Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2288

Search results for: fiber optic sensor

2288 Modalmetric Fiber Sensor and Its Applications

Authors: M. Zyczkowski, P. Markowski, M. Karol


The team from IOE MUT is developing fiber optic sensors for the security systems for 15 years. The conclusions of the work indicate that these sensors are complicated. Moreover, these sensors are expensive to produce and require sophisticated signal processing methods.We present the results of the investigations of three different applications of the modalmetric sensor: • Protection of museum collections and heritage buildings, • Protection of fiber optic transmission lines, • Protection of objects of critical infrastructure. Each of the presented applications involves different requirements for the system. The results indicate that it is possible to developed a fiber optic sensor based on a single fiber. Modification of optoelectronic parts with a change of the length of the sensor and the method of reflections of propagating light at the end of the sensor allows to adjust the system to the specific application.

Keywords: modalmetric fiber optic sensor, security sensor, optoelectronic parts, signal processing

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2287 Localization Problem in Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: M. Zyczkowski, P. Markowski, M. Karol


The security industry is making many efforts to lower the costs of system installation. However, the dominant technique is the application of fiber optic sensors. It is necessary to determine the location of the disorder of long optical fiber cables. For a number of years, many research centers developed their own solutions. The article presents the construction of the sensor systems with the possibility of disorder location. We present a methodology for determining location of the disorder. The aim of investigations is to answer the question of which of optical sensor configuration offer the best performance for location of the disorder.

Keywords: fiber optic sensor, security sensor, fiber cables, system instillation

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2286 Study on Intensity Modulated Non-Contact Optical Fiber Vibration Sensors of Different Configurations

Authors: Dinkar Dantala, Kishore Putha, Padmavathi Manchineelu


Optical fibers are widely used in the measurement of several physical parameters like temperature, pressure, vibrations etc. Measurement of vibrations plays a vital role in machines. In this paper, three fiber optic non-contact vibration sensors were discussed, which are designed based on the principle of light intensity modulation. The Dual plastic optical fiber, Fiber optic fused 1x2 coupler and Fiber optic fused 2x2 coupler vibration sensors are compared based on range of frequency, resolution and sensitivity. It is to conclude that 2x2 coupler configuration shows better response than other two sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic, PMMA, vibration sensor, intensity-modulated

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2285 Fiber-Optic Sensors for Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Measurement

Authors: H. Akbari Khorami, P. Wild, N. Djilali


This paper reports on the response of a fiber-optic sensing probe to small concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapor at room temperature. H2O2 has extensive applications in industrial and medical environments. Conversely, H2O2 can be a health hazard by itself. For example, H2O2 induces cellular damage in human cells and its presence can be used to diagnose illnesses such as asthma and human breast cancer. Hence, development of reliable H2O2 sensor is of vital importance to detect and measure this species. Ferric ferrocyanide, referred to as Prussian blue (PB), was deposited on the tip of a multimode optical fiber through the single source precursor technique and served as an indicator of H2O2 in a spectroscopic manner. Sensing tests were performed in H2O2-H2O vapor mixtures with different concentrations of H2O2. The results of sensing tests show the sensor is able to detect H2O2 concentrations in the range of 50.6 ppm to 229.5 ppm. Furthermore, the sensor response to H2O2 concentrations is linear in a log-log scale with the adjacent R-square of 0.93. This sensing behavior allows us to detect and quantify the concentration of H2O2 in the vapor phase.

Keywords: chemical deposition, fiber-optic sensor, hydrogen peroxide vapor, prussian blue

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2284 Highly Sensitive Fiber-Optic Curvature Sensor Based on Four Mode Fiber

Authors: Qihang Zeng, Wei Xu, Ying Shen, Changyuan Yu


In this paper, a highly sensitive fiber-optic curvature sensor based on four mode fiber (FMF) is presented and investigated. The proposed sensing structure is constructed by fusing a section of FMF into two standard single mode fibers (SMFs) concatenated with two no core fiber (NCF), i.e., SMF-NCF-FMF-NCF-SMF structure is fabricated. The length of the NCF is very short about 1 millimeter acting as exciting/recoupling the light from/into the core of the SMF, while the FMF is with 3 centimeters long supporting four eigenmodes including LP₀₁, LP₁₁, LP₂₁ and LP₀₂. High core modes in FMF can be effectively stimulated owing to mismatched mode field distribution and the mainly sensing principle is based on modal interferometer spectrum analysis. Different curvatures induce different strains on the FMF such that affecting the modal excitation, resulting spectrum shifts. One can get the curvature value by tracking the wavelength shifting. Experiments have been done to address the sensing performance, which is about 7.8 nm/m⁻¹ within a range of 1.90 m⁻¹~3.18 m⁻¹.

Keywords: curvature, four mode fiber, highly sensitive, modal interferometer

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2283 Polydimethylsiloxane Applications in Interferometric Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: Zeenat Parveen, Ashiq Hussain


This review paper consists of applications of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) materials for enhanced performance, optical fiber sensors in acousto-ultrasonic, mechanical measurements, current applications, sensing, measurements and interferometric optical fiber sensors. We will discuss the basic working principle of fiber optic sensing technology, various types of fiber optic and the PDMS as a coating material to increase the performance. Optical fiber sensing methods for detecting dynamic strain signals, including general sound and acoustic signals, high frequency signals i.e. ultrasonic/ultrasound, and other signals such as acoustic emission and impact induced dynamic strain. Optical fiber sensors have Industrial and civil engineering applications in mechanical measurements. Sometimes it requires different configurations and parameters of sensors. Optical fiber current sensors are based on Faraday Effect due to which we obtain better performance as compared to the conventional current transformer. Recent advancement and cost reduction has simulated interest in optical fiber sensing. Optical techniques are also implemented in material measurement. Fiber optic interferometers are used to sense various physical parameters including temperature, pressure and refractive index. There are four types of interferometers i.e. Fabry–perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. This paper also describes the future work of fiber optic sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic sensing, PDMS materials, acoustic, ultrasound, current sensor, mechanical measurements

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2282 Encoded Fiber Optic Sensors for Simultaneous Multipoint Sensing

Authors: C. Babu Rao, Pandian Chelliah


Owing to their reliability, a number of fluorescent spectra based fiber optic sensors have been developed for detection and identification of hazardous chemicals such as explosives, narcotics etc. In High security regions, such as airports, it is important to monitor simultaneously multiple locations. This calls for deployment of a portable sensor at each location. However, the selectivity and sensitivity of these techniques depends on the spectral resolution of the spectral analyzer. The better the resolution the larger the repertoire of chemicals that can be detected. A portable unit will have limitations in meeting these requirements. Optical fibers can be employed for collecting and transmitting spectral signal from the portable sensor head to a sensitive central spectral analyzer (CSA). For multipoint sensing, optical multiplexing of multiple sensor heads with CSA has to be adopted. However with multiplexing, when one sensor head is connected to CSA, the rest may remain unconnected for the turn-around period. The larger the number of sensor heads the larger this turn-around time will be. To circumvent this imitation, we propose in this paper, an optical encoding methodology to use multiple portable sensor heads connected to a single CSA. Each portable sensor head is assigned an unique address. Spectra of every chemical detected through this sensor head, are encoded by its unique address and can be identified at the CSA end. The methodology proposed is demonstrated through a simulation using Matlab SIMULINK.

Keywords: optical encoding, fluorescence, multipoint sensing

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2281 Crab Shell Waste Chitosan-Based Thin Film for Acoustic Sensor Applications

Authors: Maydariana Ayuningtyas, Bambang Riyanto, Akhiruddin Maddu


Industrial waste of crustacean shells, such as shrimp and crab, has been considered as one of the major issues contributing to environmental pollution. The waste processing mechanisms to form new, practical substances with added value have been developed. Chitosan, a derived matter from chitin, which is obtained from crab and shrimp shells, performs prodigiously in broad range applications. A chitosan composite-based diaphragm is a new inspiration in fiber optic acoustic sensor advancement. Elastic modulus, dynamic response, and sensitivity to acoustic wave of chitosan-based composite film contribute great potentials of organic-based sound-detecting material. The objective of this research was to develop chitosan diaphragm application in fiber optic microphone system. The formulation was conducted by blending 5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution with dissolved chitosan at 0%, 1% and 2% in 1:1 ratio, respectively. Composite diaphragms were characterized for the morphological and mechanical properties to predict the desired acoustic sensor sensitivity. The composite with 2% chitosan indicated optimum performance with 242.55 µm thickness, 67.9% relative humidity, and 29-76% light transmittance. The Young’s modulus of 2%-chitosan composite material was 4.89×104 N/m2, which generated the voltage amplitude of 0.013V and performed sensitivity of 3.28 mV/Pa at 1 kHz. Based on the results above, chitosan from crustacean shell waste can be considered as a viable alternative material for fiber optic acoustic sensor sensing pad development. Further, the research in chitosan utilisation is proposed as novel optical microphone development in anthropogenic noise controlling effort for environmental and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: acoustic sensor, chitosan, composite, crab shell, diaphragm, waste utilisation

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2280 A Combined Fiber-Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance and Ta2O5: rGO Nanocomposite Synergistic Scheme for Trace Detection of Insecticide Fenitrothion

Authors: Ravi Kant, Banshi D. Gupta


The unbridled application of insecticides to enhance agricultural yield has become a matter of grave concern to both the environment and the human health and, thus pose a potential threat to sustainable development. Fenitrothion is an extensively used organophosphate insecticide whose residues are reported to be extremely toxic for birds, humans and aquatic life. A sensitive, swift and accurate detection protocol for fenitrothion is, thus, highly demanded. In this work, we report an SPR based fiber optic sensor for the detection of fenitrothion, where a nanocomposite arrangement of Ta2O5 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (Ta₂O₅: rGO) decorated on silver coated unclad core region of an optical fiber forms the sensing channel. A nanocomposite arrangement synergistically integrates the properties of involved components and consequently furnishes a conducive framework for sensing applications. The modification of the dielectric function of the sensing layer on exposure to fenitrothion solutions of diverse concentration forms the sensing mechanism. This modification is reflected in terms of the shift in resonance wavelength. Experimental variables such as the concentration of rGO in the nanocomposite configuration, dip time of silver coated fiber optic probe for deposition of sensing layer and influence of pH on the performance of the sensor have been optimized to extract the best performance of the sensor. SPR studies on the optimized sensing probe reveal the high sensitivity, wide operating range and good reproducibility of the fabricated sensor, which unveil the promising utility of Ta₂O₅: rGO nanocomposite framework for developing an efficient detection methodology for fenitrothion. FOSPR approach in cooperation with nanomaterials projects the present work as a beneficial approach for fenitrothion detection by imparting numerous useful advantages such as sensitivity, selectivity, compactness and cost-effectiveness.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance, optical fiber, sensor, fenitrothion

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2279 Health Monitoring of Composite Pile Construction Using Fiber Bragg Gratings Sensor Arrays

Authors: B. Atli-Veltin, A. Vosteen, D. Megan, A. Jedynska, L. K. Cheng


Composite materials combine the advantages of being lightweight and possessing high strength. This is in particular of interest for the development of large constructions, e.g., aircraft, space applications, wind turbines, etc. One of the shortcomings of using composite materials is the complex nature of the failure mechanisms which makes it difficult to predict the remaining lifetime. Therefore, condition and health monitoring are essential for using composite material for critical parts of a construction. Different types of sensors are used/developed to monitor composite structures. These include ultrasonic, thermography, shearography and fiber optic. The first 3 technologies are complex and mostly used for measurement in laboratory or during maintenance of the construction. Optical fiber sensor can be surface mounted or embedded in the composite construction to provide the unique advantage of in-operation measurement of mechanical strain and other parameters of interest. This is identified to be a promising technology for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) or Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) of composite constructions. Among the different fiber optic sensing technologies, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor is the most mature and widely used. FBG sensors can be realized in an array configuration with many FBGs in a single optical fiber. In the current project, different aspects of using embedded FBG for composite wind turbine monitoring are investigated. The activities are divided into two parts. Firstly, FBG embedded carbon composite laminate is subjected to tensile and bending loading to investigate the response of FBG which are placed in different orientations with respect to the fiber. Secondly, the demonstration of using FBG sensor array for temperature and strain sensing and monitoring of a 5 m long scale model of a glass fiber mono-pile is investigated. Two different FBG types are used; special in-house fibers and off-the-shelf ones. The results from the first part of the study are showing that the FBG sensors survive the conditions during the production of the laminate. The test results from the tensile and the bending experiments are indicating that the sensors successfully response to the change of strain. The measurements from the sensors will be correlated with the strain gauges that are placed on the surface of the laminates.

Keywords: Fiber Bragg Gratings, embedded sensors, health monitoring, wind turbine towers

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2278 Reliable and Error-Free Transmission through Multimode Polymer Optical Fibers in House Networks

Authors: Tariq Ahamad, Mohammed S. Al-Kahtani, Taisir Eldos


Optical communications technology has made enormous and steady progress for several decades, providing the key resource in our increasingly information-driven society and economy. Much of this progress has been in finding innovative ways to increase the data carrying capacity of a single optical fiber. In this research article we have explored basic issues in terms of security and reliability for secure and reliable information transfer through the fiber infrastructure. Conspicuously, one potentially enormous source of improvement has however been left untapped in these systems: fibers can easily support hundreds of spatial modes, but today’s commercial systems (single-mode or multi-mode) make no attempt to use these as parallel channels for independent signals. Bandwidth, performance, reliability, cost efficiency, resiliency, redundancy, and security are some of the demands placed on telecommunications today. Since its initial development, fiber optic systems have had the advantage of most of these requirements over copper-based and wireless telecommunications solutions. The largest obstacle preventing most businesses from implementing fiber optic systems was cost. With the recent advancements in fiber optic technology and the ever-growing demand for more bandwidth, the cost of installing and maintaining fiber optic systems has been reduced dramatically. With so many advantages, including cost efficiency, there will continue to be an increase of fiber optic systems replacing copper-based communications. This will also lead to an increase in the expertise and the technology needed to tap into fiber optic networks by intruders. As ever before, all technologies have been subject to hacking and criminal manipulation, fiber optics is no exception. Researching fiber optic security vulnerabilities suggests that not everyone who is responsible for their networks security is aware of the different methods that intruders use to hack virtually undetected into fiber optic cables. With millions of miles of fiber optic cables stretching across the globe and carrying information including but certainly not limited to government, military, and personal information, such as, medical records, banking information, driving records, and credit card information; being aware of fiber optic security vulnerabilities is essential and critical. Many articles and research still suggest that fiber optics is expensive, impractical and hard to tap. Others argue that it is not only easily done, but also inexpensive. This paper will briefly discuss the history of fiber optics, explain the basics of fiber optic technologies and then discuss the vulnerabilities in fiber optic systems and how they can be better protected. Knowing the security risks and knowing the options available may save a company a lot embarrassment, time, and most importantly money.

Keywords: in-house networks, fiber optics, security risk, money

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2277 Design of Strain Sensor Based on Cascaded Fiber Bragg Grating for Remote Sensing Monitoring Application

Authors: Arafat A. A. Shabaneh


Harsh environments demand a developed detection of an optical communication system to ensure a high level of security and safety. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are emerging sensing instruments that respond to variations in strain and temperature via varying wavelengths. In this paper, cascaded uniform FBG as a strain sensor for 6 km length at 1550 nm wavelength with 30 oC is designed with analyzing of dynamic strain and wavelength shifts. FBG is placed in a small segment of optical fiber, which reflects light of a specific wavelength and passes the remaining wavelengths. This makes a periodic alteration in the refractive index within the fiber core. The alteration in the modal index of fiber produced due to strain consequences in a Bragg wavelength. When the developed sensor exposure to a strain of cascaded uniform FBG by 0.01, the wavelength is shifted to 0.0000144383 μm. The sensing accuracy of the developed sensor is 0.0012. Simulation results show reliable and effective strain monitoring sensors for remote sensing applications.

Keywords: Cascaded fiber Bragg gratings, Strain sensor, Remote sensing, Wavelength shift

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2276 Simulation Analysis of Wavelength/Time/Space Codes Using CSRZ and DPSK-RZ Formats for Fiber-Optic CDMA Systems

Authors: Jaswinder Singh


In this paper, comparative analysis is carried out to study the performance of wavelength/time/space optical CDMA codes using two well-known formats; those are CSRZ and DPSK-RZ using RSoft’s OptSIM. The analysis is carried out under the real-like scenario considering the presence of various non-linear effects such as XPM, SPM, SRS, SBS and FWM. Fiber dispersion and the multiple access interference are also considered. The codes used in this analysis are 3-D wavelength/time/space codes. These are converted into 2-D wavelength-time codes so that their requirement of space couplers and fiber ribbons is eliminated. Under the conditions simulated, this is found that CSRZ performs better than DPSK-RZ for fiber-optic CDMA applications.

Keywords: Optical CDMA, Multiple access interference (MAI), CSRZ, DPSK-RZ

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2275 Modelling and Simulation of Single Mode Optical Fiber Directional Coupler for Medical Application

Authors: Shilpa Kulkarni, Sujata Patrikar


A single-mode fiber directional coupler is modeled and simulated for its application in medical field. Various fiber devices based on evanescent field absorption, interferometry, couplers, resonators, tip coated fibers, etc, have been developed so far, suitable for medical application. This work focuses on the possibility of sensing by single mode fiber directional coupler. In the preset work, a fiber directional coupler is modeled to detect the changes taking place in the surrounding medium optoelectronically. In this work, waveguiding characteristics of the fiber are studied in depth. The sensor is modeled and simulated by finding photocurrent, sensitivity and detection limit by varying various parameters of the directional coupler. The device is optimized for the best possible output. It is found that the directional coupler shows measurable photocurrents and good sensitivity with coupling length in micrometers. It is thus a miniature device, hence, suitable for medical applications.

Keywords: single mode fiber directional coupler, modeling and simulation of fiber directional coupler sensor, biomolecular sensing, medical sensor device

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2274 Grating Assisted Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for Monitoring of Hazardous Toxic Chemicals and Gases in an Underground Mines

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar Raghuwanshi, Yadvendra Singh


The objective of this paper is to develop and optimize the Fiber Bragg (FBG) grating based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor for monitoring the hazardous toxic chemicals and gases in underground mines or any industrial area. A fully cladded telecommunication standard FBG is proposed to develop to produce surface plasmon resonance. A thin few nm gold/silver film (subject to optimization) is proposed to apply over the FBG sensing head using e-beam deposition method. Sensitivity enhancement of the sensor will be done by adding a composite nanostructured Graphene Oxide (GO) sensing layer using the spin coating method. Both sensor configurations suppose to demonstrate high responsiveness towards the changes in resonance wavelength. The GO enhanced sensor may show increased sensitivity of many fold compared to the gold coated traditional fibre optic sensor. Our work is focused on to optimize GO, multilayer structure and to develop fibre coating techniques that will serve well for sensitive and multifunctional detection of hazardous chemicals. This research proposal shows great potential towards future development of optical fiber sensors using readily available components such as Bragg gratings as highly sensitive chemical sensors in areas such as environmental sensing.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance, fibre Bragg grating, sensitivity, toxic gases, MATRIX method

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2273 Selective Excitation of Circular Helical Modes in Graded Index Fibers

Authors: S. Al-Sowayan


The impact of selective excitation of circular helical modes of graded-index fibers on its capacity is analyzed using a model for propagation delay variation with launch offset and angle that resulted from misalignment of source and fiber axis. Results show that promising technique to improve graded-index fiber capacities.

Keywords: fiber measurements, fiber optic, communications, circular helical modes

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2272 Numerical Simulation of Fiber Bragg Grating Spectrum for Mode-І Delamination Detection

Authors: O. Hassoon, M. Tarfoui, A. El Malk


Fiber Bragg optic sensor embedded in composite material to detect and monitor the damage which is occur in composite structure. In this paper we deal with the mode-Ι delamination to determine the resistance of material to crack propagation, and use the coupling mode theory and T-matrix method to simulating the FBGs spectrum for both uniform and non-uniform strain distribution. The double cantilever beam test which is modeling in FEM to determine the Longitudinal strain, there are two models which are used, the first is the global half model, and the second the sub-model to represent the FBGs with refine mesh. This method can simulate the damage in the composite structure and converting the strain to wavelength shifting of the FBG spectrum.

Keywords: fiber bragg grating, delamination detection, DCB, FBG spectrum, structure health monitoring

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2271 Labview-Based System for Fiber Links Events Detection

Authors: Bo Liu, Qingshan Kong, Weiqing Huang


With the rapid development of modern communication, diagnosing the fiber-optic quality and faults in real-time is widely focused. In this paper, a Labview-based system is proposed for fiber-optic faults detection. The wavelet threshold denoising method combined with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is applied to denoise the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) signal. Then the method based on Gabor representation is used to detect events. Experimental measurements show that signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the OTDR signal is improved by 1.34dB on average, compared with using the wavelet threshold denosing method. The proposed system has a high score in event detection capability and accuracy. The maximum detectable fiber length of the proposed Labview-based system can be 65km.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition, events detection, Gabor transform, optical time domain reflectometer, wavelet threshold denoising

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2270 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine


Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGS), strain, temperature, humidity, structural health monitoring (SHM)

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2269 Fiber Optic Asparagine Biosensor for Fruit Juices by Co-Immobilization of L-Asparaginase and Phenol Red

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ritu Narula, Navneet Kaur


Asparagine is vital amino acid which is required for the development of brain and it regulates the equilibrium of central nervous system. Asparagine is the chief amino acid that forms acrylamide in baked food by reacting with reducing sugars at high temperature ( Millard Reaction i.e. amino acids and sugars give new flavors at high temperature). It can also be a parameter of freshness in fruit juices because on storage of juices at 37°C caused an 87% loss in the total free amino acids and major decrease was recorded in asparagine contents. With this significance of monitoring asparagine, in the present work a biosensor for determining asparagine in fruit juices is developed. For the construction of biosensor L-asparaginase enzyme (0.5 IU) was co-immobilized with phenol red on TEOS chitosan sol-gel plastic disc and fixed on the fiber optic tip. Tip was immersed in a cell having 5ml of substrate and absorption was noted at response time of 5 min with 10-1 - 10-10 M concentrations of asparagine at 538 nm. L-asparaginase was extracted and from Solanum nigrum Asparagine biosensor was applied fruit juices on the monitoring asparagine contents. L-asparagine concentration found to be present in fruit juices like Guava Juice, Apple Juice, Mango Juice, Litchi juice, Strawberry juice, Pineapple juice Lemon juice, and Orange juice. Hence the developed biosensor has commercial aspects in quality insurance of fruit juices.

Keywords: fiber optic biosensor, chitosan, teos, l-asparaginase

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2268 Dynamics of Mach Zehnder Modulator in Open and Closed Loop Bias Condition

Authors: Ramonika Sengupta, Stuti Kachhwaha, Asha Adhiya, K. Satya Raja Sekhar, Rajwinder Kaur


Numerous efforts have been done in the past decade to develop the methods of secure communication that are free from interception and eavesdropping. In fiber optic communication, chaotic optical carrier signals are used for data encryption in secure data transmission. Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZM) are the key components for generating the chaotic signals to be used as optical carriers. This paper presents the dynamics of a lithium niobate MZM modulator under various biasing conditions. The chaotic fluctuations of the intensity of a laser diode have been generated using the electro-optic MZM modulator operating in a highly nonlinear regime. The modulator is driven in closed loop by its own output at an earlier time. When used as an electro-optic oscillator employing delayed feedback, the MZM displays a wide range of output waveforms of varying complexity. The dynamical behavior of the system ranges from periodic to nonlinear oscillations. The nonlinearity displayed by the system is reproducible and is easily controllable. In this paper, we demonstrate a wide variety of optical signals generated by MZM using easily controllable device parameters in both open and close loop bias conditions.

Keywords: chaotic carrier, fiber optic communication, Mach-Zehnder modulator, secure data transmission

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2267 Optic Nerve Sheath Measurement in Children with Head Trauma

Authors: Sabiha Sahin, Kursad Bora Carman, Coskun Yarar


Introduction: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is a noninvasive and easy to use imaging technique to predict intracranial pressure in children and adults. The aim was to measure the diameter of the optic nerve sheath in pediatric head trauma. Methods: The study group consisted of 40 children with healthy and 40 patients with head trauma. Transorbital sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter was performed. Conclusion: The mean diameters of the optic nerve sheath of right and left eyes were 0.408 ± 0.064 mm and 0.417 ± 0.065 mm, respectively, in the trauma group. These results were higher in patients than in control group. There was a negative correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and Glasgow Coma Scales in patients with head trauma (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and positive CT findings, systolic blood pressure in patients with head trauma. The clinical status of the patients at admission, blood pH and lactate level were related to the optic nerve sheath diameter. Conclusion: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is not an invasive technique and can be easily used to predict increased intracranial pressure and to prevent secondary brain injury.

Keywords: head trauma, intracranial pressure, optic nerve, sonography

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2266 Tunnel Convergence Monitoring by Distributed Fiber Optics Embedded into Concrete

Authors: R. Farhoud, G. Hermand, S. Delepine-lesoille


Future underground facility of French radioactive waste disposal, named Cigeo, is designed to store intermediate and high level - long-lived French radioactive waste. Intermediate level waste cells are tunnel-like, about 400m length and 65 m² section, equipped with several concrete layers, which can be grouted in situ or composed of tunnel elements pre-grouted. The operating space into cells, to allow putting or removing waste containers, should be monitored for several decades without any maintenance. To provide the required information, design was performed and tested in situ in Andra’s underground laboratory (URL) at 500m under the surface. Based on distributed optic fiber sensors (OFS) and backscattered Brillouin for strain and Raman for temperature interrogation technics, the design consists of 2 loops of OFS, at 2 different radiuses, around the monitored section (Orthoradiale strains) and longitudinally. Strains measured by distributed OFS cables were compared to classical vibrating wire extensometers (VWE) and platinum probes (Pt). The OFS cables were composed of 2 cables sensitive to strains and temperatures and one only for temperatures. All cables were connected, between sensitive part and instruments, to hybrid cables to reduce cost. The connection has been made according to 2 technics: splicing fibers in situ after installation or preparing each fiber with a connector and only plugging them together in situ. Another challenge was installing OFS cables along a tunnel mad in several parts, without interruption along several parts. First success consists of the survival rate of sensors after installation and quality of measurements. Indeed, 100% of OFS cables, intended for long-term monitoring, survived installation. Few new configurations were tested with relative success. Measurements obtained were very promising. Indeed, after 3 years of data, no difference was observed between cables and connection methods of OFS and strains fit well with VWE and Pt placed at the same location. Data, from Brillouin instrument sensitive to strains and temperatures, were compensated with data provided by Raman instrument only sensitive to temperature and into a separated fiber. These results provide confidence in the next steps of the qualification processes which consists of testing several data treatment approach for direct analyses.

Keywords: monitoring, fiber optic, sensor, data treatment

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2265 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu


According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

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2264 Developing Motorized Spectroscopy System for Tissue Scanning

Authors: Tuba Denkceken, Ayse Nur Sarı, Volkan Ihsan Tore, Mahmut Denkceken


The aim of the presented study was to develop a newly motorized spectroscopy system. Our system is composed of probe and motor parts. The probe part consists of bioimpedance and fiber optic components that include two platinum wires (each 25 micrometer in diameter) and two fiber cables (each 50 micrometers in diameter) respectively. Probe was examined on tissue phantom (polystyrene microspheres with different diameters). In the bioimpedance part of the probe current was transferred to the phantom and conductivity information was obtained. Adjacent two fiber cables were used in the fiber optic part of the system. Light was transferred to the phantom by fiber that was connected to the light source and backscattered light was collected with the other adjacent fiber for analysis. It is known that the nucleus expands and the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio increases during the cancer progression in the cell and this situation is one of the most important criteria for evaluating the tissue for pathologists. The sensitivity of the probe to particle (nucleus) size in phantom was tested during the study. Spectroscopic data obtained from our system on phantom was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. Thus the information about the particle size in the phantom was obtained. Bioimpedance and fiber optic experiments results which were obtained from polystyrene microspheres showed that the impedance value and the oscillation amplitude were increasing while the size of particle was enlarging. These results were compatible with the previous studies. In order to motorize the system within the motor part, three driver electronic circuits were designed primarily. In this part, supply capacitors were placed symmetrically near to the supply inputs which were used for balancing the oscillation. Female capacitors were connected to the control pin. Optic and mechanic switches were made. Drivers were structurally designed as they could command highly calibrated motors. It was considered important to keep the drivers’ dimension as small as we could (4.4x4.4x1.4 cm). Then three miniature step motors were connected to each other along with three drivers. Since spectroscopic techniques are quantitative methods, they yield more objective results than traditional ones. In the future part of this study, it is planning to get spectroscopic data that have optic and impedance information from the cell culture which is normal, low metastatic and high metastatic breast cancer. In case of getting high sensitivity in differentiated cells, it might be possible to scan large surface tissue areas in a short time with small steps. By means of motorize feature of the system, any region of the tissue will not be missed, in this manner we are going to be able to diagnose cancerous parts of the tissue meticulously. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) through 3001 project (115E662).

Keywords: motorized spectroscopy, phantom, scanning system, tissue scanning

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2263 The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to Measure Rock Bolt Deformation Subject to Bedding Shear

Authors: Thomas P. Roper, Brad Forbes, Jurij Karlovšek


Shear displacement along bedding defects is a well-recognised behaviour when tunnelling and mining in stratified rock. This deformation can affect the durability and integrity of installed rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of rock bolt deformation under bedding shear cannot be accurately derived from traditional strain gauge bolts as sensors are too large and spaced too far apart to accurately assess concentrated displacement along discrete defects. A possible solution to this is the use of fiber optic technologies developed for precision monitoring. Distributed Optic Sensor (DOS) embedded rock bolts were installed in a tunnel project with the aim of measuring the bolt deformation profile under significant shear displacements. This technology successfully measured the 3D strain distribution along the bolts when subjected to bedding shear and resolved the axial and lateral strain constituents in order to determine the deformational geometry of the bolts. The results are compared well with the current visual method for monitoring shear displacement using borescope holes, considering this method as suitable.

Keywords: distributed optical strain sensing, rock bolt, bedding shear, sandstone tunnel

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2262 Cooling-Rate Induced Fiber Birefringence Variation in Regenerated High Birefringent Fiber

Authors: Man-Hong Lai, Dinusha S. Gunawardena, Kok-Sing Lim, Harith Ahmad


In this paper, we have reported birefringence manipulation in regenerated high-birefringent fiber Bragg grating (RPMG) by using CO2 laser annealing method. The results indicate that the birefringence of RPMG remains unchanged after CO2 laser annealing followed by a slow cooling process, but reduced after the fast cooling process (~5.6×10-5). After a series of annealing procedures with different cooling rates, the obtained results show that slower the cooling rate, higher the birefringence of RPMG. The volume, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and glass transition temperature (Tg) change of stress applying part in RPMG during the cooling process are responsible for the birefringence change. Therefore, these findings are important to the RPMG sensor in high and dynamic temperature environment. The measuring accuracy, range and sensitivity of RPMG sensor are greatly affected by its birefringence value. This work also opens up a new application of CO2 laser for fiber annealing and birefringence modification.

Keywords: birefringence, CO2 laser annealing, regenerated gratings, thermal stress

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2261 Research on Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique with Multi-Rolls

Authors: Soon Ok Jo, Han Kyu Jeung, Si Woo Park


With the process of consistent expansion of carbon fiber in width (Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique), it can be expected that such process can enhance the production of carbon fiber reinforced composite material and quality of the product. In this research, the method of mechanically expanding carbon fiber and increasing its width was investigated by using various geometric rolls. In addition, experimental type of carbon fiber expansion device was developed and tested using 12K carbon fiber. As a result, the effects of expansion of such fiber under optimized operating conditions and geometric structure of an elliptical roll, were analyzed.

Keywords: carbon fiber, tow spreading fiber, pre-preg, roll structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2260 Fabrication and Characterization of Al2O3 Based Electrical Insulation Coatings Around SiC Fibers

Authors: S. Palaniyappan, P. K. Chennam, M. Trautmann, H. Ahmad, T. Mehner, T. Lampke, G. Wagner


In structural-health monitoring of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs), every single inorganic fiber sensor that are integrated into the bulk material requires an electrical insulation around itself, when the surrounding reinforcing fibers are electrically conductive. This results in a more accurate data acquisition only from the sensor fiber without any electrical interventions. For this purpose, thin nano-films of aluminium oxide (Al2O3)-based electrical-insulation coatings have been fabricated around the Silicon Carbide (SiC) single fiber sensors through reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique. The sputtered coatings were amorphous in nature and the thickness of the coatings increased with an increase in the sputter time. Microstructural characterization of the coated fibers performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a homogeneous circumferential coating with no detectable defects or cracks on the surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of the as-sputtered and 2 hours annealed coatings (825 & 1125 ˚C) revealed the amorphous and crystalline phases of Al2O3 respectively. Raman spectroscopic analyses produced no characteristic bands of Al2O3, as the thickness of the films was in the nanometer (nm) range, which is too small to overcome the actual penetration depth of the laser used. In addition, the influence of the insulation coatings on the mechanical properties of the SiC sensor fibers has been analyzed.

Keywords: Al₂O₃ thin film, electrical insulation coating, PVD process, SiC fibre, single fibre tensile test

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2259 Distributed Optical Fiber Vibration Sensing Using Phase Generated Carrier Demodulation Algorithm

Authors: Zhihua Yu, Qi Zhang, Mingyu Zhang, Haolong Dai


Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors are gaining extensive attention, for the advantages of high sensitivity, accurate location, light weight, large-scale monitoring, good concealment, and etc. In this paper, a novel optical fiber distributed vibration sensing system is proposed, which is based on self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering with phase generated carrier (PGC) demodulation algorithm. Pulsed lights are sent into the sensing fiber and the Rayleigh backscattering light from a certain position along the sensing fiber would interfere through an unbalanced Michelson Interferometry (MI) to generate the interference light. An improved PGC demodulation algorithm is carried out to recover the phase information of the interference signal, which carries the sensing information. Three vibration events were applied simultaneously to different positions over 2000m sensing fiber and demodulated correctly. Experiments show that the spatial resolution of is 10 m, and the noise level of the Φ-OTDR system is about 10-3 rad/√Hz, and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is about 30.34dB. This vibration measurement scheme can be applied at surface, seabed or downhole for vibration measurements or distributed acoustic sensing (DAS).

Keywords: fiber optics sensors, Michelson interferometry, MI, phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry, Φ-OTDR, phase generated carrier, PGC

Procedia PDF Downloads 95