Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Farshid Najafi

44 A New Center of Motion in Cabling Robots

Authors: Alireza Abbasi Moshaii, Farshid Najafi


In this paper a new model for centre of motion creating is proposed. This new method uses cables. So, it is very useful in robots because it is light and has easy assembling process. In the robots which need to be in touch with some things this method is very good. It will be described in the following. The accuracy of the idea is proved by an experiment. This system could be used in the robots which need a fixed point in the contact with some things and make a circular motion. Such as dancer, physician or repair robots.

Keywords: centre of motion, robotic cables, permanent touching, mechatronics engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
43 On Performance of Cache Replacement Schemes in NDN-IoT

Authors: Rasool Sadeghi, Sayed Mahdi Faghih Imani, Negar Najafi


The inherent features of Named Data Networking (NDN) provides a robust solution for Internet of Thing (IoT). Therefore, NDN-IoT has emerged as a combined architecture which exploits the benefits of NDN for interconnecting of the heterogeneous objects in IoT. In NDN-IoT, caching schemes are a key role to improve the network performance. In this paper, we consider the effectiveness of cache replacement schemes in NDN-IoT scenarios. We investigate the impact of replacement schemes on average delay, average hop count, and average interest retransmission when replacement schemes are Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), First-In-First-Out (FIFO) and Random. The simulation results demonstrate that LFU and LRU present a stable performance when the cache size changes. Moreover, the network performance improves when the number of consumers increases.

Keywords: NDN-IoT, cache replacement, performance, ndnSIM

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
42 2.5D Face Recognition Using Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Ali Cheraghian, Farshid Hajati, Soheila Gheisari, Yongsheng Gao


In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.

Keywords: Gabor filter, discrete cosine transform, 2.5d face recognition, pose

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
41 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling

Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao


Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.

Keywords: coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shafts

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40 Surface Geodesic Derivative Pattern for Deformable Textured 3D Object Comparison: Application to Expression and Pose Invariant 3D Face Recognition

Authors: Farshid Hajati, Soheila Gheisari, Ali Cheraghian, Yongsheng Gao


This paper presents a new Surface Geodesic Derivative Pattern (SGDP) for matching textured deformable 3D surfaces. SGDP encodes micro-pattern features based on local surface higher-order derivative variation. It extracts local information by encoding various distinctive textural relationships contained in a geodesic neighborhood, hence fusing texture and range information of a surface at the data level. Geodesic texture rings are encoded into local patterns for similarity measurement between non-rigid 3D surfaces. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated extensively on the Bosphorus and FRGC v2 face databases. Compared to existing benchmarks, experimental results show the effectiveness and superiority of combining the texture and 3D shape data at the earliest level in recognizing typical deformable faces under expression, illumination, and pose variations.

Keywords: 3D face recognition, pose, expression, surface matching, texture

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39 A New OvS Approach in Assembly Line Balancing Problem

Authors: P. Azimi, B. Behtoiy, A. A. Najafi, H. R. Charmchi


According to the previous studies, one of the most famous techniques which affect the efficiency of a production line is the assembly line balancing (ALB) technique. This paper examines the balancing effect of a whole production line of a real auto glass manufacturer in three steps. In the first step, processing time of each activity in the workstations is generated according to a practical approach. In the second step, the whole production process is simulated and the bottleneck stations have been identified, and finally in the third step, several improvement scenarios are generated to optimize the system throughput, and the best one is proposed. The main contribution of the current research is the proposed framework which combines two famous approaches including Assembly Line Balancing and Optimization via Simulation technique (OvS). The results show that the proposed framework could be applied in practical environments, easily.

Keywords: assembly line balancing problem, optimization via simulation, production planning

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38 Convective Interactions and Heat Transfer in a Czochralski Melt with a Model Phase Boundary of Two Different Shapes

Authors: R. Faiez, M. Mashhoudi, F. Najafi


Implicit in most large-scale numerical analyses of the crystal growth from the melt is the assumption that the shape and position of the phase boundary are determined by the transport phenomena coupled strongly to the melt hydrodynamics. In the present numerical study, the interface shape-effect on the convective interactions in a Czochralski oxide melt is described. It was demonstrated that thermos-capillary flow affects inversely the phase boundaries of distinct shapes. The in homogenity of heat flux and the location of the stagnation point at the crystallization front were investigated. The forced convection effect on the point displacement at the boundary found to be much stronger for the flat plate interface compared to the cone-shaped one with and without the Marangoni flow.

Keywords: computer simulation, fluid flow, interface shape, thermos-capillary effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
37 Characterization of Inkjet-Printed Carbon Nanotube Electrode Patterns on Cotton Fabric

Authors: N. Najafi, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya


An aqueous conductive ink of single-walled carbon nanotubes for inkjet printing was formulated. To prepare the homogeneous SWCNT ink in a size small enough not to block a commercial inkjet printer nozzle, we used a kinetic ball-milling process to disperse the SWCNTs in an aqueous suspension. When a patterned electrode was overlaid by repeated inkjet printings of the ink on various types of fabric, the fabric resistance decreased rapidly following a power law, reaching approximately 760 X/sq, which is the lowest value ever for a dozen printings. The Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the oxidation of the SWCNTs was the source of the doped impurities. This study proved also that the droplet ejection velocity can have an impact on the CNT distribution and consequently on the electrical performances of the ink.

Keywords: ink-jet printing, carbon nanotube, fabric ink, cotton fabric, raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dozen printings

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
36 Procalcitonin and Other Biomarkers in Sepsis Patients: A Prospective Study

Authors: Neda Valizadeh, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Arvin Najafi


Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP), procalcitonin (PCT), proendothelin-1 (proET-1) levels with sepsis severity in Emergency ward patients. Materials and Methods: We assessed the predictive value of MRproANP, PCT, copeptin, and proET-1 in early sepsis among patients referring to the emergency ward with a suspected sepsis. Results-132 patients were enrolled in this study. 45 (34%) patients had a final diagnosis of sepsis. A higher percentage of patients with definite sepsis had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria at initial visit in comparison with no-sepsis patients (P<0.05) and were admitted to the hospital (P<0.05). PCT levels were higher in sepsis patients [P<0.05]. There was no significant differences for MRproANP or proET-1 in sepsis patients (P=0.47). Conclusion: A combination of SIRS criteria and PCT levels is beneficial for the early sepsis diagnosis in emergency ward patients with a suspicious infection disease.

Keywords: emergency, prolactin, sepsis, biomarkers

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35 Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating-Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, F. Rahimi Dehgolan


In this paper, the dynamic modeling of a single-link flexible beam with a tip mass is given by using Hamilton's principle. The link has been rotational and translational motion and it was assumed that the beam is moving with a harmonic velocity about a constant mean velocity. Non-linearity has been introduced by including the non-linear strain to the analysis. Dynamic model is obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption and modal expansion method. Also, the effects of rotary inertia, axial force, and associated boundary conditions of the dynamic model were analyzed. Since the complex boundary value problem cannot be solved analytically, the multiple scale method is utilized to obtain an approximate solution. Finally, the effects of several conditions on the differences among the behavior of the non-linear term, mean velocity on natural frequencies and the system stability are discussed.

Keywords: non-linear vibration, stability, axially moving beam, bifurcation, multiple scales method

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
34 miR-200c as a Biomarker for 5-FU Chemosensitivity in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Rezvan Najafi, Korosh Heydari, Massoud Saidijam


5-FU is a chemotherapeutic agent that has been used in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. However, it is usually associated with the acquired resistance, which decreases the therapeutic effects of 5-FU. miR-200c is involved in chemotherapeutic drug resistance, but its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of inhibition of miR-200c in sensitivity of HCT-116 CRC cells to 5-FU was evaluated. HCT-116 cells were transfected with LNA-anti- miR-200c for 48 h. mRNA expression of miR-200c was evaluated using quantitative real- time PCR. The protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and E-cadherin were analyzed by western blotting. Annexin V and propidium iodide staining assay were applied for apoptosis detection. The caspase-3 activation was evaluated by an enzymatic assay. The results showed LNA-anti-miR-200c inhibited the expression of PTEN and E-cadherin protein, apoptosis and activation of caspase 3 compared with control cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that miR-200c as a prognostic marker can overcome to 5-FU chemoresistance in CRC.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, miR-200c, 5-FU resistance, E-cadherin, PTEN

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33 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Adding CuO Nanoparticles to R-600a Refrigerant on Heat Transfer Enhancement of a Horizontal Flattened Tube

Authors: M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, M. Najafi, A. Abbasi


An empirical investigation was performed in order to study the heat transfer characteristics of R600a flow boiling inside horizontal flattened tubes and the simultaneous effect of nanoparticles on boiling heat transfer in flattened channel. Round copper tubes of 8.7 mm I.D. were deformed into flattened shapes with different inside heights of 6.9, 5.5, and 3.4 mm as test areas. The effect of different parameters such as mass flux, vapor quality and inside height on heat transfer coefficient was studied. Flattening the tube caused significant enhancement in heat transfer performance so that the maximum augmentation ratio of 163% was obtained in flattened channel with lowest internal height. A new correlation was developed based on the present experimental data to predict the heat transfer coefficient in flattened tubes. This correlation estimated 90% of the entire database within ±20%.

Keywords: nano particles, flattend tube, R600a, CuO

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32 An Intrusion Detection Systems Based on K-Means, K-Medoids and Support Vector Clustering Using Ensemble

Authors: A. Mohammadpour, Ebrahim Najafi Kajabad, Ghazale Ipakchi


Presently, computer networks’ security rise in importance and many studies have also been conducted in this field. By the penetration of the internet networks in different fields, many things need to be done to provide a secure industrial and non-industrial network. Fire walls, appropriate Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), encryption protocols for information sending and receiving, and use of authentication certificated are among things, which should be considered for system security. The aim of the present study is to use the outcome of several algorithms, which cause decline in IDS errors, in the way that improves system security and prevents additional overload to the system. Finally, regarding the obtained result we can also detect the amount and percentage of more sub attacks. By running the proposed system, which is based on the use of multi-algorithmic outcome and comparing that by the proposed single algorithmic methods, we observed a 78.64% result in attack detection that is improved by 3.14% than the proposed algorithms.

Keywords: intrusion detection systems, clustering, k-means, k-medoids, SV clustering, ensemble

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
31 Super Harmonic Nonlinear Lateral Vibration of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, S. Bab, F. Rahimi Dehgolan


The motion of an axially moving beam with rotating prismatic joint with a tip mass on the end is analyzed to investigate the nonlinear vibration and dynamic stability of the beam. The beam is moving with a harmonic axially and rotating velocity about a constant mean velocity. A time-dependent partial differential equation and boundary conditions with the aid of the Hamilton principle are derived to describe the beam lateral deflection. After the partial differential equation is discretized by the Galerkin method, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain analytical solutions. Frequency response curves are plotted for the super harmonic resonances of the first and the second modes. The effects of non-linear term and mean velocity are investigated on the steady state response of the axially moving beam. The results are validated with numerical simulations.

Keywords: super harmonic resonances, non-linear vibration, axially moving beam, Galerkin method

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
30 Combining Work and Study: A Solution for Stronger University-Industry Linkage

Authors: Payam Najafi, Behnam Ebrahimi, Hamid Montazerolghaem, Safoura Akbari-Alavijeh, Rasoul Tarkesh Esfahani


The combination of work and study has been recently gained lots of attention due to the crucial demand of industries to skillfully trained youth. Nevertheless, the distance between university and industry makes this combination challenging. According to the OECD (2012), in most countries, there is a limited link between students’ field of study and their area of work while studying. On the other hand, high unemployment rates among the specialized workforce, which is common in developing countries, highlights the need to strengthen this relationship. Innovative Center of Isfahan Chamber of Commerce has defined a project called 'POUYESH', which helps students to find related work opportunities to their field of study as well as supporting industries to supply their needed workforce. The present research is sought to explore the effect of the running project as a model of combining work and study on the university-industry linkage.

Keywords: work and study, university-industry linkage, POUYESH project, field of study

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
29 Prioritization of the Failure Factors of Rural Cooperatives in Iran: The Case of Isfahan Province

Authors: Maryam Najafi, Mahdi Rajabi


Although the rural cooperatives are an effective way for rural development in Iran, their potential is not applied effectively. The investigation of the failures of rural cooperatives helps the authorities to improve the routine procedures and eliminate the current barriers to the success of these cooperatives, and to remove the defects in order to have a more efficient policy. Therefore, this research aims to prioritize the failure factors of rural cooperatives in Isfahan province via the survey research method. For this purpose, the effective factors of these failures were investigated by the available research documents and then by the new information which was obtained from 20 questionnaires from the experts of Central Organization Rural Cooperatives in Isfahan province. The questionnaire results were analyzed by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Excel, and Expert Choice software. The results of this research showed that the most important failure factor of these cooperatives is the lack of the participation culture of cooperative members and then the performance of Central Organization Rural Cooperatives, and also loss of confidence of the members in the cooperation.

Keywords: cooperative, rural cooperatives, failure factors, analytical hierarchy process

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28 Three-Dimensional Unsteady Natural Convection and Entropy Generation in an Inclined Cubical Trapezoidal Cavity Subjected to Uniformly Heated Bottom Wall

Authors: Farshid Fathinia


Numerical computation of unsteady laminar three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal air-filled cavity is performed for the first time in this work. The vertical right and left sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at constant cold temperatures. The lower wall is subjected to a constant hot temperature, while the upper one is considered insulated. Computations are performed for Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105, while the trapezoidal cavity inclination angle is varied as 0° ≤ ϕ ≤ 180°. Prandtl number is considered constant at Pr = 0.71. The second law of thermodynamics is applied to obtain thermodynamic losses inside the cavity due to both heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities. The variation of local and average Nusselt numbers are presented and discussed.While, streamlines, isotherms and entropy contours are presented in both two and three-dimensional pattern. The results show that when the Rayleigh number increases, the flow patterns are changed especially in three-dimensional results and the flow circulation increases. Also, the inclination angle effect on the total entropy generation becomes insignificant when the Rayleigh number is low.Moreover, when the Rayleigh number increases the average Nusselt number increases.

Keywords: transient natural convection, trapezoidal cavity, three-dimensional flow, entropy generation, second law

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
27 Rotor Dynamic Analysis for a Shaft Train by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: M. Najafi


In the present paper, a large turbo-generator shaft train including a heavy-duty gas turbine engine, a coupling, and a generator is established. The method of analysis is based on finite element simplified model for lateral and torsional vibration calculation. The basic elements of rotor are the shafts and the disks which are represented as circular cross section flexible beams and rigid body elements, respectively. For more accurate results, the gyroscopic effect and bearing dynamics coefficients and function of rotation are taken into account, and for the influence of shear effect, rotor has been modeled in the form of Timoshenko beam. Lateral critical speeds, critical speed map, damped mode shapes, Campbell diagram, zones of instability, amplitudes, phase angles response due to synchronous forces of excitation and amplification factor are calculated. Also, in the present paper, the effect of imbalanced rotor and effects of changing in internal force and temperature are studied.

Keywords: rotor dynamic analysis, finite element method, shaft train, Campbell diagram

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26 2D CFD-PBM Coupled Model of Particle Growth in an Industrial Gas Phase Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactor

Authors: H. Kazemi Esfeh, V. Akbari, M. Ehdaei, T. N. G. Borhani, A. Shamiri, M. Najafi


In an industrial fluidized bed polymerization reactor, particle size distribution (PSD) plays a significant role in the reactor efficiency evaluation. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models coupled with population balance equation (CFD-PBM) have been extensively employed to investigate the flow behavior in the poly-disperse multiphase fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) utilizing ANSYS Fluent code. In this study, an existing CFD-PBM/ DQMOM coupled modeling framework has been used to highlight its potential to analyze the industrial-scale gas phase polymerization reactor. The predicted results reveal an acceptable agreement with the observed industrial data in terms of pressure drop and bed height. The simulated results also indicate that the higher particle growth rate can be achieved for bigger particles. Hence, the 2D CFD-PBM/DQMOM coupled model can be used as a reliable tool for analyzing and improving the design and operation of the gas phase polymerization FBRs.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, population balance equation, fluidized bed polymerization reactor, direct quadrature method of moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
25 Evaluation of Deformation for Deep Excavations in the Greater Vancouver Area Through Case Studies

Authors: Boris Kolev, Matt Kokan, Mohammad Deriszadeh, Farshid Bateni


Due to the increasing demand for real estate and the need for efficient land utilization in Greater Vancouver, developers have been increasingly considering the construction of high-rise structures with multiple below-grade parking. The temporary excavations required to allow for the construction of underground levels have recently reached up to 40 meters in depth. One of the challenges with deep excavations is the prediction of wall displacements and ground settlements due to their effect on the integrity of City utilities, infrastructure, and adjacent buildings. A large database of survey monitoring data has been collected for deep excavations in various soil conditions and shoring systems. The majority of the data collected is for tie-back anchors and shotcrete lagging systems. The data were categorized, analyzed and the results were evaluated to find a relationship between the most dominant parameters controlling the displacement, such as depth of excavation, soil properties, and the tie-back anchor loading and arrangement. For a select number of deep excavations, finite element modeling was considered for analyses. The lateral displacements from the simulation results were compared to the recorded survey monitoring data. The study concludes with a discussion and comparison of the available empirical and numerical modeling methodologies for evaluating lateral displacements in deep excavations.

Keywords: deep excavations, lateral displacements, numerical modeling, shoring walls, tieback anchors

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
24 Health Trajectory Clustering Using Deep Belief Networks

Authors: Farshid Hajati, Federico Girosi, Shima Ghassempour


We present a Deep Belief Network (DBN) method for clustering health trajectories. Deep Belief Network (DBN) is a deep architecture that consists of a stack of Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM). In a deep architecture, each layer learns more complex features than the past layers. The proposed method depends on DBN in clustering without using back propagation learning algorithm. The proposed DBN has a better a performance compared to the deep neural network due the initialization of the connecting weights. We use Contrastive Divergence (CD) method for training the RBMs which increases the performance of the network. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated extensively on the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) database. The University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal study that has surveyed more than 27,000 elderly and near-elderly Americans since its inception in 1992. Participants are interviewed every two years and they collect data on physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning. The dataset is publicly available and we use the RAND HRS version L, which is easy to use and cleaned up version of the data. The size of sample data set is 268 and the length of the trajectories is equal to 10. The trajectories do not stop when the patient dies and represent 10 different interviews of live patients. Compared to the state-of-the-art benchmarks, the experimental results show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method in clustering health trajectories.

Keywords: health trajectory, clustering, deep learning, DBN

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23 Rejuvenation of Premature Ovarian Failure with Stem Cells/IVA Technique

Authors: Elham Vojoudi, Marzieh Mehrafza, Ahmad Hosseini, Azadeh Raofi, Maryam Najafi


Premature ovarian failure (POF) has become one of the main causes of infertility in women of childbearing age and the incidence of this disorder is increasing year by year. In these patients, poor ovarian response (POR) to gonadotropins reflects a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) that gives place to few follicles despite aggressive stimulation. Up to now, egg donation is the only way to resolve infertility problems in POF patients. Therefore, some novel aspects such as activating (Akt signaling pathway) and inhibiting (Hippo-signaling) elements have been identified as IVA procedure that promotes primordial follicle activation. In this study, we used the newly developed technique (combination of in vitro activation of dormant follicles (IVA) and stem cell therapy) to promote ovarian follicle growth much more efficiently than the natural, in vivo process for women with POF. Transplantation of Warton Jelly-MSCs to the ovaries of POF patients rescued overall ovarian function. Participants (10 patients) were followed up monthly for a period of six months by hormonal (AMH, FSH, LH and E2), clinical (resuming menstruation), and US (folliculometry) outcomes after a laparoscopic operation. In summary, IVA/WJ-MSC transplantation may provide an effective treatment for POF.

Keywords: POF, in vitro activation, stem cell therapy, infertility

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22 An Integrated Framework for Seismic Risk Mitigation Decision Making

Authors: Mojtaba Sadeghi, Farshid Baniassadi, Hamed Kashani


One of the challenging issues faced by seismic retrofitting consultants and employers is quick decision-making on the demolition or retrofitting of a structure at the current time or in the future. For this reason, the existing models proposed by researchers have only covered one of the aspects of cost, execution method, and structural vulnerability. Given the effect of each factor on the final decision, it is crucial to devise a new comprehensive model capable of simultaneously covering all the factors. This study attempted to provide an integrated framework that can be utilized to select the most appropriate earthquake risk mitigation solution for buildings. This framework can overcome the limitations of current models by taking into account several factors such as cost, execution method, risk-taking and structural failure. In the newly proposed model, the database and essential information about retrofitting projects are developed based on the historical data on a retrofit project. In the next phase, an analysis is conducted in order to assess the vulnerability of the building under study. Then, artificial neural networks technique is employed to calculate the cost of retrofitting. While calculating the current price of the structure, an economic analysis is conducted to compare demolition versus retrofitting costs. At the next stage, the optimal method is identified. Finally, the implementation of the framework was demonstrated by collecting data concerning 155 previous projects.

Keywords: decision making, demolition, construction management, seismic retrofit

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21 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla


Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification, tafel polarisation, corrosion resistance

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20 Influence of the Substitution of C for Mg and Ni on the Microstructure and Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of Mg2Ni Alloys

Authors: Sajad Haghanifar, Seyed-Farshid Kashani Bozorg


Nano-crystalline Mg2Ni-based powder was produced by mechanical alloying technique using binary and ternary powder mixtures with stoichiometric compositions of Mg2Ni, Mg1.9C0.1Ni and Mg2C0.1Ni0.9. The structures and morphologies of the milled products were studied by XRD, SEM and HRTEM. Their electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics were investigated in 6 M KOH solution. X-Ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the milled products showed the formation of Mg2Ni-based nano-crystallites after 5, 15 and 30 h of milling using the initial powder mixtures of Mg1.9C0.1Ni, Mg2Ni and Mg2C0.1Ni0.9, respectively. It was found that partial substitution of C for Mg has beneficial effect on the formation kinetic of nano-crystalline Mg2Ni. Contrary to this, partial substitution of C for Ni was resulted in retardation of formation kinetic of nano-crystalline Mg2Ni. In addition, the negative electrode made from Mg1.9C0.1Ni ternary milled product after 30 hour of milling exhibited the highest initial discharge capacity and longest discharge life. Thus, partial substitution of C for Mg is beneficial to electrode properties of the Mg2Ni-based crystallites. The relation between the discharge capacity and cycling number of mechanically alloyed products was proposed on the basis of the fact that the degradation of discharge capacity was mainly caused by the oxidation of magnesium and nickel. The experimental data fitted the deduced equation well.

Keywords: Mg2Ni, hydrogen absorbing materials, electrochemical properties, nano-crystalline, amorphous, mechanical alloying, carbon

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19 Fear of Covid-19 a Major Contributing Factor to Insomnia in General Iranian Population

Authors: Amin Nakhostin-Ansari, Samaneh Akbarour, Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Zahra Banafsheh Alemohammad, Farnaz Etesam, Arezu Najafi, Mahnaz Khalafehnilsaz


Introduction: The outbreak of coronavirus disease has considerably burdened the healthcare system in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of insomnia experienced by the general Iranian population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A scale(FCV-19) was used for Fear of COVID-19, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2 (GAD-2) for detailed characterization of insomnia and its patterns Results: In total, 675 people with insomnia with the mean age of 40.28 years (SD=11.15) participated in this study. Prevalence of difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and early morning awakening (EMA) were 91.4%, 86.7%, and 77%, respectively. DIS, DMS, and EMA were more common in people with depression and anxiety. FCV-19 score was higher in those with more severe types of DIS, DMS, and EMA (P<0.001). FCV-19 was a risk factor for all patterns of insomnia (OR=1.19, 1.12, 1.02 for DIS, DMS, and EMA, respectively). Conclusion: fear of COVID-19 is a major factor to insomnia patterns. Investigation of COVID-19 fear in people with insomnia and the addition of attributed relieving or management strategies to conventional management of insomnia are reasonable approaches to improve the sleep condition of people in the pandemic.

Keywords: insomnia, difficulty maintaining sleep, COVID-19, Coronavirus

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18 An Approach to Consumption of Exhaustible Resources Based on Islamic Justice and Hartwick Criteria

Authors: Hamed Najafi, Ghasem Nikjou


Nowadays, there is an increasing attention to the resources scarcity issues. Because of failure in present patterns in the field of the allocation of exhaustible resources between generations and the challenges related to economic justice supply, it is supposed, to present a pattern from the Islamic perspective in this essay. By using content analysis of religious texts, we conclude that governments should remove the gap which is exists between the per capita income of the poor and their minimum consumption (necessary consumption). In order to preserve the exhaustible resources for poor people) not for all), between all generations, government should invest exhaustible resources on endless resources according to Hartwick’s criteria and should spend these benefits for poor people. But, if benefits did not cover the gap between minimum consumption and per capita income of poor levels in one generation, in this case, the government is responsible for covering this gap through the direct consumption of exhaustible resources. For an exact answer to this question, ‘how much of exhaustible resources should expense to maintain justice between generations?’ The theoretical and mathematical modeling has been used and proper function has been provided. The consumption pattern is presented for economic policy makers in Muslim countries, and non-Muslim even, it can be useful.

Keywords: exhaustible resources, Islamic justice, intergenerational justice, distribution of resources, Hartwick criteria

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17 Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Haemophilia: A Patient with High Titre of Inhibitor Using Recombinant Factor VIIa

Authors: Mohammad J. Mortazavi, Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri


Hemophilia A is simply described as deficiency of factor VIII(FVIII) and patients with this disorder have bleeding complications in different organs. By using the recombinant factor VIII in these patients, elective orthopedic surgeries have been done approximately in 40 last years. About 10-30 % of these patients have bleeding complications in their surgeries even by using recombinant factor VIII because of their inhibitor against FVIII molecule. Preoperative haemostatic management in these patients is challenging. We treated a 28-year-old male patient with hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitor which had been detected when he was14 years old (with the titer 54 Bethesda unit(BU)) scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We use 90 µg/kg rFVIIa just before the surgery and every 2 hours during surgery. The patient did not have any significant hemorrhage during the surgery and after that. For the 2 days after surgery, the rFVIIa repeated every 2 hours as the same as preoperative dosage(90 µg/kg) and for another 2 days of postoperative admission it continued every 4 hours. After 4th day, the rFVIIa continued every 6 hours with the same dosage until the sixth day from the surgery, and finally the patient were discharged about two weeks after surgery. Seven days after the discharge, he came back for the follow up visit. On the follow up examination, the site of the surgery had neither infection hemarthroses signs.

Keywords: hemophilia, factor VIII inhibitor, total knee replacement, rFVIIa

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16 Magneto-Hydrodynamic Mixed Convection of Water-Al2O3 Nanofluid in a Wavy Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: Farshid Fathinia


This paper examines numerically the laminar steady magneto-hydrodynamic mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a wavy lid-driven cavity filled with water-Al2O3 nanofluid using FDM method. The left and right sidewalls of the cavity have a wavy geometry and are maintained at a cold and hot temperature, respectively. The top and bottom walls are considered flat and insulated while, the bottom wall moves from left to right direction with a uniform lid-driven velocity. A magnetic field is applied vertically downward on the bottom wall of the cavity. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the dominant parameters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, solid volume fraction, and wavy wall geometry parameters are examined. The numerical results are obtained for Hartmann number varying as 0 ≤ Ha ≤ 0.6, Rayleigh numbers varying as 103≤ Ra ≤105, and the solid volume fractions varying as 0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.0003. Comparisons with previously published numerical works on mixed convection in a nanofluid filled cavity are performed and good agreements between the results are observed. It is found that the flow circulation and mean Nusselt number decrease as the solid volume fraction and Hartmann number increase. Moreover, the convection enhances when the amplitude ratio of the wavy surface increases. The results also show that both the flow and thermal fields are significantly affected by the amplitude ratio (i.e., wave form) of the wavy wall.

Keywords: nanofluid, mixed convection, magnetic field, wavy cavity, lid-driven, SPH method

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15 Prevalence of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Authors: Arghavan Tonkaboni, Shamsolmolouk Najafi, Mohmmad Taghi Kiani, Mehrzad Gholampour, Touraj Goli


Introduction: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a multifactorial recurrent oral lesion; which is an autoimmune disease. TH1 cytokines are the most important etiological factors. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases and generally coexists with other autoimmune diseases. This study assessed the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods: This case control study assessed 100 known RAS patients who were diagnosed clinically by oral medicine specialists; venous blood samples were analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total thyroxine (fT4), thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-TG) levels. Results: Fifty patients with RAS aged between 18-42 years (28.5±5.8) and 50 healthy volunteers aged 19-45 years (27.3±5.4) participated. In RAS patients, fT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (P=0.031, P=0.706); however, fT4 level was lower in the RAS group (P=0.447). Anti TG and anti-TPO levels were significantly higher in the RAS group (P=0.008, P=0.067). Conclusion: Our study showed that ATD prevalence was significantly higher in RAS patients. Based on this study, we recommend assessment of thyroid hormones and antibodies in RAS patients.

Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, thyroid antibodies, thyroid hormone, thyroid autoimmune disease

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