Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: subsea cables

85 Variable Shunt Reactors for Reactive Power Compensation of HV Subsea Cables

Authors: Saeed A. AlGhamdi, Nabil Habli, Vinoj Somasanran

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of 230 kV Variable Shunt Reactors (VSR) used to compensate reactive power of dual 90 KM subsea cables. VSR integrates an on-load tap changer (OLTC) that adjusts reactive power compensation to maintain acceptable bus voltages under variable load profile and network configuration. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) or a power management system (PMS) that allows VSR rating to be changed in discrete steps typically controls the OLTC. Typical regulation range start as minimum as 20% up to 100% and are available for systems up to 550kV. The regulation speed is normally in the order of seconds per step and approximately a minute from maximum to minimum rating. VSR can be bus or line connected depending on line/cable length and compensation requirements. The flexible reactive compensation ranges achieved by recent VSR technologies have enabled newer facilities design to deploy line connected VSR through either disconnect switches, which saves space and cost, or through circuit breakers. Lines with VSR are typically energized with lower taps (reduced reactive compensation) to minimize or remove the presence of delayed zero crossing.

Keywords: power management, reactive power, subsea cables, variable shunt reactors

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84 Optimized Techniques for Reducing the Reactive Power Generation in Offshore Wind Farms in India

Authors: Pardhasaradhi Gudla, Imanual A.

Abstract:

The generated electrical power in offshore needs to be transmitted to grid which is located in onshore by using subsea cables. Long subsea cables produce reactive power, which should be compensated in order to limit transmission losses, to optimize the transmission capacity, and to keep the grid voltage within the safe operational limits. Installation cost of wind farm includes the structure design cost and electrical system cost. India has targeted to achieve 175GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 including offshore wind power generation. Due to sea depth is more in India, the installation cost will be further high when compared to European countries where offshore wind energy is already generating successfully. So innovations are required to reduce the offshore wind power project cost. This paper presents the optimized techniques to reduce the installation cost of offshore wind firm with respect to electrical transmission systems. This technical paper provides the techniques for increasing the current carrying capacity of subsea cable by decreasing the reactive power generation (capacitance effect) of the subsea cable. There are many methods for reactive power compensation in wind power plants so far in execution. The main reason for the need of reactive power compensation is capacitance effect of subsea cable. So if we diminish the cable capacitance of cable then the requirement of the reactive power compensation will be reduced or optimized by avoiding the intermediate substation at midpoint of the transmission network.

Keywords: offshore wind power, optimized techniques, power system, sub sea cable

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83 Vibration-Based Monitoring of Tensioning Stay Cables of an Extradosed Bridge

Authors: Chun-Chung Chen, Bo-Han Lee, Yu-Chi Sung

Abstract:

Monitoring the status of tensioning force of stay cables is a significant issue for the assessment of structural safety of extradosed bridges. Moreover, it is known that there is a high correlation between the existing tension force and the vibration frequencies of cables. This paper presents the characteristic of frequencies of stay cables of a field extradosed bridge by using vibration-based monitoring methods. The vibration frequencies of each stay cables were measured in stages from the beginning to the completion of bridge construction. The result shows that the vibration frequency variation trend of different lengths of cables at each measured stage is different. The observed feature can help the application of the bridge long-term monitoring system and contribute to the assessment of bridge safety.

Keywords: vibration-based method, extradosed bridges, bridge health monitoring, bridge stay cables

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
82 Subsea Processing: Deepwater Operation and Production

Authors: Md Imtiaz, Sanchita Dei, Shubham Damke

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a rapidly accelerating shift from traditional surface processing operations to subsea processing operation. This shift has been driven by a number of factors including the depletion of shallow fields around the world, technological advances in subsea processing equipment, the need for production from marginal fields, and lower initial upfront investment costs compared to traditional production facilities. Moving production facilities to the seafloor offers a number of advantage, including a reduction in field development costs, increased production rates from subsea wells, reduction in the need for chemical injection, minimization of risks to worker ,reduction in spills due to hurricane damage, and increased in oil production by enabling production from marginal fields. Subsea processing consists of a range of technologies for separation, pumping, compression that enables production from offshore well without the need for surface facilities. At present, there are two primary technologies being used for subsea processing: subsea multiphase pumping and subsea separation. Multiphase pumping is the most basic subsea processing technology. Multiphase pumping involves the use of boosting system to transport the multiphase mixture through pipelines to floating production vessels. The separation system is combined with single phase pumps or water would be removed and either pumped to the surface, re-injected, or discharged to the sea. Subsea processing can allow for an entire topside facility to be decommissioned and the processed fluids to be tied back to a new, more distant, host. This type of application reduces costs and increased both overall facility and integrity and recoverable reserve. In future, full subsea processing could be possible, thereby eliminating the need for surface facilities.

Keywords: FPSO, marginal field, Subsea processing, SWAG

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81 Circuit Models for Conducted Susceptibility Analyses of Multiconductor Shielded Cables

Authors: Saih Mohamed, Rouijaa Hicham, Ghammaz Abdelilah

Abstract:

This paper presents circuit models to analyze the conducted susceptibility of multiconductor shielded cables in frequency domains using Branin’s method, which is referred to as the method of characteristics. These models, Which can be used directly in the time and frequency domains, take into account the presence of both the transfer impedance and admittance. The conducted susceptibility is studied by using an injection current on the cable shield as the source. Two examples are studied, a coaxial shielded cable and shielded cables with two parallel wires (i.e., twinax cables). This shield has an asymmetry (one slot on the side). Results obtained by these models are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods.

Keywords: circuit models, multiconductor shielded cables, Branin’s method, coaxial shielded cable, twinax cables

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80 Subsea Control Module (SCM) - A Vital Factor for Well Integrity and Production Performance in Deep Water Oil and Gas Fields

Authors: Okoro Ikechukwu Ralph, Fuat Kara

Abstract:

The discoveries of hydrocarbon reserves has clearly drifted offshore, and in deeper waters - areas where the industry still has limited knowledge; and that were hitherto, regarded as being out of reach. This shift presents significant and increased challenges in technology requirements needed to guarantee safety of personnel, environment and equipment; ensure high reliability of installed equipment; and provide high level of confidence in security of investment and company reputation. Nowhere are these challenges more apparent than on subsea well integrity and production performance. The past two decades has witnessed enormous rise in deep and ultra-deep water offshore field developments for the recovery of hydrocarbons. Subsea installed equipment at the seabed has been the technology of choice for these developments. This paper discusses the role of Subsea Control module (SCM) as a vital factor for deep-water well integrity and production performance. A case study for Deep-water well integrity and production performance is analysed.

Keywords: offshore reliability, production performance, subsea control module, well integrity

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79 A New Center of Motion in Cabling Robots

Authors: Alireza Abbasi Moshaii, Farshid Najafi

Abstract:

In this paper a new model for centre of motion creating is proposed. This new method uses cables. So, it is very useful in robots because it is light and has easy assembling process. In the robots which need to be in touch with some things this method is very good. It will be described in the following. The accuracy of the idea is proved by an experiment. This system could be used in the robots which need a fixed point in the contact with some things and make a circular motion. Such as dancer, physician or repair robots.

Keywords: centre of motion, robotic cables, permanent touching, mechatronics engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
78 Comprehensive Multilevel Practical Condition Monitoring Guidelines for Power Cables in Industries: Case Study of Mobarakeh Steel Company in Iran

Authors: S. Mani, M. Kafil, E. Asadi

Abstract:

Condition Monitoring (CM) of electrical equipment has gained remarkable importance during the recent years; due to huge production losses, substantial imposed costs and increases in vulnerability, risk and uncertainty levels. Power cables feed numerous electrical equipment such as transformers, motors, and electric furnaces; thus their condition assessment is of a very great importance. This paper investigates electrical, structural and environmental failure sources, all of which influence cables' performances and limit their uptimes; and provides a comprehensive framework entailing practical CM guidelines for maintenance of cables in industries. The multilevel CM framework presented in this study covers performance indicative features of power cables; with a focus on both online and offline diagnosis and test scenarios, and covers short-term and long-term threats to the operation and longevity of power cables. The study, after concisely overviewing the concept of CM, thoroughly investigates five major areas of power quality, Insulation Quality features of partial discharges, tan delta and voltage withstand capabilities, together with sheath faults, shield currents and environmental features of temperature and humidity; and elaborates interconnections and mutual impacts between those areas; using mathematical formulation and practical guidelines. Detection, location, and severity identification methods for every threat or fault source are also elaborated. Finally, the comprehensive, practical guidelines presented in the study are presented for the specific case of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) feeder MV power cables in Mobarakeh Steel Company (MSC), the largest steel company in MENA region, in Iran. Specific technical and industrial characteristics and limitations of a harsh industrial environment like MSC EAF feeder cable tunnels are imposed on the presented framework; making the suggested package more practical and tangible.

Keywords: condition monitoring, diagnostics, insulation, maintenance, partial discharge, power cables, power quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
77 Electric Field Investigation in MV PILC Cables with Void Defect

Authors: Mohamed A. Alsharif, Peter A. Wallace, Donald M. Hepburn, Chengke Zhou

Abstract:

Worldwide, most PILC MV underground cables in use are approaching the end of their design life; hence, failures are likely to increase. This paper studies the electric field and potential distributions within the PILC insulted cable containing common void-defect. The finite element model of the performance of the belted PILC MV underground cable is presented. The variation of the electric field stress within the cable using the Finite Element Method (FEM) is concentrated. The effects of the void-defect within the insulation are given. Outcomes will lead to deeper understanding of the modeling of Paper Insulated Lead Covered (PILC) and electric field response of belted PILC insulted cable containing void defect.

Keywords: MV PILC cables, finite element model/COMSOL multiphysics, electric field stress, partial discharge degradation

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76 Investigating The Effect Of Convection On The Rating Of Buried Cables Using The Finite Element Method

Authors: Sandy J. M. Balla, Jerry J. Walker, Isaac K. Kyere

Abstract:

The heat transfer coefficient at the soil–air interface is important in calculating underground cable ampacity when convection occurs. Calculating the heat transfer coefficient accurately is complex because of the temperature variations at the earth's surface. This paper presents the effect of convection heat flow across the ground surface on the rating of three single-core, 132kV, XLPE cables buried underground. The Finite element method (FEM) is a numerical analysis technique used to determine the cable rating of buried cables under installation conditions that are difficult to support when using the analytical method. This study demonstrates the use of FEM to investigate the effect of convection on the rating ofburied cables in flat formation using QuickField finite element simulation software. As a result, developing a model to simulate this type of situation necessitates important considerations such as the following boundary conditions: burial depth, soil thermal resistivity, and soil temperature, which play an important role in the simulation's accuracy and reliability. The results show that when the ground surface is taken as a convection interface, the conductor temperature rises and may exceed the maximum permissible temperature when rated current flows. This is because the ground surface acts as a convection interface between the soil and the air (fluid). This result correlates and is compared with the rating obtained using the IEC60287 analytical method, which is based on the condition that the ground surface is an isotherm.

Keywords: finite element method, convection, buried cables, steady-state rating

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
75 Tunnel Convergence Monitoring by Distributed Fiber Optics Embedded into Concrete

Authors: R. Farhoud, G. Hermand, S. Delepine-lesoille

Abstract:

Future underground facility of French radioactive waste disposal, named Cigeo, is designed to store intermediate and high level - long-lived French radioactive waste. Intermediate level waste cells are tunnel-like, about 400m length and 65 m² section, equipped with several concrete layers, which can be grouted in situ or composed of tunnel elements pre-grouted. The operating space into cells, to allow putting or removing waste containers, should be monitored for several decades without any maintenance. To provide the required information, design was performed and tested in situ in Andra’s underground laboratory (URL) at 500m under the surface. Based on distributed optic fiber sensors (OFS) and backscattered Brillouin for strain and Raman for temperature interrogation technics, the design consists of 2 loops of OFS, at 2 different radiuses, around the monitored section (Orthoradiale strains) and longitudinally. Strains measured by distributed OFS cables were compared to classical vibrating wire extensometers (VWE) and platinum probes (Pt). The OFS cables were composed of 2 cables sensitive to strains and temperatures and one only for temperatures. All cables were connected, between sensitive part and instruments, to hybrid cables to reduce cost. The connection has been made according to 2 technics: splicing fibers in situ after installation or preparing each fiber with a connector and only plugging them together in situ. Another challenge was installing OFS cables along a tunnel mad in several parts, without interruption along several parts. First success consists of the survival rate of sensors after installation and quality of measurements. Indeed, 100% of OFS cables, intended for long-term monitoring, survived installation. Few new configurations were tested with relative success. Measurements obtained were very promising. Indeed, after 3 years of data, no difference was observed between cables and connection methods of OFS and strains fit well with VWE and Pt placed at the same location. Data, from Brillouin instrument sensitive to strains and temperatures, were compensated with data provided by Raman instrument only sensitive to temperature and into a separated fiber. These results provide confidence in the next steps of the qualification processes which consists of testing several data treatment approach for direct analyses.

Keywords: monitoring, fiber optic, sensor, data treatment

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74 Statistical Analysis of Cables in Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges

Authors: Ceshi Sun, Yueyu Zhao, Yaobing Zhao, Zhiqiang Wang, Jian Peng, Pengxin Guo

Abstract:

With the rapid development of transportation, there are more than 100 cable-stayed bridges with main span larger than 300 m in China. In order to ascertain the statistical relationships among the design parameters of stay cables and their distribution characteristics, 1500 cables were selected from 25 practical long-span cable-stayed bridges. A new relationship between the first order frequency and the length of cable was found by conducting the curve fitting. Then, based on this relationship other interesting relationships were deduced. Several probability density functions (PDFs) were used to investigate the distributions of the parameters of first order frequency, stress level and the Irvine parameter. It was found that these parameters obey the Lognormal distribution, the Weibull distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution, respectively. Scatter diagrams of the three parameters were plotted and their 95% confidence intervals were also investigated.

Keywords: cable, cable-stayed bridge, long-span, statistical analysis

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73 Risk Analysis of Leaks from a Subsea Oil Facility Based on Fuzzy Logic Techniques

Authors: Belén Vinaixa Kinnear, Arturo Hidalgo López, Bernardo Elembo Wilasi, Pablo Fernández Pérez, Cecilia Hernández Fuentealba

Abstract:

The expanded use of risk assessment in legislative and corporate decision-making has increased the role of expert judgement in giving data for security-related decision-making. Expert judgements are required in most steps of risk assessment: danger recognizable proof, hazard estimation, risk evaluation, and examination of choices. This paper presents a fault tree analysis (FTA), which implies a probabilistic failure analysis applied to leakage of oil in a subsea production system. In standard FTA, the failure probabilities of items of a framework are treated as exact values while evaluating the failure probability of the top event. There is continuously insufficiency of data for calculating the failure estimation of components within the drilling industry. Therefore, fuzzy hypothesis can be used as a solution to solve the issue. The aim of this paper is to examine the leaks from the Zafiro West subsea oil facility by using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA). As a result, the research has given theoretical and practical contributions to maritime safety and environmental protection. It has been also an effective strategy used traditionally in identifying hazards in nuclear installations and power industries.

Keywords: expert judgment, probability assessment, fault tree analysis, risk analysis, oil pipelines, subsea production system, drilling, quantitative risk analysis, leakage failure, top event, off-shore industry

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72 Localization Problem in Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: M. Zyczkowski, P. Markowski, M. Karol

Abstract:

The security industry is making many efforts to lower the costs of system installation. However, the dominant technique is the application of fiber optic sensors. It is necessary to determine the location of the disorder of long optical fiber cables. For a number of years, many research centers developed their own solutions. The article presents the construction of the sensor systems with the possibility of disorder location. We present a methodology for determining location of the disorder. The aim of investigations is to answer the question of which of optical sensor configuration offer the best performance for location of the disorder.

Keywords: fiber optic sensor, security sensor, fiber cables, system instillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 554
71 Commercial Winding for Superconducting Cables and Magnets

Authors: Glenn Auld Knierim

Abstract:

Automated robotic winding of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) addresses precision, efficiency, and reliability critical to the commercialization of products. Today’s HTS materials are mature and commercially promising but require manufacturing attention. In particular to the exaggerated rectangular cross-section (very thin by very wide), winding precision is critical to address the stress that can crack the fragile ceramic superconductor (SC) layer and destroy the SC properties. Damage potential is highest during peak operations, where winding stress magnifies operational stress. Another challenge is operational parameters such as magnetic field alignment affecting design performance. Winding process performance, including precision, capability for geometric complexity, and efficient repeatability, are required for commercial production of current HTS. Due to winding limitations, current HTS magnets focus on simple pancake configurations. HTS motors, generators, MRI/NMR, fusion, and other projects are awaiting robotic wound solenoid, planar, and spherical magnet configurations. As with conventional power cables, full transposition winding is required for long length alternating current (AC) and pulsed power cables. Robotic production is required for transposition, periodic swapping of cable conductors, and placing into precise positions, which allows power utility required minimized reactance. A full transposition SC cable, in theory, has no transmission length limits for AC and variable transient operation due to no resistance (a problem with conventional cables), negligible reactance (a problem for helical wound HTS cables), and no long length manufacturing issues (a problem with both stamped and twisted stacked HTS cables). The Infinity Physics team is solving manufacturing problems by developing automated manufacturing to produce the first-ever reliable and utility-grade commercial SC cables and magnets. Robotic winding machines combine mechanical and process design, specialized sense and observer, and state-of-the-art optimization and control sequencing to carefully manipulate individual fragile SCs, especially HTS, to shape previously unattainable, complex geometries with electrical geometry equivalent to commercially available conventional conductor devices.

Keywords: automated winding manufacturing, high temperature superconductor, magnet, power cable

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
70 Electromagnetic Assessment of Submarine Power Cable Degradation Using Finite Element Method and Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: N. Boutra, N. Ravot, J. Benoit, O. Picon

Abstract:

Submarine power cables used for offshore wind farms electric energy distribution and transmission are subject to numerous threats. Some of the risks are associated with transport, installation and operating in harsh marine environment. This paper describes the feasibility of an electromagnetic low frequency sensing technique for submarine power cable failure prediction. The impact of a structural damage shape and material variability on the induced electric field is evaluated. The analysis is performed by modeling the cable using the finite element method, we use sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main damage characteristics affecting electric field variation. Lastly, we discuss the results obtained.

Keywords: electromagnetism, finite element method, sensitivity analysis, submarine power cables

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
69 Quantum Graph Approach for Energy and Information Transfer through Networks of Cables

Authors: Mubarack Ahmed, Gabriele Gradoni, Stephen C. Creagh, Gregor Tanner

Abstract:

High-frequency cables commonly connect modern devices and sensors. Interestingly, the proportion of electric components is rising fast in an attempt to achieve lighter and greener devices. Modelling the propagation of signals through these cable networks in the presence of parameter uncertainty is a daunting task. In this work, we study the response of high-frequency cable networks using both Transmission Line and Quantum Graph (QG) theories. We have successfully compared the two theories in terms of reflection spectra using measurements on real, lossy cables. We have derived a generalisation of the vertex scattering matrix to include non-uniform networks – networks of cables with different characteristic impedances and propagation constants. The QG model implicitly takes into account the pseudo-chaotic behavior, at the vertices, of the propagating electric signal. We have successfully compared the asymptotic growth of eigenvalues of the Laplacian with the predictions of Weyl law. We investigate the nearest-neighbour level-spacing distribution of the resonances and compare our results with the predictions of Random Matrix Theory (RMT). To achieve this, we will compare our graphs with the generalisation of Wigner distribution for open systems. The problem of scattering from networks of cables can also provide an analogue model for wireless communication in highly reverberant environments. In this context, we provide a preliminary analysis of the statistics of communication capacity for communication across cable networks, whose eventual aim is to enable detailed laboratory testing of information transfer rates using software defined radio. We specialise this analysis in particular for the case of MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) protocols. We have successfully validated our QG model with both TL model and laboratory measurements. The growth of Eigenvalues compares well with Weyl’s law and the level-spacing distribution agrees so well RMT predictions. The results we achieved in the MIMO application compares favourably with the prediction of a parallel on-going research (sponsored by NEMF21.)

Keywords: eigenvalues, multiple-input multiple-output, quantum graph, random matrix theory, transmission line

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68 Comparison Between PID and PD Controllers for 4 Cable-Based Robots

Authors: Fouad Inel, Lakhdar Khochemane

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative response specification performance between two controllers of three and four cable based robots for various applications. The main objective of this work is: the first is to use the direct and inverse geometric model to study and simulate the end effector position of the robot with three and four cables. A graphical user interface has been implemented in order to visualizing the position of the robot. Secondly, we present the determination of static and dynamic tensions and lengths of cables required to flow different trajectories. At the end, we study the response of our systems in closed loop with a Proportional-IntegratedDerivative (PID) and Proportional-Integrated (PD) controllers then this last are compared the results of the same examples using MATLAB/Simulink; we found that the PID method gives the better performance, such as rapidly speed response, settling time, compared to PD controller.

Keywords: dynamic modeling, geometric modeling, graphical user interface, open loop, parallel cable-based robots, PID/PD controllers

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67 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Cable Damage Detection Using an MFL Technique

Authors: Jooyoung Park, Junkyeong Kim, Aoqi Zhang, Seunghee Park

Abstract:

Non-destructive testing on cable is in great demand due to safety accidents at sites where many equipments using cables are installed. In this paper, the quantitative change of the obtained signal was analyzed using a magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method. A two-dimensional simulation was conducted with a FEM model replicating real elevator cables. The simulation data were compared for three parameters (depth of defect, width of defect and inspection velocity). Then, an experiment on same conditions was carried out to verify the results of the simulation. Signals obtained from both the simulation and the experiment were transformed to characterize the properties of the damage. Throughout the results, a cable damage detection based on an MFL method was confirmed to be feasible. In further study, it is expected that the MFL signals of an entire specimen will be gained and visualized as well.

Keywords: magnetic flux leakage (mfl), cable damage detection, non-destructive testing, numerical simulation

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66 Comparison Performance between PID and PD Controllers for 3 and 4 Cable-Based Robots

Authors: Fouad. Inel, Lakhdar. Khochemane

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative response specification performance between two controllers of three and four cable based robots for various applications. The main objective of this work is: The first is to use the direct and inverse geometric model to study and simulate the end effector position of the robot with three and four cables. A graphical user interface has been implemented in order to visualizing the position of the robot. Secondly, we present the determination of static and dynamic tensions and lengths of cables required to flow different trajectories. At the end, we study the response of our systems in closed loop with a Proportional-Integrated Derivative (PID) and Proportional-Integrated (PD) controllers then this last are compared the results of the same examples using MATLAB/Simulink; we found that the PID method gives the better performance, such as rapidly speed response, settling time, compared to PD controller.

Keywords: parallel cable-based robots, geometric modeling, dynamic modeling, graphical user interface, open loop, PID/PD controllers

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
65 Magnetic Simulation of the Underground Electric Cable in the Presence of a Short Circuit and Harmonics

Authors: Ahmed Nour El Islam Ayad, Wafa Krika, Abdelghani Ayad, Moulay Larab, Houari Boudjella, Farid Benhamida

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the magnetic emission of underground electric cable of high voltage, because these power lines generate electromagnetic interaction with other objects near to it. The aim of this work shows a numerical simulation of the magnetic field of buried 400 kV line in three cases: permanent and transient states of short circuit and the last case with the presence of the harmonics at different positions as a function of time variation, with finite element resolution using Comsol Multiphysics software. The results obtained showed that the amplitude and distribution of the magnetic flux density change in the transient state and the presence of harmonics. The results of this work calculate the magnetic field generated by the underground lines in order to evaluate and know their impact on ecology and health.

Keywords: underground, electric power cables, cables crossing, harmonic, emission

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64 Prediction for the Pressure Drop of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone in Sub-Sea Production System

Authors: Xu Rumin, Chen Jianyi, Yue Ti, Wang Yaan

Abstract:

With the rapid development of subsea oil and gas exploitation, the demand for the related underwater process equipment is increasing fast. In order to reduce the energy consuming, people tend to separate the gas and oil phase directly on the seabed. Accordingly, an advanced separator is needed. In this paper, the pressure drop of a new type of separator named Gas Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) which is used in the subsea system is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiments, the single phase flow and gas-liquid two phase flow in GLCC were tested. For the simulation, the performance of GLCC under both laboratory and industrial conditions was calculated. The Eulerian model was implemented to describe the mixture flow field in the GLCC under experimental conditions and industrial oil-natural gas conditions. Furthermore, a relationship among Euler number (Eu), Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) is generated according to similarity analysis and simulation data, which can present the GLCC separation performance of pressure drop. These results can give reference to the design and application of GLCC in deep sea.

Keywords: dimensionless analysis, gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone, numerical simulation, pressure drop

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63 Construction Port Requirements for Floating Wind Turbines

Authors: Alan Crowle, Philpp Thies

Abstract:

As the floating offshore wind turbine industry continues to develop and grow, the capabilities of established port facilities need to be assessed as to their ability to support the expanding construction and installation requirements. This paper assesses current infrastructure requirements and projected changes to port facilities that may be required to support the floating offshore wind industry. Understanding the infrastructure needs of the floating offshore renewable industry will help to identify the port-related requirements. Floating Offshore Wind Turbines can be installed further out to sea and in deeper waters than traditional fixed offshore wind arrays, meaning that it can take advantage of stronger winds. Separate ports are required for substructure construction, fit-out of the turbines, moorings, subsea cables and maintenance. Large areas are required for the laydown of mooring equipment; inter-array cables, turbine blades and nacelles. The capabilities of established port facilities to support floating wind farms are assessed by evaluation of the size of substructures, the height of wind turbine with regards to the cranes for fitting of blades, distance to offshore site and offshore installation vessel characteristics. The paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using large land-based cranes, inshore floating crane vessels or offshore crane vessels at the fit-out port for the installation of the turbine. Water depths requirements for import of materials and export of the completed structures will be considered. There are additional costs associated with any emerging technology. However part of the popularity of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines stems from the cost savings against permanent structures like fixed wind turbines. Floating Offshore Wind Turbine developers can benefit from lighter, more cost-effective equipment which can be assembled in port and towed to the site rather than relying on large, expensive installation vessels to transport and erect fixed bottom turbines. The ability to assemble Floating Offshore Wind Turbines equipment onshore means minimizing highly weather-dependent operations like offshore heavy lifts and assembly, saving time and costs and reducing safety risks for offshore workers. Maintenance might take place in safer onshore conditions for barges and semi-submersibles. Offshore renewables, such as floating wind, can take advantage of this wealth of experience, while oil and gas operators can deploy this experience at the same time as entering the renewables space The floating offshore wind industry is in the early stages of development and port facilities are required for substructure fabrication, turbine manufacture, turbine construction and maintenance support. The paper discusses the potential floating wind substructures as this provides a snapshot of the requirements at the present time, and potential technological developments required for commercial development. Scaling effects of demonstration-scale projects will be addressed, however, the primary focus will be on commercial-scale (30+ units) device floating wind energy farms.

Keywords: floating wind, port, marine construction, offshore renewables

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62 The Use of PD and Tanδ Characteristics as Diagnostic Technique for the Insulation Integrity of XLPE Insulated Cable Joints

Authors: Mazen Al-Bulaihed, Nissar Wani, Abdulrahman Al-Arainy, Yasin Khan

Abstract:

Partial Discharge (PD) measurements are widely used for diagnostic purposes in electrical equipment used in power systems. The main cause of these measurements is to prevent large power failures as cables are prone to aging, which usually results in embrittlement, cracking and eventual failure of the insulating and sheathing materials, exposing the conductor and risking a potential short circuit, a likely cause of the electrical fire. Many distribution networks rely heavily on medium voltage (MV) power cables. The presence of joints in these networks is a vital part of serving the consumer demand for electricity continuously. Such measurements become even more important when the extent of dependence increases. Moreover, it is known that the partial discharge in joints and termination are difficult to track and are the most crucial point of failures in large power systems. This paper discusses the diagnostic techniques of four samples of XLPE insulated cable joints, each included with a different type of defect. Experiments were carried out by measuring PD and tanδ at very low frequency applied high voltage. The results show the importance of combining PD and tanδ for effective cable assessment.

Keywords: partial discharge, tan delta, very low frequency, XLPE cable

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
61 Dynamic Analysis of Submerged Floating Tunnel Subjected to Hydrodynamic and Seismic Loadings

Authors: Naik Muhammad, Zahid Ullah, Dong-Ho Choi

Abstract:

Submerged floating tunnel (SFT) is a new solution for the transportation infrastructure through sea straits, fjords, and inland waters, and can be a good alternative to long span suspension bridges. SFT is a massive cylindrical structure that floats at a certain depth below the water surface and subjected to extreme environmental conditions. The identification of dominant structural response of SFT becomes more important due to intended environmental conditions for the design of SFT. The time domain dynamic problem of SFT moored by vertical and inclined mooring cables/anchors is formulated. The dynamic time history analysis of SFT subjected to hydrodynamic and seismic excitations is performed. The SFT is modeled by finite element 3D beam, and the mooring cables are modeled by truss elements. Based on the dynamic time history analysis the displacements and internal forces of SFT were calculated. The response of SFT is presented for hydrodynamic and seismic excitations. The transverse internal forces of SFT were the maximum compared to vertical direction, for both hydrodynamic and seismic cases; this indicates that the cable system provides very small stiffness in transverse direction as compared to vertical direction of SFT.

Keywords: submerged floating tunnel, hydrodynamic analysis, time history analysis, seismic response

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60 Seismic Interpretation and Petrophysical Evaluation of SM Field, Libya

Authors: Abdalla Abdelnabi, Yousf Abushalah

Abstract:

The G Formation is a major gas producing reservoir in the SM Field, eastern, Libya. It is called G limestone because it consists of shallow marine limestone. Well data and 3D-Seismic in conjunction with the results of a previous study were used to delineate the hydrocarbon reservoir of Middle Eocene G-Formation of SM Field area. The data include three-dimensional seismic data acquired in 2009. It covers approximately an area of 75 mi² and with more than 9 wells penetrating the reservoir. Seismic data are used to identify any stratigraphic and structural and features such as channels and faults and which may play a significant role in hydrocarbon traps. The well data are used to calculation petrophysical analysis of S field. The average porosity of the Middle Eocene G Formation is very good with porosity reaching 24% especially around well W 6. Average water saturation was calculated for each well from porosity and resistivity logs using Archie’s formula. The average water saturation for the whole well is 25%. Structural mapping of top and bottom of Middle Eocene G formation revealed the highest area in the SM field is at 4800 ft subsea around wells W4, W5, W6, and W7 and the deepest point is at 4950 ft subsea. Correlation between wells using well data and structural maps created from seismic data revealed that net thickness of G Formation range from 0 ft in the north part of the field to 235 ft in southwest and south part of the field. The gas water contact is found at 4860 ft using the resistivity log. The net isopach map using both the trapezoidal and pyramid rules are used to calculate the total bulk volume. The original gas in place and the recoverable gas were calculated volumetrically to be 890 Billion Standard Cubic Feet (BSCF) and 630 (BSCF) respectively.

Keywords: 3D seismic data, well logging, petrel, kingdom suite

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59 Analyzing of Arch Steel Beams with Pre-Stressed Cables

Authors: Erkan Polat, Barlas Ozden Caglayan

Abstract:

By day-to-day developed techniques, it is possible to pass through larger openings by using smaller beam-column sections. Parallel to this trend, it is aimed to produce not only smaller but also economical and architecturally more attractive beams. This study aims to explain the structural behavior of arch steel beam reinforced by using post-tension cable. Due to the effect of post-stressed cable, the arch beam load carrying capacity increases and an optimized section in a smaller size can be obtained with a better architectural view. It also allows better mechanical and applicational solutions for buildings. For better understanding the behavior of the reinforced beam, steel beam and arch steel beam with post-tensioned cable are all modeled and analyzed by using SAP2000 Finite element computer program and compared with each other. Also, full scale test specimens were prepared to test for figuring out the structural behavior and compare the results with the computer model results. Test results are very promising. The similarity of the results between the test and computer analysis shows us that there are no extra knowledge and effort of engineer is needed to calculate such beams. The predicted (and proved by tests) beam carrying capacity is 35% higher than the unreinforced beam carrying capacity. Even just three full scale tests were completed, it is seen that the ratio (%35) may be increased ahead by adjusting the cable post-tension force of beams in much smaller sizes.

Keywords: arch steel beams, pre-stressed cables, finite element, specimen Test

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58 Investigation of Multiple Dynamic Vibration Absorbers' Performance in Overhead Transmission Lines

Authors: Pedro F. D. Oliveira, Rangel S. Maia, Aline S. Paula

Abstract:

As the electric energy consumption grows, the necessity of energy transmission lines increases. One of the problems caused by an oscillatory response to dynamical loads (such as wind effects) in transmission lines is the cable fatigue. Thus, the dynamical behavior of transmission cables understanding and its control is extremely important. The socioeconomic damage caused by a failure in these cables can be quite significant, from large economic losses to energy supply interruption in large regions. Dynamic Vibration Absorbers (DVA) are oscillatory elements used to mitigate the vibration of a primary system subjected to harmonic excitation. The positioning of Stockbridge (DVA for overhead transmission lines) plays an important role in mitigating oscillations of transmission lines caused by airflows. Nowadays, the positioning is defined by technical standards or commercial software. The aim of this paper is to conduct an analysis of multiple DVAs performances in cable conductors of overhead transmission lines. The cable is analyzed by a finite element method and the model is calibrated by experimental results. DVAs performance is analyzed by evaluating total cable energy, and a study of multiple DVAs positioning is conducted. The results are compared to the existing regulations showing situations where proper positioning, different from the standard, can lead to better performance of the DVA. Results also show situations where the use of multiple DVAs is appropriate.

Keywords: dynamical vibration absorber, finite element method, overhead transmission lines, structural dynamics

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57 Multibody Constrained Dynamics of Y-Method Installation System for a Large Scale Subsea Equipment

Authors: Naeem Ullah, Menglan Duan, Mac Darlington Uche Onuoha

Abstract:

The lowering of subsea equipment into the deep waters is a challenging job due to the harsh offshore environment. Many researchers have introduced various installation systems to deploy the payload safely into the deep oceans. In general practice, dual floating vessels are not employed owing to the prevalent safety risks and hazards caused by ever-increasing dynamical effects sourced by mutual interaction between the bodies. However, while keeping in the view of the optimal grounds, such as economical one, the Y-method, the two conventional tugboats supporting the equipment by the two independent strands connected to a tri-plate above the equipment, has been employed to study multibody dynamics of the dual barge lifting operations. In this study, the two tugboats and the suspended payload (Y-method) are deployed for the lowering of subsea equipment into the deep waters as a multibody dynamic system. The two-wire ropes are used for the lifting and installation operation by this Y-method installation system. 6-dof (degree of freedom) for each body are considered to establish coupled 18-dof multibody model by embedding technique or velocity transformation technique. The fundamental and prompt advantage of this technique is that the constraint forces can be eliminated directly, and no extra computational effort is required for the elimination of the constraint forces. The inertial frame of reference is taken at the surface of the water as the time-independent frame of reference, and the floating frames of reference are introduced in each body as the time-dependent frames of reference in order to formulate the velocity transformation matrix. The local transformation of the generalized coordinates to the inertial frame of reference is executed by applying the Euler Angle approach. The spherical joints are articulated amongst the multibody as the kinematic joints. The hydrodynamic force, the two-strand forces, the hydrostatic force, and the mooring forces are taken into consideration as the external forces. The radiation force of the hydrodynamic force is obtained by employing the Cummins equation. The wave exciting part of the hydrodynamic force is obtained by using force response amplitude operators (RAOs) that are obtained by the commercial solver ‘OpenFOAM’. The strand force is obtained by considering the wire rope as an elastic spring. The nonlinear hydrostatic force is obtained by the pressure integration technique at each time step of the wave movement. The mooring forces are evaluated by using Faltinsen analytical approach. ‘The Runge Kutta Method’ of Fourth-Order is employed to evaluate the coupled equations of motion obtained for 18-dof multibody model. The results are correlated with the simulated Orcaflex Model. Moreover, the results from Orcaflex Model are compared with the MOSES Model from previous studies. The MBDS of single barge lifting operation from the former studies are compared with the MBDS of the established dual barge lifting operation. The dynamics of the dual barge lifting operation are found larger in magnitude as compared to the single barge lifting operation. It is noticed that the traction at the top connection point of the cable decreases with the increase in the length, and it becomes almost constant after passing through the splash zone.

Keywords: dual barge lifting operation, Y-method, multibody dynamics, shipbuilding, installation of subsea equipment, shipbuilding

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56 6 DOF Cable-Driven Haptic Robot for Rendering High Axial Force with Low Off-Axis Impedance

Authors: Naghmeh Zamani, Ashkan Pourkand, David Grow

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and mechanical model of a hybrid impedance/admittance haptic device optimized for applications, like bone drilling, spinal awl probe use, and other surgical techniques were high force is required in the tool-axial direction, and low impedance is needed in all other directions. The performance levels required cannot be satisfied by existing, off-the-shelf haptic devices. This design may allow critical improvements in simulator fidelity for surgery training. The device consists primarily of two low-mass (carbon fiber) plates with a rod passing through them. Collectively, the device provides 6 DOF. The rod slides through a bushing in the top plate and it is connected to the bottom plate with a universal joint, constrained to move in only 2 DOF, allowing axial torque display the user’s hand. The two parallel plates are actuated and located by means of four cables pulled by motors. The forward kinematic equations are derived to ensure that the plates orientation remains constant. The corresponding equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson method. The static force/torque equations are also presented. Finally, we present the predicted distribution of location error, cables velocity, cable tension, force and torque for the device. These results and preliminary hardware fabrication indicate that this design may provide a revolutionary approach for haptic display of many surgical procedures by means of an architecture that allows arbitrary workspace scaling. Scaling of the height and width can be scaled arbitrarily.

Keywords: cable direct driven robot, haptics, parallel plates, bone drilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 176