Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5909

Search results for: offshore wind power

5909 Study for an Optimal Cable Connection within an Inner Grid of an Offshore Wind Farm

Authors: Je-Seok Shin, Wook-Won Kim, Jin-O Kim


The offshore wind farm needs to be designed carefully considering economics and reliability aspects. There are many decision-making problems for designing entire offshore wind farm, this paper focuses on an inner grid layout which means the connection between wind turbines as well as between wind turbines and an offshore substation. A methodology proposed in this paper determines the connections and the cable type for each connection section using K-clustering, minimum spanning tree and cable selection algorithms. And then, a cost evaluation is performed in terms of investment, power loss and reliability. Through the cost evaluation, an optimal layout of inner grid is determined so as to have the lowest total cost. In order to demonstrate the validity of the methodology, the case study is conducted on 240MW offshore wind farm, and the results show that it is helpful to design optimally offshore wind farm.

Keywords: offshore wind farm, optimal layout, k-clustering algorithm, minimum spanning algorithm, cable type selection, power loss cost, reliability cost

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5908 Optimized Techniques for Reducing the Reactive Power Generation in Offshore Wind Farms in India

Authors: Pardhasaradhi Gudla, Imanual A.


The generated electrical power in offshore needs to be transmitted to grid which is located in onshore by using subsea cables. Long subsea cables produce reactive power, which should be compensated in order to limit transmission losses, to optimize the transmission capacity, and to keep the grid voltage within the safe operational limits. Installation cost of wind farm includes the structure design cost and electrical system cost. India has targeted to achieve 175GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 including offshore wind power generation. Due to sea depth is more in India, the installation cost will be further high when compared to European countries where offshore wind energy is already generating successfully. So innovations are required to reduce the offshore wind power project cost. This paper presents the optimized techniques to reduce the installation cost of offshore wind firm with respect to electrical transmission systems. This technical paper provides the techniques for increasing the current carrying capacity of subsea cable by decreasing the reactive power generation (capacitance effect) of the subsea cable. There are many methods for reactive power compensation in wind power plants so far in execution. The main reason for the need of reactive power compensation is capacitance effect of subsea cable. So if we diminish the cable capacitance of cable then the requirement of the reactive power compensation will be reduced or optimized by avoiding the intermediate substation at midpoint of the transmission network.

Keywords: offshore wind power, optimized techniques, power system, sub sea cable

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5907 Windstorm Risk Assessment for Offshore Wind Farms in the North Sea

Authors: Paul Buchana, Patrick E. Mc Sharry


In 2017 there will be about 38 wind farms in the North Sea belonging to 5 different countries. The North Sea is ideal for offshore wind power generation and is thus attractive to offshore wind energy developers and investors. With concerns about the potential for offshore wind turbines to sustain substantial damage as a result of extreme weather conditions, particularly windstorms, this poses a unique challenge to insurers and reinsurers as to adequately quantify the risk and offer appropriate insurance cover for these assets. The need to manage this risk also concerns regulators, who provide the oversight needed to ensure that if a windstorm or a series of storms occur in this area over a one-year time frame, the insurers of these assets in the EU remain solvent even after meeting consequent damage costs. In this paper, using available European windstorm data for the past 33 years and actual wind farm locations together with information pertaining to each of the wind farms (number of turbines, total capacity and financial value), we present a Monte Carlo simulation approach to assess the number of turbines that would be buckled in each of the wind farms using maximum wind speeds reaching each of them. These wind speeds are drawn from historical windstorm data. From the number of turbines buckled, associated financial loss and output capacity can be deduced. The results presented in this paper are targeted towards offshore wind energy developers, insurance and reinsurance companies and regulators.

Keywords: catastrophe modeling, North Sea wind farms, offshore wind power, risk analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
5906 Assessment of the Effect of Wind Turbulence on the Aero-Hydrodynamic Behavior of Offshore Wind Turbines

Authors: Reza Dezvareh


The aim of this study is to investigate the amount of wind turbulence on the aero hydrodynamic behavior of offshore wind turbines with a monopile holder platform. Since in the sea, the wind turbine structures are under water and structures interactions, the dynamic analysis has been conducted under combined wind and wave loading. The offshore wind turbines have been investigated undertow models of normal and severe wind turbulence, and the results of this study show that the amplitude of fluctuation of dynamic response of structures including thrust force and base shear force of structures is increased with increasing the amount of wind turbulence, and this increase is not necessarily observed in the mean values of responses. Therefore, conducting the dynamic analysis is inevitable in order to observe the effect of wind turbulence on the structures' response.

Keywords: offshore wind turbine, wind turbulence, structural vibration, aero-hydro dynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
5905 Comparison of Radiated Emissions in Offshore and Onshore Wind Turbine Towers

Authors: Sajeesh Sulaiman, Gomathisankar A., Aravind Devaraj, Aswin R., Vijay Kumar G., Rachana Raj


Wind turbines are the next big answer to the emerging and ever-growing demand for electricity, and this need is increasing day by day. These high mast structures, whether on land or on the sea, has also become one of the big sources of electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the not so distant past. With the emergence of the AC-AC converter and drawing of large power cables through the wind turbine towers has made this clean and efficient source of renewable energy to become one of the culprits in creating electromagnetic interference. This paper will present the sources of such EMIs, a comparison of radiated emissions (both electric and magnetic field) patterns in wind turbine towers for both onshore and offshore wind turbines and close look into the IEC 61400-40 (new standard for EMC design on wind turbine). At present, offshore wind turbines are tested in onshore facilities. This paper will present the anomaly in results for offshore wind turbines when tested in onshore, which the existing standards and the upcoming standards have failed to address.

Keywords: emissions, electric field, magnetic field, wind turbine, tower, standards and regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
5904 Economic Evaluation Offshore Wind Project under Uncertainly and Risk Circumstances

Authors: Sayed Amir Hamzeh Mirkheshti


Offshore wind energy as a strategic renewable energy, has been growing rapidly due to availability, abundance and clean nature of it. On the other hand, budget of this project is incredibly higher in comparison with other renewable energies and it takes more duration. Accordingly, precise estimation of time and cost is needed in order to promote awareness in the developers and society and to convince them to develop this kind of energy despite its difficulties. Occurrence risks during on project would cause its duration and cost constantly changed. Therefore, to develop offshore wind power, it is critical to consider all potential risks which impacted project and to simulate their impact. Hence, knowing about these risks could be useful for the selection of most influencing strategies such as avoidance, transition, and act in order to decrease their probability and impact. This paper presents an evaluation of the feasibility of 500 MV offshore wind project in the Persian Gulf and compares its situation with uncertainty resources and risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate time and cost of offshore wind project under risk circumstances and uncertain resources by using Monte Carlo simulation. We analyzed each risk and activity along with their distribution function and their effect on the project.

Keywords: wind energy project, uncertain resources, risks, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
5903 Using High Performance Concrete in Finite Element Modeling of Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Structures

Authors: A. Aboubakr, E. Fehling, S. A. Mourad, M. Omar


Wind energy is one of the most effective renewable sources especially offshore wind energy although offshore wind technology is more costly to produce. It is well known that offshore wind energy can potentially be very cheap once infrastructure and researches improve. Laterally, the trend is to construct offshore wind energy to generate the electricity form wind. This leads to intensive research in order to improve the infrastructures. Offshore wind energy is the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. The most important part in offshore wind turbine structure is the foundation and its connection with the wind tower. This is the main difference between onshore and offshore structures. Grouted connection between the foundation and the wind tower is the most important part of the building process when constructing wind offshore turbines. Most attention should be paid to the actual grout connection as this transfers the loads safely from tower to foundations and the soil also. In this paper, finite element analyses have been carried out for studying the behaviour of offshore grouted connection for wind turbine structures. ATENA program have been used for non-linear analysis simulation of the real structural behavior thus demonstrating the crushing, cracking, contact between the two materials and steel yielding. A calibration of the material used in the simulation has been carried out assuring an accurate model of the used material by ATENA program. This calibration was performed by comparing the results from the ATENA program with experimental results to validate the material properties used in ATENA program. Three simple patch test models with different properties have been performed. The research is concluded with a result that the calibration showing a good agreement between the ATENA program material behaviors and the experimental results.

Keywords: grouted connection, 3D modeling, finite element analysis, offshore wind energy turbines, stresses

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5902 Reliability-based Condition Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines using SHM data

Authors: Caglayan Hizal, Hasan Emre Demirci, Engin Aktas, Alper Sezer


Offshore wind turbines consist of a long slender tower with a heavy fixed mass on the top of the tower (nacelle), together with a heavy rotating mass (blades and hub). They are always subjected to environmental loads including wind and wave loads in their service life. This study presents a three-stage methodology for reliability-based condition assessment of offshore wind-turbines against the seismic, wave and wind induced effects considering the soil-structure interaction. In this context, failure criterions are considered as serviceability limits of a monopile supporting an Offshore Wind Turbine: (a) allowable horizontal displacement at pile head should not exceed 0.2 m, (b) rotations at pile head should not exceed 0.5°. A Bayesian system identification framework is adapted to the classical reliability analysis procedure. Using this framework, a reliability assessment can be directly implemented to the updated finite element model without performing time-consuming methods. For numerical verification, simulation data of the finite model of a real offshore wind-turbine structure is investigated using the three-stage methodology.

Keywords: Offshore wind turbines, SHM, reliability assessment, soil-structure interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
5901 Offshore Wind Assessment and Analysis for South Western Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Abdallah Touaibia, Nachida Kasbadji Merzouk, Mustapha Merzouk, Ryma Belarbi


accuracy assessment and a better understand of the wind resource distribution are the most important tasks for decision making before installing wind energy operating systems in a given region, there where our interest come to the Algerian coastline and its Mediterranean sea area. Despite its large coastline overlooking the border of Mediterranean Sea, there is still no strategy encouraging the development of offshore wind farms in Algerian waters. The present work aims to estimate the offshore wind fields for the Algerian Mediterranean Sea based on wind data measurements ranging from 1995 to 2018 provided of 24 years of measurement by seven observation stations focusing on three coastline cities in Algeria under a different measurement time step recorded from 30 min, 60 min, and 180 min variate from one to each other, two stations in Spain, two other ones in Italy and three in the coast of Algeria from the east Annaba, at the center Algiers, and to Oran taken place at the west of it. The idea behind consists to have multiple measurement points that helping to characterize this area in terms of wind potential by the use of interpolation method of their average wind speed values between these available data to achieve the approximate values of others locations where aren’t any available measurement because of the difficulties against the implementation of masts within the deep depth water. This study is organized as follow: first, a brief description of the studied area and its climatic characteristics were done. After that, the statistical properties of the recorded data were checked by evaluating wind histograms, direction roses, and average speeds using MatLab programs. Finally, ArcGIS and MapInfo soft-wares were used to establish offshore wind maps for better understanding the wind resource distribution, as well as to identify windy sites for wind farm installation and power management. The study pointed out that Cap Carbonara is the windiest site with an average wind speed of 7.26 m/s at 10 m, inducing a power density of 902 W/m², then the site of Cap Caccia with 4.88 m/s inducing a power density of 282 W/m². The average wind speed of 4.83 m/s is occurred for the site of Oran, inducing a power density of 230 W/m². The results indicated also that the dominant wind direction where the frequencies are highest for the site of Cap Carbonara is the West with 34%, an average wind speed of 9.49 m/s, and a power density of 1722 W/m². Then comes the site of Cap Caccia, where the prevailing wind direction is the North-west, about 20% and 5.82 m/s occurring a power density of 452 W/m². The site of Oran comes in third place with the North dominant direction with 32% inducing an average wind speed of 4.59 m/s and power density of 189 W/m². It also shown that the proposed method is either crucial in understanding wind resource distribution for revealing windy sites over a large area and more effective for wind turbines micro-siting.

Keywords: wind ressources, mediterranean sea, offshore, arcGIS, mapInfo, wind maps, wind farms

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5900 Feasibility Study of Utilization and Development of Wind Energy for Electricity Generation in Panjang Island, Serang, Banten, West Java

Authors: Aryo Bayu Tejokusumo, Ivan Hidayat, C. Steffany Yoland


Wind velocity in Panjang Island, Serang, Banten, West Java, measured 10 m above sea level, is about 8 m/s. This wind velocity is potential for electricity generation using wind power. Using ten of Alstom-Haliade 150-6 W turbines, the placement of wind turbines has 7D for vertical distance and 4D for horizontal distance. Installation of the turbines is 100 m above sea level which is produces 98.64 MW per hour. This wind power generation has ecology impacts (the deaths of birds and bats and land exemption) and human impacts (aesthetics, human’s health, and potential disruption of electromagnetics interference), but it could be neglected totally, because of the position of the wind farm. The investment spent 73,819,710.00 IDR. Payback period is 2.23 years, and rate of return is 45.24%. This electricity generation using wind power in Panjang Island is suitable to install despite the high cost of investment since the profit is also high.

Keywords: wind turbine, Panjang island, renewable energy, Indonesia, offshore, power generation

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5899 Techno-Economic Analysis of Offshore Hybrid Energy Systems with Hydrogen Production

Authors: Anna Crivellari, Valerio Cozzani


Even though most of the electricity produced in the entire world still comes from fossil fuels, new policies are being implemented in order to promote a more sustainable use of energy sources. Offshore renewable resources have become increasingly attractive thanks to the huge entity of power potentially obtained. However, the intermittent nature of renewables often limits the capacity of the systems and creates mismatches between supply and demand. Hydrogen is foreseen to be a promising vector to store and transport large amounts of excess renewable power by using existing oil and gas infrastructure. In this work, an offshore hybrid energy system integrating wind energy conversion with hydrogen production was conceptually defined and applied to offshore gas platforms. A techno-economic analysis was performed by considering two different locations for the installation of the innovative power system, i.e., the North Sea and the Adriatic Sea. The water depth, the distance of the platform from the onshore gas grid, the hydrogen selling price and the green financial incentive were some of the main factors taken into account in the comparison. The results indicated that the use of well-defined indicators allows to capture specifically different cost and revenue features of the analyzed systems, as well as to evaluate their competitiveness in the actual and future energy market.

Keywords: cost analysis, energy efficiency assessment, hydrogen production, offshore wind energy

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5898 Analysis and Design of Offshore Met Mast Supported on Jacket Substructure

Authors: Manu Manu, Pardha J. Saradhi, Ramana M. V. Murthy


Wind Energy is accepted as one of the most developed, cost effective and proven renewable energy technologies to meet increasing electricity demands in a sustainable manner. Preliminary assessment studies along Indian Coastline by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy have indicated prospects for development of offshore wind power along Tamil Nadu Coast, India. The commercial viability of a wind project mainly depends on wind characteristics on site. Hence, it is internationally recommended to perform site-specific wind resource assessment based on two years’ wind profile as a part of the feasibility study. Conventionally, guy wire met mast are used onshore for the collection of wind profile. Installation of similar structure in offshore requires complex marine spread and are very expensive. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop 120 m long lattice tower supported on the jacket, piled to the seabed at Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu, India. Offshore met-masts are subjected to combined wind and hydrodynamic loads, and these lateral loads should be safely transferred to soil. The wind loads are estimated based on gust factor method, and the hydrodynamic loads are estimated by Morison’s equation along with suitable wave theory. The soil is modeled as three nonlinear orthogonal springs based on API standards. The structure configuration and optimum member sizes are obtained for extreme cyclone events. The dynamic behavior of mast under coupled wind and wave loads is also studied. The static responses of a mast with jacket type offshore platform have been studied using a frame model in SESAM. It is found from the study that the maximum displacement at the top of the mast for the random wave is 0.003 m and that of the tower for wind is 0.08 m during the steady state. The dynamic analysis results indicate that the structure is safe against coupled wind and wave loading.

Keywords: offshore wind, mast, static, aerodynamic load, hydrodynamic load

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5897 Wind Power Forecast Error Simulation Model

Authors: Josip Vasilj, Petar Sarajcev, Damir Jakus


One of the major difficulties introduced with wind power penetration is the inherent uncertainty in production originating from uncertain wind conditions. This uncertainty impacts many different aspects of power system operation, especially the balancing power requirements. For this reason, in power system development planing, it is necessary to evaluate the potential uncertainty in future wind power generation. For this purpose, simulation models are required, reproducing the performance of wind power forecasts. This paper presents a wind power forecast error simulation models which are based on the stochastic process simulation. Proposed models capture the most important statistical parameters recognized in wind power forecast error time series. Furthermore, two distinct models are presented based on data availability. First model uses wind speed measurements on potential or existing wind power plant locations, while the seconds model uses statistical distribution of wind speeds.

Keywords: wind power, uncertainty, stochastic process, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
5896 Grid and Market Integration of Large Scale Wind Farms using Advanced Predictive Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Umit Cali


The integration of intermittent energy sources like wind farms into the electricity grid has become an important challenge for the utilization and control of electric power systems, because of the fluctuating behaviour of wind power generation. Wind power predictions improve the economic and technical integration of large amounts of wind energy into the existing electricity grid. Trading, balancing, grid operation, controllability and safety issues increase the importance of predicting power output from wind power operators. Therefore, wind power forecasting systems have to be integrated into the monitoring and control systems of the transmission system operator (TSO) and wind farm operators/traders. The wind forecasts are relatively precise for the time period of only a few hours, and, therefore, relevant with regard to Spot and Intraday markets. In this work predictive data mining techniques are applied to identify a statistical and neural network model or set of models that can be used to predict wind power output of large onshore and offshore wind farms. These advanced data analytic methods helps us to amalgamate the information in very large meteorological, oceanographic and SCADA data sets into useful information and manageable systems. Accurate wind power forecasts are beneficial for wind plant operators, utility operators, and utility customers. An accurate forecast allows grid operators to schedule economically efficient generation to meet the demand of electrical customers. This study is also dedicated to an in-depth consideration of issues such as the comparison of day ahead and the short-term wind power forecasting results, determination of the accuracy of the wind power prediction and the evaluation of the energy economic and technical benefits of wind power forecasting.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, wind power, forecasting, data mining, big data, artificial intelligence, energy economics, power trading, power grids

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
5895 Improving Power Quality in Wind Power Generation System

Authors: A. Omeiri, A. Djellad, P. O. Logerais, O. Riou, J. F. Durastanti


With the growing of electrical energy demand, wind power capacity has experienced tremendous growth in the past decade, thanks to wind power’s environmental benefits. Direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with a full size back-to-back converter set is one of the promising technologies employed with wind power generation. Wind grid integration brings the problems of voltage fluctuation and harmonic pollution. In the present study, the filter is placed between the wind system and the network to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) and enhance power quality during disturbances. The models of wind turbine, PMSG, power electronic converters and the filter are implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

Keywords: wind energy conversion system, PMSG, PWM, THD, power quality, passive filter

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5894 Fuel Cells and Offshore Wind Turbines Technology for Eco-Friendly Ports with a Case Study

Authors: Ibrahim Sadek Sedik Ibrahim, Mohamed M. Elgohary


Sea ports are considered one of the factors affecting the progress of economic globalization and the international trade; consequently, they are considered one of the sources involved in the deterioration of the maritime environment due to the excessive amount of exhaust gases emitted from their activities. The majority of sea ports depend on the national electric grid as a source of power for the domestic and ships’ electric demands. This paper discusses the possibility of shifting ports from relying on the national grid electricity to green power-based ports. Offshore wind turbines and hydrogenic PEM fuel cell units appear as two typical promising clean energy sources for ports. As a case study, the paper investigates the prospect of converting Alexandria Port in Egypt to be an eco-friendly port with the study of technical, logistic, and financial requirements. The results show that the fuel cell, followed by a combined system of wind turbines and fuel cells, is the best choice regarding electricity production unit cost by 0.101 and 0.107 $/kWh, respectively. Furthermore, using of fuel cells and offshore wind turbine as green power concept will achieving emissions reduction quantity of CO₂, NOx, and CO emissions by 80,441, 20.814, and 133.025 ton per year, respectively. Finally, the paper highlights the role that renewable energy can play when supplying Alexandria Port with green energy to lift the burden on the government in supporting the electricity, with a possibility of achieving a profit of 3.85% to 22.31% of the annual electricity cost compared with the international prices.

Keywords: fuel cells, green ports, IMO, national electric grid, offshore wind turbines, port emissions, renewable energy

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5893 Wind Energy Potential of Southern Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan Siddiqui


A study has been carried out to see the prospect of wind power potential of southern Sindh namely Karachi, Hawksbay, Norriabad, Hyderabad, Ketibander and Shahbander using local wind speed data. The monthly average wind speed for these area ranges from 4.5m/sec to 8.5m/sec at 30m height from ground. Extractable wind power, wind energy and Weibul parameter for above mentioned areas have been examined. Furthermore, the power output using fast and slow wind machine using different blade diameter along with the 4Kw and 20 Kw aero-generator were examined to see the possible use for deep well pumping and electricity supply to remote villages. The analysis reveals that in this wind corridor of southern Sindh Hawksbay, Ketibander and Shahbander belongs to wind power class-3 Hyderabad and Nooriabad belongs to wind power class-5 and Karachi belongs to wind power class-2. The result shows that the that higher wind speed values occur between June till August. It was found that considering maximum wind speed location, Hawksbay,Noriabad are the best location for setting up wind machines for power generation.

Keywords: wind energy generation, Southern Sindh, seasonal change, Weibull parameter, wind machines

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5892 A Study on Method for Identifying Capacity Factor Declination of Wind Turbines

Authors: Dongheon Shin, Kyungnam Ko, Jongchul Huh


The investigation on wind turbine degradation was carried out using the nacelle wind data. The three Vestas V80-2MW wind turbines of Sungsan wind farm in Jeju Island, South Korea were selected for this work. The SCADA data of the wind farm for five years were analyzed to draw power curve of the turbines. It is assumed that the wind distribution is the Rayleigh distribution to calculate the normalized capacity factor based on the drawn power curve of the three wind turbines for each year. The result showed that the reduction of power output from the three wind turbines occurred every year and the normalized capacity factor decreased to 0.12%/year on average.

Keywords: wind energy, power curve, capacity factor, annual energy production

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
5891 The Mechanism of Design and Analysis Modeling of Performance of Variable Speed Wind Turbine and Dynamical Control of Wind Turbine Power

Authors: Mohammadreza Heydariazad


Productivity growth of wind energy as a clean source needed to achieve improved strategy in production and transmission and management of wind resources in order to increase quality of power and reduce costs. New technologies based on power converters that cause changing turbine speed to suit the wind speed blowing turbine improve extraction efficiency power from wind. This article introduces variable speed wind turbines and optimization of power, and presented methods to use superconducting inductor in the composition of power converter and is proposed the dc measurement for the wind farm and especially is considered techniques available to them. In fact, this article reviews mechanisms and function, changes of wind speed turbine according to speed control strategies of various types of wind turbines and examines power possible transmission and ac from producing location to suitable location for a strong connection integrating wind farm generators, without additional cost or equipment. It also covers main objectives of the dynamic control of wind turbines, and the methods of exploitation and the ways of using it that includes the unique process of these components. Effective algorithm is presented for power control in order to extract maximum active power and maintains power factor at the desired value.

Keywords: wind energy, generator, superconducting inductor, wind turbine power

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5890 Wind Farm Power Performance Verification Using Non-Parametric Statistical Inference

Authors: M. Celeska, K. Najdenkoski, V. Dimchev, V. Stoilkov


Accurate determination of wind turbine performance is necessary for economic operation of a wind farm. At present, the procedure to carry out the power performance verification of wind turbines is based on a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In this paper, nonparametric statistical inference is applied to designing a simple, inexpensive method of verifying the power performance of a wind turbine. A statistical test is explained, examined, and the adequacy is tested over real data. The methods use the information that is collected by the SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. The study has used data on the monthly output of wind farm in the Republic of Macedonia, and the time measuring interval was from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. At the end, it is concluded whether the power performance of a wind turbine differed significantly from what would be expected. The results of the implementation of the proposed methods showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

Keywords: canonical correlation analysis, power curve, power performance, wind energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
5889 Wind Power Potential in Selected Algerian Sahara Regions

Authors: M. Dahbi, M. Sellam, A. Benatiallah, A. Harrouz


The wind energy is one of the most significant and rapidly developing renewable energy sources in the world and it provides a clean energy resource, which is a promising alternative in the short term in Algeria The main purpose of this paper is to compared and discuss the wind power potential in three sites located in sahara of Algeria (south west of Algeria) and to perform an investigation on the wind power potential of desert of Algeria. In this comparative, wind speed frequency distributions data obtained from the web site are used to calculate the average wind speed and the available wind power. The Weibull density function has been used to estimate the monthly power wind density and to determine the characteristics of monthly parameters of Weibull for these three sites. The annual energy produced by the BWC XL.1 1KW wind machine is obtained and compared. The analysis shows that in the south west of Algeria, at 10 m height, the available wind power was found to vary between 136.59 W/m2 and 231.04 W/m2. The highest potential wind power was found at Adrar, with 21h per day and the mean wind speed is above 6 m/s. Besides, it is found that the annual wind energy generated by that machine lie between 512 KWh and 1643.2 kWh. However, the wind resource appears to be suitable for power production on the sahara and it could provide a viable substitute to diesel oil for irrigation pumps and rural electricity generation.

Keywords: Weibull distribution, parameters of Wiebull, wind energy, wind turbine, operating hours

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5888 Technical and Economic Evaluation of Harmonic Mitigation from Offshore Wind Power Plants by Transmission Owners

Authors: A. Prajapati, K. L. Koo, F. Ghassemi, M. Mulimakwenda


In the UK, as the volume of non-linear loads connected to transmission grid continues to rise steeply, the harmonic distortion levels on transmission network are becoming a serious concern for the network owners and system operators. This paper outlines the findings of the study conducted to verify the proposal that the harmonic mitigation could be optimized and can be managed economically and effectively at the transmission network level by the Transmission Owner (TO) instead of the individual polluter connected to the grid. Harmonic mitigation studies were conducted on selected regions of the transmission network in England for recently connected offshore wind power plants to strategize and optimize selected harmonic filter options. The results – filter volume and capacity – were then compared against the mitigation measures adopted by the individual connections. Estimation ratios were developed based on the actual installed and optimal proposed filters. These estimation ratios were then used to derive harmonic filter requirements for future contracted connections. The study has concluded that a saving of 37% in the filter volume/capacity could be achieved if the TO is to centrally manage the harmonic mitigation instead of individual polluter installing their own mitigation solution.

Keywords: C-type filter, harmonics, optimization, offshore wind farms, interconnectors, HVDC, renewable energy, transmission owner

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5887 Construction Port Requirements for Floating Wind Turbines

Authors: Alan Crowle, Philpp Thies


As the floating offshore wind turbine industry continues to develop and grow, the capabilities of established port facilities need to be assessed as to their ability to support the expanding construction and installation requirements. This paper assesses current infrastructure requirements and projected changes to port facilities that may be required to support the floating offshore wind industry. Understanding the infrastructure needs of the floating offshore renewable industry will help to identify the port-related requirements. Floating Offshore Wind Turbines can be installed further out to sea and in deeper waters than traditional fixed offshore wind arrays, meaning that it can take advantage of stronger winds. Separate ports are required for substructure construction, fit-out of the turbines, moorings, subsea cables and maintenance. Large areas are required for the laydown of mooring equipment; inter-array cables, turbine blades and nacelles. The capabilities of established port facilities to support floating wind farms are assessed by evaluation of the size of substructures, the height of wind turbine with regards to the cranes for fitting of blades, distance to offshore site and offshore installation vessel characteristics. The paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using large land-based cranes, inshore floating crane vessels or offshore crane vessels at the fit-out port for the installation of the turbine. Water depths requirements for import of materials and export of the completed structures will be considered. There are additional costs associated with any emerging technology. However part of the popularity of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines stems from the cost savings against permanent structures like fixed wind turbines. Floating Offshore Wind Turbine developers can benefit from lighter, more cost-effective equipment which can be assembled in port and towed to the site rather than relying on large, expensive installation vessels to transport and erect fixed bottom turbines. The ability to assemble Floating Offshore Wind Turbines equipment onshore means minimizing highly weather-dependent operations like offshore heavy lifts and assembly, saving time and costs and reducing safety risks for offshore workers. Maintenance might take place in safer onshore conditions for barges and semi-submersibles. Offshore renewables, such as floating wind, can take advantage of this wealth of experience, while oil and gas operators can deploy this experience at the same time as entering the renewables space The floating offshore wind industry is in the early stages of development and port facilities are required for substructure fabrication, turbine manufacture, turbine construction and maintenance support. The paper discusses the potential floating wind substructures as this provides a snapshot of the requirements at the present time, and potential technological developments required for commercial development. Scaling effects of demonstration-scale projects will be addressed, however, the primary focus will be on commercial-scale (30+ units) device floating wind energy farms.

Keywords: floating wind, port, marine construction, offshore renewables

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5886 Analysis of the Factors of Local Acceptance of Wind Power Generation Facilities

Authors: Hyunjoo Park, Taehyun Kim, Taehyun Kim


The government that declared 'de-nuclearization' pushes up renewable energy policies such as solar power and wind power as an alternative to nuclear power generation. However, local residents who are concerned about the development and natural disasters have been hit by opposition, and related businesses around the country are experiencing difficulties. There is also a voice saying that installing a large wind power generator will cause landslides, low frequencies and noise, which will have a bad influence. Renewal is only a harmful and disgusting facility for the residents. In this way, it is expected that extreme social conflicts will occur in the decision making process related to the locally unwanted land-use (LULU). The government's efforts to solve this problem have been steadily progressing, but the systematic methodology for bringing in active participation and opinion gathering of the residents has not yet been established except for the simple opinion poll or referendum. Therefore, it is time to identify the factors that concern the local residents about the wind power generation facilities, and to find ways to make policy decision-making possible. In this study, we analyze the perception of people about offshore and onshore wind power facilities through questionnaires or interviews, and examine quantitative and qualitative precedent studies to analyze them. In addition, the study evaluates what factors affect the local acceptance of wind power facilities. As a result of the factor analysis of the questionnaire items, factors affecting the residents' acceptance of the wind power facility were extracted from four factors such as environmental, economic, risk, social, and management factor. The study also found that the influence of the determinants of local acceptance on the regional acceptability differs according to the demographic characteristics such as gender and income level. This study will contribute to minimizing the conflict on the installation of wind power facilities through communication among the local residents.

Keywords: factor analysis, local acceptance, locally unwanted land-use, LULU, wind power generation facilities

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5885 Bearing Behavior of a Hybrid Monopile Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines

Authors: Zicheng Wang


Offshore wind energy provides a huge potential for the expansion of renewable energies to the coastal countries. High demands are required concerning the shape and type of foundations for offshore wind turbines (OWTs) to find an economically, technically and environmentally-friendly optimal solution. A promising foundation concept is the hybrid foundation system, which consists of a steel plate attached to the outer side of a hollow steel pipe pile. In this study, the bearing behavior of a large diameter foundation is analyzed using a 3-dimensional finite element (FE) model. Non-linear plastic soil behavior is considered. The results of the numerical simulations are compared to highlight the priority of the hybrid foundation to the conventional monopile foundation.

Keywords: hybrid foundation system, mechanical parameters, plastic soil behaviors, numerical simulations

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5884 Dynamic Modeling of Wind Farms in the Jeju Power System

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Sang-Hee Kang, Soon-Ryul Nam


In this paper, we develop a dynamic modeling of wind farms in the Jeju power system. The dynamic model of wind farms is developed to study their dynamic effects on the Jeju power system. PSS/E is used to develop the dynamic model of a wind farm composed of 1.5-MW doubly fed induction generators. The output of a wind farm is regulated based on pitch angle control, in which the two controllable parameters are speed and power references. The simulation results confirm that the pitch angle is successfully controlled, regardless of the variation in wind speed and output regulation.

Keywords: dynamic model, Jeju power system, online limitation, pitch angle control, wind farm

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5883 Potentiality of the Wind Energy in Algeria

Authors: C. Benoudjafer, M. N. Tandjaoui, C. Benachaiba


The use of kinetic energy of the wind is in full rise in the world and it starts to be known in our country but timidly. One or more aero generators can be installed to produce for example electricity on isolated places or not connected to the electrical supply network. To use the wind as energy source, it is necessary to know first the energy needs for the population and study the wind intensity, speed, frequency and direction.

Keywords: Algeria, renewable energies, wind, wind power, aero-generators, wind energetic potential

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5882 Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Saim Iftikhar Awan, Farhan Ali


Wind power has now become one of the most important resources of renewable energy. The machine which extracts kinetic energy from wind is wind turbine. This work is all about the electrical power analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine to check the efficiency of different configurations of wind turbines to get maximum output and comparison of experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results. Different experiments have been performed to obtain that configuration with the help of which we can get the maximum electrical power output by changing the different parameters like the number of blades, blade shape, wind speed, etc. in first step experimentation is done, and then the similar configuration is designed in 3D CAD software. After a series of experiments, it has been found that the turbine with four blades at an angle of 75° gives maximum power output and increase in wind speed increases the power output. The models designed on CAD software are imported on ANSYS-FLUENT to predict mechanical power. This mechanical power is then converted into electrical power, and the results were approximately the same in both cases. In the end, a comparison has been done to compare the results of experiments and ANSYS-FLUENT.

Keywords: computational analysis, power efficiency, wind energy, wind turbine

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5881 Role of Power Electronics in Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: M. N. Tandjaoui, C. Banoudjafar, C. Benachaiba, O. Abdelkhalek, A. Kechich


Advanced power electronic systems are deemed to be an integral part of renewable, green, and efficient energy systems. Wind energy is one of the renewable means of electricity generation that is now the world’s fastest growing energy source can bring new challenges when it is connected to the power grid due to the fluctuation nature of the wind and the comparatively new types of its generators. The wind energy is part of the worldwide discussion on the future of energy generation and use and consequent effects on the environment. However, this paper will introduce some of the requirements and aspects of the power electronic involved with modern wind generation systems, including modern power electronics and converters, and the issues of integrating wind turbines into power systems.

Keywords: power electronics, renewable energy, smart grid, green energy, power technology

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5880 Aero-Hydrodynamic Model for a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine

Authors: Beatrice Fenu, Francesco Niosi, Giovanni Bracco, Giuliana Mattiazzo


In recent years, Europe has seen a great development of renewable energy, in a perspective of reducing polluting emissions and transitioning to cleaner forms of energy, as established by the European Green New Deal. Wind energy has come to cover almost 15% of European electricity needs andis constantly growing. In particular, far-offshore wind turbines are attractive from the point of view of exploiting high-speed winds and high wind availability. Considering offshore wind turbine siting that combines the resources analysis, the bathymetry, environmental regulations, and maritime traffic and considering the waves influence in the stability of the platform, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the platform become fundamental for the evaluation of the performances of the turbine, especially for the pitch motion. Many platform's geometries have been studied and used in the last few years. Their concept is based upon different considerations as hydrostatic stability, material, cost and mooring system. A new method to reach a high-performances substructure for different kinds of wind turbines is proposed. The system that considers substructure, mooring, and wind turbine is implemented in Orcaflex, and the simulations are performed considering several sea states and wind speeds. An external dynamic library is implemented for the turbine control system. The study shows the comparison among different substructures and the new concepts developed. In order to validate the model, CFD simulations will be performed by mean of STAR CCM+, and a comparison between rigid and elastic body for what concerns blades and tower will be carried out. A global model will be built to predict the productivity of the floating turbine according to siting, resources, substructure, and mooring. The Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) of the system is estimated, giving a complete overview about the advantages of floating offshore wind turbine plants. Different case studies will be presented.

Keywords: aero-hydrodynamic model, computational fluid dynamics, floating offshore wind, siting, verification, and validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 101