Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4729

Search results for: structured light

4729 Time Efficient Color Coding for Structured-Light 3D Scanner

Authors: Po-Hao Huang, Pei-Ju Chiang

Abstract:

The structured light 3D scanner is commonly used for measuring the 3D shape of an object. Through projecting designed light patterns on the object, deformed patterns can be obtained and used for the geometric shape reconstruction. At present, Gray code is the most reliable and commonly used light pattern in the structured light 3D scanner. However, the trade-off between scanning efficiency and accuracy is a long-standing and challenging problem. The design of light patterns plays a significant role in the scanning efficiency and accuracy. Thereby, we proposed a novel encoding method integrating color information and Gray-code to improve the scanning efficiency. We will demonstrate that with the proposed method, the scanning time can be reduced to approximate half of the one needed by Gray-code without reduction of precision.

Keywords: gray-code, structured light scanner, 3D shape acquisition, 3D reconstruction

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4728 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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4727 A Study of Light in Zoroastrianism and Ancient Iranian Traditions: A Case of Mathnavi

Authors: Farideh Aramideh

Abstract:

The aim of this essay is to study the light in Zoroastrianism, and Masnavi by Rumi. The use of light goes back to thousand years B.C. the light in the legacy of ancient Iranian wisdom has been used in Mithraism, Zurvanism, Zoroastrianism and Manichaean religion and spirituality has been emanated in the world through the light. Ontology and angelology and the sacredness of fire in Zoroastrianism have been interpreted according to the concept of light. The ruling atmosphere on mazdaism world is the world which is full of light and angels, and light is one of the basis of worldview in ancient Iranian mysticism, especially Zoroastrianism and Manichaean, continued widely in Islamic mysticism, and also it always provokes discussions among scholars and mystics especially Iranian mystics. Light and fire are used as the signs and symbols of God's existence, The Shining lights emanated from the sacred essence of God, knowledge, and mysticism, love, discovering the wisdom and a way to God. Rumi speaks eloquently about light in Masnavi, and by using the light; he could render his readers the fundamental mystic subjects such as the true existence of God, the verity of prophets and saints, intuition of God, spiritual states of union with God and abiding in God, which are the most complicated mystic terms.

Keywords: zoroastrianism, myticims, Masnavi, light

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
4726 Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Low Light Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Induced by Low Light Stress at Active Tillering Stage

Authors: Darshan Panda, Lambodar Behera, M. J. Baig, Sudhanshu Sekhar

Abstract:

Low light intensity is a significant limitation for grain yield and quality in rice. However, yield is not significantly reduced in low-light tolerant rice varieties. The work, therefore, planned for comparative transcriptome profiling under low light stress to decipher the genes involved and molecular mechanism of low light tolerance in rice. At the active tillering stage, 50% low light exposure for one day, three days, and five days were given to Swarnaprabha (low light tolerant) and IR8 (low light sensitive) rice varieties. Illumina (HiSeq) platform was used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 6,652 and 12,042 genes were differentially expressed due to low light intensity in Swarnaprabha and IR8, respectively, as compared to control. CAB, LRP, SBPase, MT15, TF PCL1, and Photosystem I & II complex related gene expressions were mostly increased in Swarnaprabha upon the longer duration of low light exposure, which was not found in IR8 as compared to control. Their expressions were validated by qRT-PCR. The overall study suggested that the maintenance of grain yield in the tolerant variety under low light might be the result of accelerated expression of the genes, which enable the plant to keep the photosynthetic processes moving at the same pace even under low light.

Keywords: rice, low light, photosynthesis, yield

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4725 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 599
4724 A New Car-Following Model with Consideration of the Brake Light

Authors: Zhiyuan Tang, Ju Zhang, Wenyuan Wu

Abstract:

In this research, a car-following model with consideration of the status of the brake light is proposed. The numerical results show that the stability of the traffic flow is improved. The ability of the brake light to reduce car accident is also showed.

Keywords: brake light, car-following model, traffic flow, regional planning, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
4723 Amorphous Silicon-Based PINIP Structure for Human-Like Photosensor

Authors: Sheng-Chuan Hsu

Abstract:

Because the existing structure of ambient light sensor is most silicon photodiode device, it is extremely sensitive in the red and infrared regions. Even though the IR-Cut filter had added, it still cannot completely eliminate the influence of infrared light, and the spectral response of infrared light was stronger than that of the human eyes. Therefore, it is not able to present the vision spectrum of the human eye reacts with the ambient light. Then it needs to consider that the human eye feels the spectra that show significant differences between light and dark place. Consequently, in practical applications, we must create and develop advanced device of human-like photosensor which can solve these problems of ambient light sensor and let cognitive lighting system to provide suitable light to achieve the goals of vision spectrum of human eye and save energy.

Keywords: ambient light sensor, vision spectrum, cognitive lighting system, human eye

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
4722 Enhanced Traffic Light Detection Method Using Geometry Information

Authors: Changhwan Choi, Yongwan Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method that allows faster and more accurate detection of traffic lights by a vision sensor during driving, DGPS is used to obtain physical location of a traffic light, extract from the image information of the vision sensor only the traffic light area at this location and ascertain if the sign is in operation and determine its form. This method can solve the problem in existing research where low visibility at night or reflection under bright light makes it difficult to recognize the form of traffic light, thus making driving unstable. We compared our success rate of traffic light recognition in day and night road environments. Compared to previous researches, it showed similar performance during the day but 50% improvement at night.

Keywords: traffic light, intelligent vehicle, night, detection, DGPS

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4721 Stray Light Reduction Methodology by a Sinusoidal Light Modulation and Three-Parameter Sine Curve Fitting Algorithm for a Reflectance Spectrometer

Authors: Hung Chih Hsieh, Cheng Hao Chang, Yun Hsiang Chang, Yu Lin Chang

Abstract:

In the applications of the spectrometer, the stray light that comes from the environment affects the measurement results a lot. Hence, environment and instrument quality control for the stray reduction is critical for the spectral reflectance measurement. In this paper, a simple and practical method has been developed to correct a spectrometer's response for measurement errors arising from the environment's and instrument's stray light. A sinusoidal modulated light intensity signal was incident on a tested sample, and then the reflected light was collected by the spectrometer. Since a sinusoidal signal modulated the incident light, the reflected light also had a modulated frequency which was the same as the incident signal. Using the three-parameter sine curve fitting algorithm, we can extract the primary reflectance signal from the total measured signal, which contained the primary reflectance signal and the stray light from the environment. The spectra similarity between the extracted spectra by this proposed method with extreme environment stray light is 99.98% similar to the spectra without the environment's stray light. This result shows that we can measure the reflectance spectra without the affection of the environment's stray light.

Keywords: spectrometer, stray light, three-parameter sine curve fitting, spectra extraction

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4720 Light-Scattering Characteristics of Ordered Arrays Nobel Metal Nanoparticles

Authors: Yassine Ait-El-Aoud, Michael Okomoto, Andrew M. Luce, Alkim Akyurtlu, Richard M. Osgood III

Abstract:

Light scattering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has a unique, and technologically important effect on enhancing light absorption in substrates because most of the light scatters into the substrate near the localized plasmon resonance of the NPs. The optical response, such as the resonant frequency and forward- and backward-scattering, can be tuned to trap light over a certain spectral region by adjusting the nanoparticle material size, shape, aggregation state, Metallic vs. insulating state, as well as local environmental conditions. In this work, we examined the light scattering characteristics of ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles and the light trapping, in order to enhance absorption, by measuring the forward- and backward-scattering using a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. Samples were fabricated using the popular self-assembly process method: dip coating, combined with nanosphere lithography.

Keywords: dip coating, light-scattering, metal nanoparticles, nanosphere lithography

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
4719 A Reading Light That Can Adjust Indoor Light Intensity According to the Activity and Person for Improve Indoor Visual Comfort of Occupants and Tested using Post-occupancy Evaluation Techniques for Sri Lankan Population

Authors: R.T.P. De Silva, T. K. Wijayasiriwardhane, B. Jayawardena

Abstract:

Most people nowadays spend their time indoor environment. Because of that, a quality indoor environment needs for them. This study was conducted to identify how to improve indoor visual comfort using a personalized light system. Light intensity, light color, glare, and contrast are the main facts that affect visual comfort. The light intensity which needs to perform a task is changed according to the task. Using necessary light intensity and we can improve the visual comfort of occupants. The hue can affect the emotions of occupants. The preferred light colors and intensity change according to the occupant's age and gender. The research was conducted to identify is there any relationship between personalization and visual comfort. To validate this designed an Internet of Things-based reading light. This light can work according to the standard light levels and personalized light levels. It also can measure the current light intensity of the environment and maintain continuous light levels according to the task. The test was conducted by using 25 undergraduates, and 5school students, and 5 adults. The feedbacks are gathered using Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) techniques. Feedbacks are gathered in three steps, It was done without any light control, with standard light level, and with personalized light level Users had to spend 10 minutes under each condition. After finishing each step, collected their feedbacks. According to the result gathered, 94% of participants rated a personalized light system as comfort for them. The feedbacks show stay under continuous light level help to keep their concentrate. Future research can be conducted on how the color of indoor light can affect for indoor visual comfort of occupants using a personalized light system. Further proposed IoT based can improve to change the light colors according to the user's preference.

Keywords: indoor environment quality, internet of things based light system, post occupancy evaluation, visual comfort

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4718 DBN-Based Face Recognition System Using Light Field

Authors: Bing Gu

Abstract:

Abstract—Most of Conventional facial recognition systems are based on image features, such as LBP, SIFT. Recently some DBN-based 2D facial recognition systems have been proposed. However, we find there are few DBN-based 3D facial recognition system and relative researches. 3D facial images include all the individual biometric information. We can use these information to build more accurate features, So we present our DBN-based face recognition system using Light Field. We can see Light Field as another presentation of 3D image, and Light Field Camera show us a way to receive a Light Field. We use the commercially available Light Field Camera to act as the collector of our face recognition system, and the system receive a state-of-art performance as convenient as conventional 2D face recognition system.

Keywords: DBN, face recognition, light field, Lytro

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4717 Differential Signaling Spread-Spectrum Modulation of the In-Door LED Visible Light Wireless Communications using Mobile-Phone Camera

Authors: Shih-Hao Chen, Chi-Wai Chow

Abstract:

Visible light communication combined with spread spectrum modulation is demonstrated in this study. Differential signaling method also ensures the proposed system that can support high immunity to ambient light interference. Experiment result shows the proposed system has 6 dB gain comparing with the original On-Off Keying modulation scheme.

Keywords: Visible Light Communication (VLC), Spread Spectrum Modulation (SSM), On-Off Keying, visible light communication

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4716 Impact of Light Intensity, Illumation Strategy and Self-Shading on Sustainable Algal Growth in Photo Bioreactors

Authors: Amritanshu Shriwastav, Purnendu Bose

Abstract:

Algal photo bioreactors were operated at incident light intensities of 0.24, 2.52 and 5.96 W L-1 to determine the impact of light on algal growth. Low specific Chlorophyll-a content of algae was a strong indicator of light induced stress on algal cells. It was concluded that long term operation of photo bioreactors in the continuous illumination mode was infeasible under the range of incident light intensities examined and provision of a dark period after each light period was necessary for algal cells to recover from light-induced stress. Long term operation of photo bioreactors in the intermittent illumination mode was however possible at light intensities of 0.24 and 2.52 W L-1. Further, the incident light intensity in the photo bioreactors was found to decline exponentially with increase in algal concentration in the reactor due to algal ‘self-shading’. This may be an important determinant for photo bioreactor performance at higher algal concentrations.

Keywords: Algae, algal growth, photo bioreactor, photo-inhibition, ‘self-shading’

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
4715 Traffic Light Detection Using Image Segmentation

Authors: Vaishnavi Shivde, Shrishti Sinha, Trapti Mishra

Abstract:

Traffic light detection from a moving vehicle is an important technology both for driver safety assistance functions as well as for autonomous driving in the city. This paper proposed a deep-learning-based traffic light recognition method that consists of a pixel-wise image segmentation technique and a fully convolutional network i.e., UNET architecture. This paper has used a method for detecting the position and recognizing the state of the traffic lights in video sequences is presented and evaluated using Traffic Light Dataset which contains masked traffic light image data. The first stage is the detection, which is accomplished through image processing (image segmentation) techniques such as image cropping, color transformation, segmentation of possible traffic lights. The second stage is the recognition, which means identifying the color of the traffic light or knowing the state of traffic light which is achieved by using a Convolutional Neural Network (UNET architecture).

Keywords: traffic light detection, image segmentation, machine learning, classification, convolutional neural networks

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4714 An Exploration of Lighting Quality on Sleep Quality of Children in Elementary Schools

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri, Kristen Bub, Jaewook Lee, Kate Kurry

Abstract:

In this study, we explored the impact of light, particularly daylight on sleep time and quality of elementary school children. Sleep actigraphy was used to measure objectively sleep time and sleep efficiency. Our data show a good correlation between light levels and sleep. In some cases, differences of up to 36 minutes were found between students in low light levels and those in high light level classrooms. We recommend, therefore, that classroom design need to pay attention to the daily daylight exposures elementary school children are receiving.

Keywords: light, daylight, actigraphy, sleep, circadian rhythm, sustainable architecture, elementary school, children

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4713 Durability of Light-Weight Concrete

Authors: Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertova

Abstract:

The paper focuses on research of durability and lifetime of dense light-weight concrete with artificial light-weight aggregate Liapor exposed to various types of aggressive environment. Experimental part describes testing of designed concrete of various strength classes and volume weights exposed to cyclical freezing, frost and chemical de-icers and various types of chemically aggressive environment.

Keywords: aggressive environment, durability, physical-mechanical properties, light-weight concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
4712 The Application on Interactivity of Light in New Media Art

Authors: Yansong Chen

Abstract:

In the age of media convergence, new media technology is constantly impacting, changing, and even reshaping the limits of Art. From the technological ontology of the new media art, the concept of interaction design has always been dominated by I/O (Input/Output) systems through the ages, which ignores the content of systems and kills the aura of art. Light, as a fusion media, basically comes from the extension of some human feelings and can be the content of the input or the effect of output. In this paper, firstly, on the basis of literature review, the interaction characteristics research was conducted on light. Secondly, starting from discourse patterns of people and machines, people and people, people, and imagining things, we propose three light modes: object-oriented interaction, Immersion interaction, Tele-Presence interaction. Finally, this paper explains how to regain the aura of art through light elements in new media art and understand multiple levels of 'Interaction design'. In addition, the new media art, especially the light-based interaction art, enriches the language patterns and motivates emerging art forms to be more widespread and popular, which achieves its aesthetics growth.

Keywords: new media art, interaction design, light art, immersion

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
4711 Visual Search Based Indoor Localization in Low Light via RGB-D Camera

Authors: Yali Zheng, Peipei Luo, Shinan Chen, Jiasheng Hao, Hong Cheng

Abstract:

Most of traditional visual indoor navigation algorithms and methods only consider the localization in ordinary daytime, while we focus on the indoor re-localization in low light in the paper. As RGB images are degraded in low light, less discriminative infrared and depth image pairs are taken, as the input, by RGB-D cameras, the most similar candidates, as the output, are searched from databases which is built in the bag-of-word framework. Epipolar constraints can be used to relocalize the query infrared and depth image sequence. We evaluate our method in two datasets captured by Kinect2. The results demonstrate very promising re-localization results for indoor navigation system in low light environments.

Keywords: indoor navigation, low light, RGB-D camera, vision based

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4710 Generation of Catalytic Films of Zeolite Y and ZSM-5 on FeCrAlloy Metal

Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-Rubaye, Arthur A. Garforth

Abstract:

This work details the generation of thin films of structured zeolite catalysts (ZSM–5 and Y) onto the surface of a metal substrate (FeCrAlloy) using in-situ hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the zeolite Y is post-synthetically modified by acidified ammonium ion exchange to generate US-Y. Finally the catalytic activity of the structured ZSM-5 catalyst films (Si/Al = 11, thickness 146 µm) and structured US–Y catalyst film (Si/Al = 8, thickness 23µm) were compared with the pelleted powder form of ZSM–5 and USY catalysts of similar Si/Al ratios. The structured catalyst films have been characterised using a range of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550°C). The cracking of n–heptane over the pellets and structured catalysts for both ZSM–5 and Y zeolite showed very similar product selectivities for similar amounts of catalyst with an apparent activation energy of around 60 kJ mol-1. This paper demonstrates that structured catalysts can be manufactured with excellent zeolite adherence and when suitably activated/modified give comparable cracking results to the pelleted powder forms. These structured catalysts will improve temperature distribution in highly exothermic and endothermic catalysed processes.

Keywords: FeCrAlloy, structured catalyst, zeolite Y, zeolite ZSM-5

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4709 A Field Study of Monochromatic Light Effects on Antibody Responses to Newcastle Disease by HI Test and the Correlation with ELISA

Authors: Seyed Mehrzad Pahlavani, Mozaffar Haji Jafari Anaraki, Sayma Mohammadi

Abstract:

A total of 34700 day-old broilers were exposed to green, blue and yellow light using a light-emitting diode system for 6 weeks to investigate the effects of light wave length on antibody responses to Newcastle disease by HI test and the correlation with ELISA. 3 poultry house broiler farms with the same conditions was selected and the lightening system of each was set according to the requirement. Blood samples were taken from 20 chicks on days 1, 24 and 46 and the Newcastle virus specific antibody was titered in serum using HI an ELISA test. On day 24, the probability value of more than 0/05 was observed in HI and ELISA tests of all groups while at the end of breeding period, the average HI serum antibody titer was more in the green light than the yellow one while the blue light was not significantly different from both. At the last titration, the green light has got the highest titer of Newcastle antibodies. There were no significant differences of Newcastle antibody titers between all groups and ages in broiler pullets in ELISA. According to the sampling and analysis of HI and ELISA serum tests, there were no significant relationships between all broiler pullets breeding in green, blue and yellow light on days 24 and 46 and the P-value was more than 0/05. It is suggested that the monochromatic light is effective on broilers immunity against Newcastle disease.

Keywords: monochromatic light, Newcastle disease, HI test, ELISA test

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4708 A Simple Light-Outcoupling Enhancement Method for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

Authors: Ho-Nyeon Lee

Abstract:

We propose to use a gradual-refractive-index dielectric (GRID) as a simple and efficient light-outcoupling method for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Using the simple GRIDs, we could improve the light outcoupling efficiency of OLEDs rather than relying on difficult nano-patterning processes. Through numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the feasibility of the GRID structure was examined and the design parameters were extracted. The outcoupling enhancement effects due to the GRIDs were proved through severe experimental works. The GRIDs were adapted to bottom-emission OLEDs and top-emission OLEDs. For bottom-emission OLEDs, the efficiency was improved more than 20%, and for top-emission OLEDs, more than 40%. The detailed numerical and experimental results will be presented at the conference site.

Keywords: efficiency, GRID, light outcoupling, OLED

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4707 Spectra Analysis in Sunset Color Demonstrations with a White-Color LED as a Light Source

Authors: Makoto Hasegawa, Seika Tokumitsu

Abstract:

Spectra of light beams emitted from white-color LED torches are different from those of conventional electric torches. In order to confirm if white-color LED torches can be used as light sources for popular sunset color demonstrations in spite of such differences, spectra of travelled light beams and scattered light beams with each of a white-color LED torch (composed of a blue LED and yellow-color fluorescent material) and a conventional electric torch as a light source were measured and compared with each other in a 50 cm-long water tank for sunset color demonstration experiments. Suspension liquid was prepared from acryl-emulsion and tap-water in the water tank, and light beams from the white-color LED torch or the conventional electric torch were allowed to travel in this suspension liquid. Sunset-like color was actually observed when the white-color LED torch was used as the light source in sunset color demonstrations. However, the observed colors when viewed with naked eye look slightly different from those obtainable with the conventional electric torch. At the same time, with the white-color LED, changes in colors in short to middle wavelength regions were recognized with careful observations. From those results, white-color LED torches are confirmed to be applicable as light sources in sunset color demonstrations, although certain attentions have to be paid. Further advanced classes will be successfully performed with white-color LED torches as light sources.

Keywords: blue sky demonstration, sunset color demonstration, white LED torch, physics education

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4706 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar

Abstract:

The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: bubble column reactor, gas holdup, hydrodynamics, sparger

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4705 Reducing Energy Consumption in Architectural Spaces by Optimizing Natural Light Transmission

Authors: Parisa Javid

Abstract:

In architecture, daylight contributes to humans' mental and physical well-being and reduces the consumption of fossil fuels. Accordingly, Iran's rich architecture has valuable achievements and experiences that should be recognized and introduced to the Iranian and international architecture communities. There are many ways to reduce energy consumption in buildings, but electricity accounts for a large part of that consumption. Lighting up spaces with natural light is a significant factor in reducing energy consumption and preventing electricity dissipation. Aside from being expensive, electric lighting systems cause excessive heat and physical injury (eyes). This study is based on library records and documents. Modern lighting systems are used to reduce energy consumption in the interior of a building to allow for optimal transmission of natural light. It discusses how to use natural light in architecture and the benefits of natural light in buildings. Solar energy can be used more efficiently, and electrical power can be saved in residential, administrative, commercial, and educational buildings by using new methods such as light tubes and mirror directors. Modern lighting systems, natural light, and reduced energy consumption are keywords for these systems, which quickly return their investment.

Keywords: modern lighting systems, natural light, reduced energy consumption

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4704 Preparation and Visible Light Photoactivity of N-Doped ZnO/ZnS Photocatalysts

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar

Abstract:

Semiconductor nanoparticles such as TiO₂ and ZnO as photocatalysts are very efficient catalysts for wastewater treatment by the chemical utilization of light energy, which is capable of converting the toxic and nonbiodegradable organic compounds into carbon dioxide and mineral acids. ZnO semiconductor has a wide bandgap energy of 3.37 eV and a relatively large exciton binding Energy (60 meV), thus can absorb only UV light with the wavelength equal to or less than 385 nm. It exhibits low efficiency under visible light illumination due to its wide band gap energy. In order to improve photocatalytic activity of ZnO under visible light, band gap of ZnO may be narrowed by doping such as N, C, S nonmetal ions and coupled two separate semiconductors possessing different energy levels for their corresponding conduction and valence bands. ZnS has a wider band gap (Eg=3.7 eV) than ZnO and generates electron–hole pairs by photoexcitation rapidly. In the present work, N doped ZnO/ZnS nano photocatalysts with visible-light response were synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal method using thiourea as N source. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–visible (UV–vis). The photocatalytic activities samples and undoped ZnO have been studied for the degradation of dye, and have also been compared with together.

Keywords: photocatalyst, synthesis, visible light, ZnO/ZnS

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4703 N-Type GaN Thinning for Enhancing Light Extraction Efficiency in GaN-Based Thin-Film Flip-Chip Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

Authors: Anil Kawan, Soon Jae Yu, Jong Min Park

Abstract:

GaN-based 365 nm wavelength ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LED) have various applications: curing, molding, purification, deodorization, and disinfection etc. However, their usage is limited by very low output power, because of the light absorption in the GaN layers. In this study, we demonstrate a method utilizing removal of 365 nm absorption layer buffer GaN and thinning the n-type GaN so as to improve the light extraction efficiency of the GaN-based 365 nm UV LED. The UV flip chip LEDs of chip size 1.3 mm x 1.3 mm were fabricated using GaN epilayers on a sapphire substrate. Via-hole n-type contacts and highly reflective Ag metal were used for efficient light extraction. LED wafer was aligned and bonded to AlN carrier wafer. To improve the extraction efficiency of the flip chip LED, sapphire substrate and absorption layer buffer GaN were removed by using laser lift-off and dry etching, respectively. To further increase the extraction efficiency of the LED, exposed n-type GaN thickness was reduced by using inductively coupled plasma etching.

Keywords: extraction efficiency, light emitting diodes, n-GaN thinning, ultraviolet

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4702 Effect of Blue Light on Some Physiological Characters of Two Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

Authors: Mozhgan Farzamisepehr, Samira Salehi

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the most important environmental factors limiting the growth and production of crops in plants. This limitation is due to the effect of salinity stress on plant physiology aspects and its development. The structure of the plants is regulated by the optical signals emanating from the environment. Light is an energy source for photosynthetic organs, and the type of optical wavelength plays an important role in growth. In order to investigate the effect of blue light on delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (proline precursor) in 2 wheat cultivar, resistant to salinity (BAM) and sensitive to salinity (Tajan), in a culture medium with 5 treatments Salinity (control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl were exposed to light and white light. After five days of growth of wheat seedlings, the growth indices (fresh weight, dry weight and longitudinal growth), proline, chlorophyll a, b, sodium and potassium contents, peroxidase enzyme activity, malondialdehyde and pyrolin-5- Carboxylate (Proline precursor) contents were measured. Data were analyzed using Duncan statistical test. Blue light increased the amount of proline and PSC in the salinity-resistant cultivar. In sensitive cultivar, the amount of potassium under white light was higher than blue light in different amounts of salt. The amount of sodium accumulated under the influence of blue light in different amounts of salt in the resistant cultivar was higher than the sensitive cultivar. The peroxidation activity of resistant wheat cultivar was higher and blue light did not increase peroxidation activity, but the amount of malondialdehyde in sensitive cultivar increased under the blue light regime and in increasing amounts of salt. The fresh and dry weight of plants in resistant cultivar was highest under white light and plant length in the resistant cultivar and under increasing amounts of salt was higher than cultivar sensitive to both light and white light.

Keywords: salinity, wheat, blue light, proline precursor

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4701 Determining Coordinates of Ultra-Light Drones Based on the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) Method

Authors: Nguyen Huy Hoang, Do Thanh Quan, Tran Vu Kien

Abstract:

The use of the active radar to measure the coordinates of ultra-light drones is frequently difficult due to long-distance, absolutely small radar cross-section (RCS) and obstacles. Since ultra-light drones are usually controlled by the Time Difference of Arrival (RF), the paper proposed a method to measure the coordinates of ultra-light drones in the space based on the arrival time of the signal at receiving antennas and the time difference of arrival (TDOA). The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is really potential and highly accurate.

Keywords: ultra-light drone, TDOA, radar cross-section (RCS), RF

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4700 [Keynote Speech]: Conceptual Design of a Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) Light Sport Aircraft

Authors: Zamri Omar, Alifi Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

Although flying machines have made their tremendous technological advancement since the first successfully flight of the heavier-than-air aircraft, its benefits to the greater community are still belittled. One of the reasons for this drawback is due to the relatively high cost needed to fly on the typical light aircraft. A smaller and lighter plane, widely known as Light Sport Aircraft (LSA) has the potential to attract more people to actively participate in numerous flying activities, such as for recreational, business trips or other personal purposes. In this paper, we propose a new LSA design with some simple, yet important analysis required in the aircraft conceptual design stage.

Keywords: light sport aircraft, conceptual design, aircraft layout, aircraft

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