Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15835

Search results for: Adomian decomposition method

15835 Multistage Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Linear and Non-Linear Stiff System of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: M. S. H. Chowdhury, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

In this paper, linear and non-linear stiff systems of ordinary differential equations are solved by the classical Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the multi-stage Adomian decomposition method (MADM). The MADM is a technique adapted from the standard Adomian decomposition method (ADM) where standard ADM is converted into a hybrid numeric-analytic method called the multistage ADM (MADM). The MADM is tested for several examples. Comparisons with an explicit Runge-Kutta-type method (RK) and the classical ADM demonstrate the limitations of ADM and promising capability of the MADM for solving stiff initial value problems (IVPs).

Keywords: stiff system of ODEs, Runge-Kutta Type Method, Adomian decomposition method, Multistage ADM

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15834 A Hybrid Adomian Decomposition Method in the Solution of Logistic Abelian Ordinary Differential and Its Comparism with Some Standard Numerical Scheme

Authors: F. J. Adeyeye, D. Eni, K. M. Okedoye

Abstract:

In this paper we present a Hybrid of Adomian decomposition method (ADM). This is the substitution of a One-step method of Taylor’s series approximation of orders I and II, into the nonlinear part of Adomian decomposition method resulting in a convergent series scheme. This scheme is applied to solve some Logistic problems represented as Abelian differential equation and the results are compared with the actual solution and Runge-kutta of order IV in order to ascertain the accuracy and efficiency of the scheme. The findings shows that the scheme is efficient enough to solve logistic problems considered in this paper.

Keywords: Adomian decomposition method, nonlinear part, one-step method, Taylor series approximation, hybrid of Adomian polynomial, logistic problem, Malthusian parameter, Verhulst Model

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15833 Adomian’s Decomposition Method to Functionally Graded Thermoelastic Materials with Power Law

Authors: Hamdy M. Youssef, Eman A. Al-Lehaibi

Abstract:

This paper presents an iteration method for the numerical solutions of a one-dimensional problem of generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time under given initial and boundary conditions. The thermoelastic material with variable properties as a power functional graded has been considered. Adomian’s decomposition techniques have been applied to the governing equations. The numerical results have been calculated by using the iterations method with a certain algorithm. The numerical results have been represented in figures, and the figures affirm that Adomian’s decomposition method is a successful method for modeling thermoelastic problems. Moreover, the empirical parameter of the functional graded, and the lattice design parameter have significant effects on the temperature increment, the strain, the stress, the displacement.

Keywords: Adomian, decomposition method, generalized thermoelasticity, algorithm

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15832 Nonlinear Heat Transfer in a Spiral Fin with a Period Base Temperature

Authors: Kuo-Teng Tsai, You-Min Huang

Abstract:

In this study, the problem of a spiral fin with a period base temperature is analyzed by using the Adomian decomposition method. The Adomian decomposition method is a useful and practice method to solve the nonlinear energy equation which are associated with the heat radiation. The period base temperature is around a mean value. The results including the temperature distribution and the heat flux from the spiral fin base can be calculated directly. The results also discussed the effects of the dimensionless variables for the temperature variations and the total energy transferred from the spiral fin base.

Keywords: spiral fin, period, adomian decomposition method, nonlinear

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15831 Adomian’s Decomposition Method to Generalized Magneto-Thermoelasticity

Authors: Hamdy M. Youssef, Eman A. Al-Lehaibi

Abstract:

Due to many applications and problems in the fields of plasma physics, geophysics, and other many topics, the interaction between the strain field and the magnetic field has to be considered. Adomian introduced the decomposition method for solving linear and nonlinear functional equations. This method leads to accurate, computable, approximately convergent solutions of linear and nonlinear partial and ordinary differential equations even the equations with variable coefficients. This paper is dealing with a mathematical model of generalized thermoelasticity of a half-space conducting medium. A magnetic field with constant intensity acts normal to the bounding plane has been assumed. Adomian’s decomposition method has been used to solve the model when the bounding plane is taken to be traction free and thermally loaded by harmonic heating. The numerical results for the temperature increment, the stress, the strain, the displacement, the induced magnetic, and the electric fields have been represented in figures. The magnetic field, the relaxation time, and the angular thermal load have significant effects on all the studied fields.

Keywords: Adomian’s decomposition method, magneto-thermoelasticity, finite conductivity, iteration method, thermal load

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15830 A Study on the Solutions of the 2-Dimensional and Forth-Order Partial Differential Equations

Authors: O. Acan, Y. Keskin

Abstract:

In this study, we will carry out a comparative study between the reduced differential transform method, the adomian decomposition method, the variational iteration method and the homotopy analysis method. These methods are used in many fields of engineering. This is been achieved by handling a kind of 2-Dimensional and forth-order partial differential equations called the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations. Three numerical examples have also been carried out to validate and demonstrate efficiency of the four methods. Furthermost, it is shown that the reduced differential transform method has advantage over other methods. This method is very effective and simple and could be applied for nonlinear problems which used in engineering.

Keywords: reduced differential transform method, adomian decomposition method, variational iteration method, homotopy analysis method

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15829 Annular Hyperbolic Profile Fins with Variable Thermal Conductivity Using Laplace Adomian Transform and Double Decomposition Methods

Authors: Yinwei Lin, Cha'o-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

In this article, the Laplace Adomian transform method (LADM) and double decomposition method (DDM) are used to solve the annular hyperbolic profile fins with variable thermal conductivity. As the thermal conductivity parameter ε is relatively large, the numerical solution using DDM become incorrect. Moreover, when the terms of DDM are more than seven, the numerical solution using DDM is very complicated. However, the present method can be easily calculated as terms are over seven and has more precisely numerical solutions. As the thermal conductivity parameter ε is relatively large, LADM also has better accuracy than DDM.

Keywords: fins, thermal conductivity, Laplace transform, Adomian, nonlinear

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15828 Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Boundary Layer Flow Past A Stretching Plate with Heat Transfer and Viscous Dissipation

Authors: Jiya Mohammed, Tsadu Shuaib, Yusuf Abdulhakeem

Abstract:

The research work focuses on the cases of MHD boundary layer flow past a stretching plate with heat transfer and viscous dissipation. The non-linear of momentum and energy equation are transform into ordinary differential equation by using similarity transformation, the resulting equation are solved using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). An attempt has been made to show the potentials and wide range application of the Adomian decomposition method in the comparison with the previous one in solving heat transfer problems. The Pade approximates value (η= 11[11, 11]) is use on the difficulty at infinity. The results are compared by numerical technique method. A vivid conclusion can be drawn from the results that ADM provides highly precise numerical solution for non-linear differential equations. The result where accurate especially for η ≤ 4, a general equating terms of Eckert number (Ec), Prandtl number (Pr) and magnetic parameter ( ) is derived which was used to investigate velocity and temperature profiles in boundary layer.

Keywords: MHD, Adomian decomposition, boundary layer, viscous dissipation

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15827 The Analysis of a Reactive Hydromagnetic Internal Heat Generating Poiseuille Fluid Flow through a Channel

Authors: Anthony R. Hassan, Jacob A. Gbadeyan

Abstract:

In this paper, the analysis of a reactive hydromagnetic Poiseuille fluid flow under each of sensitized, Arrhenius and bimolecular chemical kinetics through a channel in the presence of heat source is carried out. An exothermic reaction is assumed while the concentration of the material is neglected. Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) together with Pade Approximation is used to obtain the solutions of the governing nonlinear non – dimensional differential equations. Effects of various physical parameters on the velocity and temperature fields of the fluid flow are investigated. The entropy generation analysis and the conditions for thermal criticality are also presented.

Keywords: chemical kinetics, entropy generation, thermal criticality, adomian decomposition method (ADM) and pade approximation

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15826 One Dimensional Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow in an Inclined Wavy Wall of a Nanofluid with Convective Boundary Condition

Authors: Abdulhakeem Yusuf, Yomi Monday Aiyesimi, Mohammed Jiya

Abstract:

The failure in an ordinary heat transfer fluid to meet up with today’s industrial cooling rate has resulted in the development of high thermal conductivity fluid which nanofluids belongs. In this work, the problem of unsteady one dimensional laminar flow of an incompressible fluid within a parallel wall is considered with one wall assumed to be wavy. The model is presented in its rectangular coordinate system and incorporates the effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion. The local similarity solutions were also obtained which depends on Soret number, Dufour number, Biot number, Lewis number, and heat generation parameter. The analytical solution is obtained in a closed form via the Adomian decomposition method. It was found that the method has a good agreement with the numerical method, and it is also established that the heat generation parameter has to be kept low so that heat energy are easily evacuated from the system.

Keywords: Adomian decomposition method, Biot number, Dufour number, nanofluid

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15825 Dynamical Analysis of the Fractional-Order Mathematical Model of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Authors: Neelam Singha

Abstract:

The present work intends to analyze the system dynamics of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with the assistance of fractional calculus. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, which gradually results in interrupting the normal thyroid operation. Consequently, the feedback control of the system gets disrupted due to thyroid follicle cell lysis. And, the patient perceives life-threatening clinical conditions like goiter, hyperactivity, euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism, etc. In this work, we aim to obtain the approximate solution to the posed fractional-order problem describing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. We employ the Adomian decomposition method to solve the system of fractional-order differential equations, and the solutions obtained shall be useful to provide information about the effect of medical care. The numerical technique is executed in an organized manner to furnish the associated details of the progression of the disease and to visualize it graphically with suitable plots.

Keywords: adomian decomposition method, fractional derivatives, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, mathematical modeling

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15824 Solutions of Fractional Reaction-Diffusion Equations Used to Model the Growth and Spreading of Biological Species

Authors: Kamel Al-Khaled

Abstract:

Reaction-diffusion equations are commonly used in population biology to model the spread of biological species. In this paper, we propose a fractional reaction-diffusion equation, where the classical second derivative diffusion term is replaced by a fractional derivative of order less than two. Based on the symbolic computation system Mathematica, Adomian decomposition method, developed for fractional differential equations, is directly extended to derive explicit and numerical solutions of space fractional reaction-diffusion equations. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Finally, the recent appearance of fractional reaction-diffusion equations as models in some fields such as cell biology, chemistry, physics, and finance, makes it necessary to apply the results reported here to some numerical examples.

Keywords: fractional partial differential equations, reaction-diffusion equations, adomian decomposition, biological species

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15823 Inverse Prediction of Thermal Parameters of an Annular Hyperbolic Fin Subjected to Thermal Stresses

Authors: Ashis Mallick, Rajeev Ranjan

Abstract:

The closed form solution for thermal stresses in an annular fin with hyperbolic profile is derived using Adomian decomposition method (ADM). The conductive-convective fin with variable thermal conductivity is considered in the analysis. The nonlinear heat transfer equation is efficiently solved by ADM considering insulated convective boundary conditions at the tip of fin. The constant of integration in the solution is to be estimated using minimum decomposition error method. The solution of temperature field is represented in a polynomial form for convenience to use in thermo-elasticity equation. The non-dimensional thermal stress fields are obtained using the ADM solution of temperature field coupled with the thermo-elasticity solution. The influence of the various thermal parameters in temperature field and stress fields are presented. In order to show the accuracy of the ADM solution, the present results are compared with the results available in literature. The stress fields in fin with hyperbolic profile are compared with those of uniform thickness profile. Result shows that hyperbolic fin profile is better choice for enhancing heat transfer. Moreover, less thermal stresses are developed in hyperbolic profile as compared to rectangular profile. Next, Nelder-Mead based simplex search method is employed for the inverse estimation of unknown non-dimensional thermal parameters in a given stress fields. Owing to the correlated nature of the unknowns, the best combinations of the model parameters which are satisfying the predefined stress field are to be estimated. The stress fields calculated using the inverse parameters give a very good agreement with the stress fields obtained from the forward solution. The estimated parameters are suitable to use for efficient and cost effective fin designing.

Keywords: Adomian decomposition, inverse analysis, hyperbolic fin, variable thermal conductivity

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15822 Cooperative Coevolution for Neuro-Evolution of Feed Forward Networks for Time Series Prediction Using Hidden Neuron Connections

Authors: Ravneil Nand

Abstract:

Cooperative coevolution uses problem decomposition methods to solve a larger problem. The problem decomposition deals with breaking down the larger problem into a number of smaller sub-problems depending on their method. Different problem decomposition methods have their own strengths and limitations depending on the neural network used and application problem. In this paper we are introducing a new problem decomposition method known as Hidden-Neuron Level Decomposition (HNL). The HNL method is competing with established problem decomposition method in time series prediction. The results show that the proposed approach has improved the results in some benchmark data sets when compared to the standalone method and has competitive results when compared to methods from literature.

Keywords: cooperative coevaluation, feed forward network, problem decomposition, neuron, synapse

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15821 Transient Heat Transfer of a Spiral Fin

Authors: Sen-Yung Lee, Li-Kuo Chou, Chao-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

In this study, the problem of temperature transient response of a spiral fin, with its end insulated, is analyzed with base end subjected to a variation of fluid temperature. The hybrid method of Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method-Padé, is applied to the temperature transient response of the fin, the result of the temperature distribution and the heat flux at the base of the spiral fin are obtained, show a good agreement in the physical phenomenon.

Keywords: Laplace transforms, Adomian decomposed method- Padé, transient response, heat transfer

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15820 Caputo-Type Fuzzy Fractional Riccati Differential Equations with Fuzzy Initial Conditions

Authors: Trilok Mathur, Shivi Agarwal

Abstract:

This paper deals with the solutions of fuzzy-fractional-order Riccati equations under Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivatives. The Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivatives are defined based on Hukuhura difference and strongly generalized fuzzy differentiability. The Laplace-Adomian-Pade method is used for solving fractional Riccati-type initial value differential equations of fractional order. Moreover, we also displayed some examples to illustrate our methods.

Keywords: Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivative, Fractional Riccati differential equations, Laplace-Adomian-Pade method, Mittag Leffler function

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15819 HD-WSComp: Hypergraph Decomposition for Web Services Composition Based on QoS

Authors: Samah Benmerbi, Kamal Amroun, Abdelkamel Tari

Abstract:

The increasing number of Web service (WS)providers throughout the globe, have produced numerous Web services providing the same or similar functionality. Therefore, there is a need of tools developing the best answer of queries by selecting and composing services with total transparency. This paper reviews various QoS based Web service selection mechanisms and architectures which facilitate qualitatively optimal selection, in other fact Web service composition is required when a request cannot be fulfilled by a single web service. In such cases, it is preferable to integrate existing web services to satisfy user’s request. We introduce an automatic Web service composition method based on hypergraph decomposition using hypertree decomposition method. The problem of selection and the composition of the web services is transformed into a resolution in a hypertree by exploring the relations of dependency between web services to get composite web service via employing an execution order of WS satisfying global request.

Keywords: web service, web service selection, web service composition, QoS, hypergraph decomposition, BE hypergraph decomposition, hypertree resolution

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15818 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

Authors: R. B. Ogunrinde, C. C. Jibunoh

Abstract:

In this paper, a spectral decomposition method is developed for the direct integration of stiff and nonstiff homogeneous linear (ODE) systems with linear, constant, or zero right hand sides (RHSs). The method does not require iteration but obtains solutions at any random points of t, by direct evaluation, in the interval of integration. All the numerical solutions obtained for the class of systems coincide with the exact theoretical solutions. In particular, solutions of homogeneous linear systems, i.e. with zero RHS, conform to the exact analytical solutions of the systems in terms of t.

Keywords: spectral decomposition, linear RHS, homogeneous linear systems, eigenvalues of the Jacobian

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15817 Blind Channel Estimation for Frequency Hopping System Using Subspace Based Method

Authors: M. M. Qasaymeh, M. A. Khodeir

Abstract:

Subspace channel estimation methods have been studied widely. It depends on subspace decomposition of the covariance matrix to separate signal subspace from noise subspace. The decomposition normally is done by either Eigenvalue Decomposition (EVD) or Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the Auto-Correlation matrix (ACM). However, the subspace decomposition process is computationally expensive. In this paper, the multipath channel estimation problem for a Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH) system using noise space based method is considered. An efficient method to estimate multipath the time delays basically is proposed, by applying MUltiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which used the null space extracted by the Rank Revealing LU factorization (RRLU). The RRLU provides accurate information about the rank and the numerical null space which make it a valuable tool in numerical linear algebra. The proposed novel method decreases the computational complexity approximately to the half compared with RRQR methods keeping the same performance. Computer simulations are also included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: frequency hopping, channel model, time delay estimation, RRLU, RRQR, MUSIC, LS-ESPRIT

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15816 Approximate Solution to Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation with Harmonic Oscillator by Elzaki Decomposition Method

Authors: Emad K. Jaradat, Ala’a Al-Faqih

Abstract:

Nonlinear Schrödinger equations are regularly experienced in numerous parts of science and designing. Varieties of analytical methods have been proposed for solving these equations. In this work, we construct an approximate solution for the nonlinear Schrodinger equations, with harmonic oscillator potential, by Elzaki Decomposition Method (EDM). To illustrate the effects of harmonic oscillator on the behavior wave function, nonlinear Schrodinger equation in one and two dimensions is provided. The results show that, it is more perfectly convenient and easy to apply the EDM in one- and two-dimensional Schrodinger equation.

Keywords: non-linear Schrodinger equation, Elzaki decomposition method, harmonic oscillator, one and two-dimensional Schrodinger equation

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15815 Secure Image Retrieval Based on Orthogonal Decomposition under Cloud Environment

Authors: Y. Xu, L. Xiong, Z. Xu

Abstract:

In order to protect data privacy, image with sensitive or private information needs to be encrypted before being outsourced to the cloud. However, this causes difficulties in image retrieval and data management. A secure image retrieval method based on orthogonal decomposition is proposed in the paper. The image is divided into two different components, for which encryption and feature extraction are executed separately. As a result, cloud server can extract features from an encrypted image directly and compare them with the features of the queried images, so that the user can thus obtain the image. Different from other methods, the proposed method has no special requirements to encryption algorithms. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can achieve better security and better retrieval precision.

Keywords: secure image retrieval, secure search, orthogonal decomposition, secure cloud computing

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15814 Feature Extraction Technique for Prediction the Antigenic Variants of the Influenza Virus

Authors: Majid Forghani, Michael Khachay

Abstract:

In genetics, the impact of neighboring amino acids on a target site is referred as the nearest-neighbor effect or simply neighbor effect. In this paper, a new method called wavelet particle decomposition representing the one-dimensional neighbor effect using wavelet packet decomposition is proposed. The main idea lies in known dependence of wavelet packet sub-bands on location and order of neighboring samples. The method decomposes the value of a signal sample into small values called particles that represent a part of the neighbor effect information. The results have shown that the information obtained from the particle decomposition can be used to create better model variables or features. As an example, the approach has been applied to improve the correlation of test and reference sequence distance with titer in the hemagglutination inhibition assay.

Keywords: antigenic variants, neighbor effect, wavelet packet, wavelet particle decomposition

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15813 A Study on Kinetic of Nitrous Oxide Catalytic Decomposition over CuO/HZSM-5

Authors: Y. J. Song, Q. S. Xu, X. C. Wang, H. Wang, C. Q. Li

Abstract:

The catalyst of copper oxide loaded on HZSM-5 was developed for nitrous oxide (N₂O) direct decomposition. The kinetic of nitrous oxide decomposition was studied for CuO/HZSM-5 catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The external and internal diffusion of catalytic reaction were considered in the investigation. Experiment results indicated that the external diffusion was basically eliminated when the reaction gas mixture gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was higher than 9000h⁻¹ and the influence of the internal diffusion was negligible when the particle size of the catalyst CuO/HZSM-5 was small than 40-60 mesh. The experiment results showed that the kinetic of catalytic decomposition of N₂O was a first-order reaction and the activation energy and the pre-factor of the kinetic equation were 115.15kJ/mol and of 1.6×109, respectively.

Keywords: catalytic decomposition, CuO/HZSM-5, kinetic, nitrous oxide

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15812 Analysis of Dynamics Underlying the Observation Time Series by Using a Singular Spectrum Approach

Authors: O. Delage, H. Bencherif, T. Portafaix, A. Bourdier

Abstract:

The main purpose of time series analysis is to learn about the dynamics behind some time ordered measurement data. Two approaches are used in the literature to get a better knowledge of the dynamics contained in observation data sequences. The first of these approaches concerns time series decomposition, which is an important analysis step allowing patterns and behaviors to be extracted as components providing insight into the mechanisms producing the time series. As in many cases, time series are short, noisy, and non-stationary. To provide components which are physically meaningful, methods such as Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) or, more recently, Empirical Adaptive Wavelet Decomposition (EAWD) have been proposed. The second approach is to reconstruct the dynamics underlying the time series as a trajectory in state space by mapping a time series into a set of Rᵐ lag vectors by using the method of delays (MOD). Takens has proved that the trajectory obtained with the MOD technic is equivalent to the trajectory representing the dynamics behind the original time series. This work introduces the singular spectrum decomposition (SSD), which is a new adaptive method for decomposing non-linear and non-stationary time series in narrow-banded components. This method takes its origin from singular spectrum analysis (SSA), a nonparametric spectral estimation method used for the analysis and prediction of time series. As the first step of SSD is to constitute a trajectory matrix by embedding a one-dimensional time series into a set of lagged vectors, SSD can also be seen as a reconstruction method like MOD. We will first give a brief overview of the existing decomposition methods (EMD-EWT-EAWD). The SSD method will then be described in detail and applied to experimental time series of observations resulting from total columns of ozone measurements. The results obtained will be compared with those provided by the previously mentioned decomposition methods. We will also compare the reconstruction qualities of the observed dynamics obtained from the SSD and MOD methods.

Keywords: time series analysis, adaptive time series decomposition, wavelet, phase space reconstruction, singular spectrum analysis

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15811 Thermal Decomposition Behaviors of Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) Using Zeolite/Calcium Oxide Mixtures

Authors: Kazunori Takai, Weng Kaiwei, Sadao Araki, Hideki Yamamoto

Abstract:

HFC and PFC gases have been commonly and widely used as refrigerant of air conditioner and as etching agent of semiconductor manufacturing process, because of their higher heat of vaporization and chemical stability. On the other hand, HFCs and PFCs gases have the high global warming effect on the earth. Therefore, we have to be decomposed these gases emitted from chemical apparatus like as refrigerator. Until now, disposal of these gases were carried out by using combustion method like as Rotary kiln treatment mainly. However, this treatment needs extremely high temperature over 1000 °C. In the recent year, in order to reduce the energy consumption, a hydrolytic decomposition method using catalyst and plasma decomposition treatment have been attracted much attention as a new disposal treatment. However, the decomposition of fluorine-containing gases under the wet condition is not able to avoid the generation of hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid is corrosive gas and it deteriorates catalysts in the decomposition process. Moreover, an additional process for the neutralization of hydrofluoric acid is also indispensable. In this study, the decomposition of C2F6 using zeolite and zeolite/CaO mixture as reactant was evaluated in the dry condition at 923 K. The effect of the chemical structure of zeolite on the decomposition reaction was confirmed by using H-Y, H-Beta, H-MOR and H-ZSM-5. The formation of CaF2 in zeolite/CaO mixtures after the decomposition reaction was confirmed by XRD measurements. The decomposition of C2F6 using zeolite as reactant showed the closely similar behaviors regardless the type of zeolite (MOR, Y, ZSM-5, Beta type). There was no difference of XRD patterns of each zeolite before and after reaction. On the other hand, the difference in the C2F6 decomposition for each zeolite/CaO mixtures was observed. These results suggested that the rate-determining process for the C2F6 decomposition on zeolite alone is the removal of fluorine from reactive site. In other words, the C2F6 decomposition for the zeolite/CaO improved compared with that for the zeolite alone by the removal of the fluorite from reactive site. HMOR/CaO showed 100% of the decomposition for 3.5 h and significantly improved from zeolite alone. On the other hand, Y type zeolite showed no improvement, that is, the almost same value of Y type zeolite alone. The descending order of C2F6 decomposition was MOR, ZSM-5, beta and Y type zeolite. This order is similar to the acid strength characterized by NH3-TPD. Hence, it is considered that the C-F bond cleavage is closely related to the acid strength.

Keywords: hexafluoroethane, zeolite, calcium oxide, decomposition

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15810 Carbon Supported Cu and TiO2 Catalysts Applied for Ozone Decomposition

Authors: Katya Milenova, Penko Nikolov, Irina Stambolova, Plamen Nikolov, Vladimir Blaskov

Abstract:

In the recent article, a comparison was made between Cu and TiO2 supported catalysts on activated carbon for ozone decomposition reaction. The activated carbon support in the case of TiO2/AC sample was prepared by physicochemical pyrolysis and for Cu/AC samples the supports are chemically modified carbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The samples were annealed in two different regimes-in air and under vacuum. To examine adsorption efficiency of the samples BET method was used. All investigated catalysts supported on chemically modified carbons have higher specific surface area compared to the specific surface area of TiO2 supported catalysts, varying in the range 590÷620 m2/g. The method of synthesis of the precursors had influenced catalytic activity.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, copper, ozone decomposition, TiO2

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15809 Comparison of Effect of Promoter and K Addition of Co₃O₄ for N₂O Decomposition Reaction

Authors: R. H. Hwang, J. H. Park, K. B. Yi

Abstract:

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is now distinguished as an environmental pollutant. N2O is one of the representative greenhouse gases and N2O is produced by both natural and anthropogenic sources. So, it is very important to reduce N2O. N2O abatement processes are various processes such as HC-SCR, NH3-SCR and decomposition process. Among them, decomposition process is advantageous because it does not use a reducing agent. N2O decomposition is a reaction in which N2O is decomposed into N2 and O2. There are noble metals, transition metal ion-exchanged zeolites, pure and mixed oxides for N2O decomposition catalyst. Among the various catalysts, cobalt-based catalysts derived from hydrotalcites gathered much attention because spinel catalysts having large surface areas and high thermal stabilities. In this study, the effect of promoter and K addition on the activity was compared and analyzed. Co3O4 catalysts for N2O decomposition were prepared by co- precipitation method. Ce and Zr were added during the preparation of the catalyst as promoter with the molar ratio (Ce or Zr) / Co = 0.05. In addition, 1 wt% K2CO3 was doped to the prepared catalyst with impregnation method to investigate the effect of K on the catalyst performance. Characterizations of catalysts were carried out with SEM, BET, XRD, XPS and H2-TPR. The catalytic activity tests were carried out at a GHSV of 45,000 h-1 and a temperature range of 250 ~ 375 ℃. The Co3O4 catalysts showed a spinel crystal phase, and the addition of the promoter increased the specific surface area and reduced the particle and crystal size. It was exhibited that the doping of K improves the catalytic activity by increasing the concentration of Co2+ in the catalyst which is an active site for catalytic reaction. As a result, the K-doped catalyst showed higher activity than the promoter added. Also, it was found through experiments that Co2+ concentration and reduction temperature greatly affect the reactivity.

Keywords: Co₃O4, K-doped, N₂O decomposition, promoter

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15808 Forecasting Amman Stock Market Data Using a Hybrid Method

Authors: Ahmad Awajan, Sadam Al Wadi

Abstract:

In this study, a hybrid method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Holt-Winter (EMD-HW) is used to forecast Amman stock market data. First, the data are decomposed by EMD method into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) and residual components. Then, all components are forecasted by HW technique. Finally, forecasting values are aggregated together to get the forecasting value of stock market data. Empirical results showed that the EMD- HW outperform individual forecasting models. The strength of this EMD-HW lies in its ability to forecast non-stationary and non- linear time series without a need to use any transformation method. Moreover, EMD-HW has a relatively high accuracy comparing with eight existing forecasting methods based on the five forecast error measures.

Keywords: Holt-Winter method, empirical mode decomposition, forecasting, time series

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15807 Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Singular Value Decomposition of an Impulse Response Function

Authors: Rogelio Luck, Yucheng Liu

Abstract:

This paper proposes the continuous-time singular value decomposition (SVD) for the impulse response function, a special kind of Green’s functions e⁻⁽ᵗ⁻ ᵀ⁾, in order to find a set of singular functions and singular values so that the convolutions of such function with the set of singular functions on a specified domain are the solutions to the inhomogeneous differential equations for those singular functions. A numerical example was illustrated to verify the proposed method. Besides the continuous-time SVD, a discrete-time SVD is also presented for the impulse response function, which is modeled using a Toeplitz matrix in the discrete system. The proposed method has broad applications in signal processing, dynamic system analysis, acoustic analysis, thermal analysis, as well as macroeconomic modeling.

Keywords: singular value decomposition, impulse response function, Green’s function , Toeplitz matrix , Hankel matrix

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15806 Automated Ultrasound Carotid Artery Image Segmentation Using Curvelet Threshold Decomposition

Authors: Latha Subbiah, Dhanalakshmi Samiappan

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose denoising Common Carotid Artery (CCA) B mode ultrasound images by a decomposition approach to curvelet thresholding and automatic segmentation of the intima media thickness and adventitia boundary. By decomposition, the local geometry of the image, its direction of gradients are well preserved. The components are combined into a single vector valued function, thus removes noise patches. Double threshold is applied to inherently remove speckle noise in the image. The denoised image is segmented by active contour without specifying seed points. Combined with level set theory, they provide sub regions with continuous boundaries. The deformable contours match to the shapes and motion of objects in the images. A curve or a surface under constraints is developed from the image with the goal that it is pulled into the necessary features of the image. Region based and boundary based information are integrated to achieve the contour. The method treats the multiplicative speckle noise in objective and subjective quality measurements and thus leads to better-segmented results. The proposed denoising method gives better performance metrics compared with other state of art denoising algorithms.

Keywords: curvelet, decomposition, levelset, ultrasound

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