meet the treatment needs of Big Data (view transaction processing standpoint, strategic, and tactical analytics). The purpose of this article is to provide a historical and global perspective on the recent trend of high-performance computing architectures especially what has a relation with Analytics and Data Mining.

Keywords: high performance computing, HPC, big data, data analysis

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104 Disaster Management Supported by Unmanned Aerial Systems

Authors: Agoston Restas

Abstract:

Introduction: This paper describes many initiatives and shows also practical examples which happened recently using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to support disaster management. Since the operation of manned aircraft at disasters is usually not only expensive but often impossible to use as well, in many cases managers fail to use the aerial activity. UAS can be an alternative moreover cost-effective solution for supporting disaster management. Methods: This article uses thematic division of UAS applications; it is based on two key elements, one of them is the time flow of managing disasters, other is its tactical requirements. Logically UAS can be used like pre-disaster activity, activity immediately after the occurrence of a disaster and the activity after the primary disaster elimination. Paper faces different disasters, like dangerous material releases, floods, earthquakes, forest fires and human-induced disasters. Research used function analysis, practical experiments, mathematical formulas, economic analysis and also expert estimation. Author gathered international examples and used own experiences in this field as well. Results and discussion: An earthquake is a rapid escalating disaster, where, many times, there is no other way for a rapid damage assessment than aerial reconnaissance. For special rescue teams, the UAS application can help much in a rapid location selection, where enough place remained to survive for victims. Floods are typical for a slow onset disaster. In contrast, managing floods is a very complex and difficult task. It requires continuous monitoring of dykes, flooded and threatened areas. UAS can help managers largely keeping an area under observation. Forest fires are disasters, where the tactical application of UAS is already well developed. It can be used for fire detection, intervention monitoring and also for post-fire monitoring. In case of nuclear accident or hazardous material leakage, UAS is also a very effective or can be the only one tool for supporting disaster management. Paper shows some efforts using UAS to avoid human-induced disasters in low-income countries as part of health cooperation.

Keywords: disaster management, floods, forest fires, Unmanned Aerial Systems

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103 Reassembling the Splintered City: The Role of Place-Making in Promoting Planning for Diversity for a Livable Neighborhood and an Inclusive City

Authors: Samia Dahmani

Abstract:

The research investigated the process and outcomes of an ongoing project “Den Grønne Rute”: a network of recreational rooms to be implemented throughout a former vulnerable neighborhood: Trekanten in the city of Holstebro in Denmark. The aim of the project is to better integrate Trekanten in the city and which initiated reflections upon the (dis)connection and the integration in relation to urban planning and city management, as well as the extent to which the project considers diversity since Holstebro is a growing multicultural city. With this research, it was first verified if Trekanten is splintered from Holstebro city, and secondly if planning for diversity, by engaging people in the process via place-making approaches, can help redress the disconnection between the neighborhood and the rest of the city. More specifically, the paper aims at exploring the role of place-making “Den Grønne Rute” in Trekanten in promoting planning for diversity and reassembling the splintering in the city. The theoretical and conceptual framework served to analyze the relationship between the splintering urbanism concept and the community involvement’s role in an inclusive process. The field study examines the detachment between Trekanten and Holstebro and the extent to which the project can overcome the disconnection. Methodologically a mix-methods approach was adopted where two semi-structured interviews, a focus group, and an online survey were conducted. Contrary to prior assumptions, the results showed that not only is Trekanten splintered from the city, but also the city is greatly disconnected from Trekanten, and hence Holstebro is a splintered city. The surprise was that Trekanten is moreover inner-splintered. The splintering urbanism accordingly has different dimensions. Even though the project’s design seemed to incorporate diverse ages and groups of people, its process lacks an understanding of the diversity’s relevance in promoting inclusiveness. In fact, the analysis revealed socio-cultural and psychological splintering. Since place-making, as a collaborative approach in planning, is itself an expression of diversity (since it brings differences into play), reconsidering diversity within the process by engaging people at the early stages of planning was recommended. Another suggestion was not to limit the project to a destination but more as an experience to remember and a story to tell. Only by bringing people together in re-imagining the place can Trekanten reassemble with Holstebro and vice versa. The aim of the research was to add a new perspective to the splintering urbanism and planning for diversity so to advance place-making as an approach in promoting the latter and redressing the former.

Keywords: the splintering urbanism, place-making, planning for diversity, Den Grønne Rute, Trekanten, Holstebro

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102 The Role of Place-making in Promoting Planning for Diversity for a Livable Neighborhood and an Inclusive City: Reassembling the Splintered City

Authors: Samia Dahmani

Abstract:

The research investigated the process and outcomes of an ongoing project, “Den Grønne Rute”: a network of recreational rooms to be implemented throughout a former vulnerable neighborhood: Trekanten, in the city of Holstebro in Denmark. The aim of the project is to better integrate Trekanten in the city and which initiated reflections upon the (dis)connection and the integration in relation to urban planning and city management, as well as the extent to which the project considers diversity since Holstebro is a growing multicultural city. With this research, it was first verified if Trekanten is splintered from Holstebro city, and secondly if planning for diversity, by engaging people in the process via place-making approaches, can help redress the disconnection between the neighborhood and the rest of the city. More specifically, the paper aims at exploring the role of place-making “Den Grønne Rute” in Trekanten in promoting planning for diversity and reassembling the splintering in the city. The theoretical and conceptual framework served to analyze the relationship between the splintering urbanism concept and the community involvement’s role for an inclusive process. The field study examines the detachment between Trekanten and Holstebro and the extent to which the project can overcome the disconnection. Methodologically a mix-methods approach was adopted where two semi-structured interviews, a focus group, and an online survey were conducted. Contrary to prior assumptions, the results showed that not only is Trekanten splintered from the city, but also the city is greatly disconnected from Trekanten, and hence Holstebro is a splintered city. The surprise was that Trekanten is moreover inner-splintered. The splintering urbanism accordingly has different dimensions. Even though the project’s design seemed to incorporate diverse ages and groups of people, its process lacks an understanding of the diversity’s relevance in promoting inclusiveness. In fact, the analysis revealed socio-cultural and psychological splintering. Since place-making, as a collaborative approach in planning, is itself an expression of diversity (since it brings differences into play), reconsidering diversity within the process by engaging people at the early sages of planning was recommended. Another suggestion was not to limit the project to a destination but more as an experience to remember and a story to tell. Only by bringing people together in re-imagining the place, can Trekanten reassemble with Holstebro and vice versa. The aim with the research was to add a new perspective to the splintering urbanism and planning for diversity so to advance place-making as an approach in promoting the latter and redressing the former.

Keywords: the splintering urbanism, placemaking, planning for diversity, den grønne rute, trekanten, holstebro

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101 Platform Urbanism: Planning towards Hyper-Personalisation

Authors: Provides Ng

Abstract:

Platform economy is a peer-to-peer model of distributing resources facilitated by community-based digital platforms. In recent years, digital platforms are rapidly reconfiguring the public realm using hyper-personalisation techniques. This paper aims at investigating how urban planning can leapfrog into the digital age to help relieve the rising tension of the global issue of labour flow; it discusses the means to transfer techniques of hyper-personalisation into urban planning for plasticity using platform technologies. This research first denotes the limitations of the current system of urban residency, where the system maintains itself on the circulation of documents, which are data on paper. Then, this paper tabulates how some of the institutions around the world, both public and private, digitise data, and streamline communications between a network of systems and citizens using platform technologies. Subsequently, this paper proposes ways in which hyper-personalisation can be utilised to form a digital planning platform. Finally, this paper concludes by reviewing how the proposed strategy may help to open up new ways of thinking about how we affiliate ourselves with cities.

Keywords: platform urbanism, hyper-personalisation, digital inventory, urban accessibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 37