Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Giovanni Incerti

34 Lumped Parameter Models for Numerical Simulation of The Dynamic Response of Hoisting Appliances

Authors: Candida Petrogalli, Giovanni Incerti, Luigi Solazzi


This paper describes three lumped parameters models for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a boom crane. The models proposed here allow evaluating the fluctuations of the load arising from the rope and structure elasticity and from the type of the motion command imposed by the winch. A calculation software was developed in order to determine the actual acceleration of the lifted mass and the dynamic overload during the lifting phase. Some application examples are presented, with the aim of showing the correlation between the magnitude of the stress and the type of the employed motion command.

Keywords: crane, dynamic model, overloading condition, vibration

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33 Motion Planning of SCARA Robots for Trajectory Tracking

Authors: Giovanni Incerti


The paper presents a method for a simple and immediate motion planning of a SCARA robot, whose end-effector has to move along a given trajectory; the calculation procedure requires the user to define in analytical form or by points the trajectory to be followed and to assign the curvilinear abscissa as function of the time. On the basis of the geometrical characteristics of the robot, a specifically developed program determines the motion laws of the actuators that enable the robot to generate the required movement; this software can be used in all industrial applications for which a SCARA robot has to be frequently reprogrammed, in order to generate various types of trajectories with different motion times.

Keywords: motion planning, SCARA robot, trajectory tracking, analytical form

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32 A Model for Analyzing the Startup Dynamics of a Belt Transmission Driven by a DC Motor

Authors: Giovanni Incerti


In this paper the dynamic behavior of a synchronous belt drive during start-up is analyzed and discussed. Besides considering the belt elasticity, the mathematical model here proposed also takes into consideration the electrical behaviour of the DC motor. The solution of the motion equations is obtained by means of the modal analysis in state space, which allows to obtain the decoupling of all equations of the mathematical model without introducing the hypothesis of proportional damping. The mathematical model of the transmission and the solution algorithms have been implemented within a computing software that allows the user to simulate the dynamics of the system and to evaluate the effects due to the elasticity of the belt branches and to the electromagnetic behavior of the DC motor. In order to show the details of the calculation procedure, the paper presents a case study developed with the aid of the abovementioned software.

Keywords: belt drive, vibrations, startup, DC motor

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31 Contemporary Anti-Gypsyism in European Mass Media

Authors: Elisabetta Di Giovanni


This paper focuses on the contemporary phenomenon of Anti-Gypsyism which is widely diffused on social representations of the so called 'Gypsies'. In Europe and especially in Italy, media tend to reproduce racist stereotypes and prejudices through a xenophobic depiction of this ethnic group, often offering an ethnocentric point of view. From an anthropological perspective, Roma people are a minority group actually facing diasporic phenomena in all Europe, produced by the host society.

Keywords: Roma people, anti-gypsyism, ethnocentrism, mass media

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30 The Buccal Fat Pad for Closure of Oroantral Communication

Authors: Stefano A. Denes, Riccardo Tieghi, Giovanni Elia


The buccal fat pad is a well-established tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery and its use has proved of value for the closure of oroantral communications. Oroantral communication may be a common complication after sequestrectomy in "Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws". We report a clinical case of a 70-year-old female patient in bisphosphonate therapy presented with right maxillary sinusitis and oroantral communication after implants insertion. The buccal fat pad was used to close the defect. The case had an uneventful postoperative healing without dehiscence, infection and necrosis. We postulate that the primary closure of the site with buccal fat pad may ensure a sufficient blood supply and adequate protection for an effective bone-healing response to occur.

Keywords: buccal fat pad, oroantral communication, oral surgery, dehiscence

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29 Predicting Student Performance Based on Coding Behavior in STEAMplug

Authors: Giovanni Gonzalez Araujo, Michael Kyrilov, Angelo Kyrilov


STEAMplug is a web-based innovative educational platform which makes teaching easier and learning more effective. It requires no setup, eliminating the barriers to entry, allowing students to focus on their learning throughreal-world development environments. The student-centric tools enable easy collaboration between peers and teachers. Analyzing user interactions with the system enables us to predict student performance and identify at-risk students, allowing early instructor intervention.

Keywords: plagiarism detection, identifying at-Risk Students, education technology, e-learning system, collaborative development, learning and teaching with technology

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28 Sparse Principal Component Analysis: A Least Squares Approximation Approach

Authors: Giovanni Merola


Sparse Principal Components Analysis aims to find principal components with few non-zero loadings. We derive such sparse solutions by adding a genuine sparsity requirement to the original Principal Components Analysis (PCA) objective function. This approach differs from others because it preserves PCA's original optimality: uncorrelatedness of the components and least squares approximation of the data. To identify the best subset of non-zero loadings we propose a branch-and-bound search and an iterative elimination algorithm. This last algorithm finds sparse solutions with large loadings and can be run without specifying the cardinality of the loadings and the number of components to compute in advance. We give thorough comparisons with the existing sparse PCA methods and several examples on real datasets.

Keywords: SPCA, uncorrelated components, branch-and-bound, backward elimination

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27 Methodology for Obtaining Static Alignment Model

Authors: Lely A. Luengas, Pedro R. Vizcaya, Giovanni Sánchez


In this paper, a methodology is presented to obtain the Static Alignment Model for any transtibial amputee person. The proposed methodology starts from experimental data collected on the Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, Colombia. The effects of transtibial prosthesis malalignment on amputees were measured in terms of joint angles, center of pressure (COP) and weight distribution. Some statistical tools are used to obtain the model parameters. Mathematical predictive models of prosthetic alignment were created. The proposed models are validated in amputees and finding promising results for the prosthesis Static Alignment. Static alignment process is unique to each subject; nevertheless the proposed methodology can be used in each transtibial amputee.

Keywords: information theory, prediction model, prosthetic alignment, transtibial prosthesis

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26 Predicting Machine-Down of Woodworking Industrial Machines

Authors: Matteo Calabrese, Martin Cimmino, Dimos Kapetis, Martina Manfrin, Donato Concilio, Giuseppe Toscano, Giovanni Ciandrini, Giancarlo Paccapeli, Gianluca Giarratana, Marco Siciliano, Andrea Forlani, Alberto Carrotta


In this paper we describe a machine learning methodology for Predictive Maintenance (PdM) applied on woodworking industrial machines. PdM is a prominent strategy consisting of all the operational techniques and actions required to ensure machine availability and to prevent a machine-down failure. One of the challenges with PdM approach is to design and develop of an embedded smart system to enable the health status of the machine. The proposed approach allows screening simultaneously multiple connected machines, thus providing real-time monitoring that can be adopted with maintenance management. This is achieved by applying temporal feature engineering techniques and training an ensemble of classification algorithms to predict Remaining Useful Lifetime of woodworking machines. The effectiveness of the methodology is demonstrated by testing an independent sample of additional woodworking machines without presenting machine down event.

Keywords: predictive maintenance, machine learning, connected machines, artificial intelligence

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25 Sport Facilities and Social Change: European Funds as an Opportunity for Urban Regeneration

Authors: Lorenzo Maiorino, Fabio Fortuna, Giovanni Panebianco, Marco Sanzari, Gabriella Arcese, Valerio Maria Paolozzi


It is well known that sport is a factor of social cohesion and the breaking down of barriers between people. From this point of view, the aim is to demonstrate how, through the (re)generation of sustainable structures, it is possible to give life to a new social, cultural, and economic pathway, where possible, in peripheral areas with problems of abandonment and degradation. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to study realities such as European programs and funds and to highlight the ways in which planning can be used to respond to critical issues such as urban decay, abandonment, and the mitigation of social differences. For this reason, the analysis will be carried out through the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) package, the Next Generation EU, the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), the Cohesion Fund, the European Social Fund, and other managed funds. The procedure will rely on sources and data of unquestionable origin, and the relation to the object of study in question will be highlighted. The project lends itself to be ambitious and exploring a further aspect of the sports theme, which, as we know, is one of the foundations for a healthy society.

Keywords: sport, social inclusion, urban regeneration, sports facilities, European funds

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24 Site Effect Observations after 2016 Amatrice Earthquake, Central Italy

Authors: Giovanni Forte, Melania De Falco, Antonio Santo


On 24th August 2016, central Italy was affected by a Mw 6.0 earthquake, representing the main shock of a long seismic sequence, which had a second shock Mw 6.6 on 26th October and lasts still nowadays. After the event, several field survey were carried out in the affected areas, which is made of historical masonry buildings. The post event reconnaissance missions were aimed at collecting information on the damage states of the buildings, the triggering of the landslides and the relationships with site effects. In this paper, the data collected after the event are analyzed considering the role of the geological and geomorphological setting and the ground motion scenario. The buildings displayed an uneven damage distribution, which was affected by both topographic and stratigraphic amplification. As pertains the landslides, which were the most recurrent among the ground failures, consisted mainly of rock falls and subordinately of translational slides. Finally, the collected knowledge showed a strong contribution of the local geological and geomorphological site condition on the resulting damage.

Keywords: Amatrice earthquake, damage states, landslides, site effects

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23 Analysis of the Diffusion Behavior of an Information and Communication Technology Platform for City Logistics

Authors: Giulio Mangano, Alberto De Marco, Giovanni Zenezini


The concept of City Logistics (CL) has emerged to improve the impacts of last mile freight distribution in urban areas. In this paper, a System Dynamics (SD) model exploring the dynamics of the diffusion of a ICT platform for CL management across different populations is proposed. For the development of the model two sources have been used. On the one hand, the major diffusion variables and feedback loops are derived from a literature review of existing diffusion models. On the other hand, the parameters are represented by the value propositions delivered by the platform as a response to some of the users’ needs. To extract the most important value propositions the Business Model Canvas approach has been used. Such approach in fact focuses on understanding how a company can create value for her target customers. These variables and parameters are thus translated into a SD diffusion model with three different populations namely municipalities, logistics service providers, and own account carriers. Results show that, the three populations under analysis fully adopt the platform within the simulation time frame, highlighting a strong demand by different stakeholders for CL projects aiming at carrying out more efficient urban logistics operations.

Keywords: city logistics, simulation, system dynamics, business model

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22 Clonal Evaluation of Malignant Mesothelioma

Authors: Sabahattin Comertpay, Sandra Pastorino, Rosanna Mezzapelle, Mika Tanji, Oriana Strianese, Andrea Napolitano, Tracey Weigel, Joseph Friedberg, Paul Sugarbaker, Thomas Krausz, Ena Wang, Amy Powers, Giovanni Gaudino, Harvey I. Pass, Fatmagul Ozcelik, Barbara L. Parsons, Haining Yang, Michele Carbone


Tumors are thought to be monoclonal in origin. This paradigm arose decades ago, primarily from the study of hematopoietic malignancies and sarcomas. The clonal origin of malignant mesothelioma (MM), a deadly cancer resistant to the current therapies, has not been investigated. Examination of the pleura from patients with MM shows often the presence of multiple pleural nodules, raising the question of whether they represent independent or metastatic growth processes. To investigate the clonality patterns of MM, we used the HUMARA (Human Androgen Receptor) assay to examine 14 sporadic and 2 familial Malignant Mesotheliomas (MM). Of 16 specimens studied, 15 were informative and 14/15 revealed two electrophoretically distinct methylated HUMARA alleles, indicating a polyclonal origin for these tumors. This discovery has important clinical implications, because an accurate assessment of tumor clonality is key to the design of novel molecular strategies for the treatment of MM.

Keywords: malignant mesothelioma, clonal origin, HUMARA, sarcomas

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21 The Determinants of Country Corruption: Unobserved Heterogeneity and Individual Choice- An empirical Application with Finite Mixture Models

Authors: Alessandra Marcelletti, Giovanni Trovato


Corruption in public offices is found to be the reflection of country-specific features, however, the exact magnitude and the statistical significance of its determinants effect has not yet been identified. The paper aims to propose an estimation method to measure the impact of country fundamentals on corruption, showing that covariates could differently affect the extent of corruption across countries. Thus, we exploit a model able to take into account different factors affecting the incentive to ask or to be asked for a bribe, coherently with the use of the Corruption Perception Index. We assume that discordant results achieved in literature may be explained by omitted hidden factors affecting the agents' decision process. Moreover, assuming homogeneous covariates effect may lead to unreliable conclusions since the country-specific environment is not accounted for. We apply a Finite Mixture Model with concomitant variables to 129 countries from 1995 to 2006, accounting for the impact of the initial conditions in the socio-economic structure on the corruption patterns. Our findings confirm the hypothesis of the decision process of accepting or asking for a bribe varies with specific country fundamental features.

Keywords: Corruption, Finite Mixture Models, Concomitant Variables, Countries Classification

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20 The Vocality of Sibyl Sanderson in Massenet’s Manon and Esclarmonde: Musical Training and Critical Response

Authors: Tamara Thompson


This presentation will address the vocality of American soprano Sibyl Sanderson (1865–1903) in Massenet’s Manon and Esclarmonde as discernible from documentary sources such as vocal treatises, annotated scores, and correspondence. These sources will then be compared and contrasted with Sanderson’s reception in French press. Sanderson sang Manon in 1888, which Massenet revised for her. She then created the role of Esclarmonde for the 1889 l'Exposition Universelle in Paris. The soprano appeared as the Byzantine Empress more than 100 times in the nine months following the premiere, which secured her fame and an international operatic career frought with controversy and criticism as well as adulation. Before her débuts as Manon and Esclarmonde, Sanderson received musical training in California and Paris from multiple teachers with varied and opposing methods. There will be an exploration of the ways in which the disparate pedagogic influences such as those taught by Giovanni Sbriglia and Jean de Reszké may have guided Sanderson’s vocal strategies, and possibly caused or promoted the severe vocal pathologies she battled in subsequent years. In addition, there is interrogation of the vocal writing and revisions made to the titular roles for Sanderson in order to assess how these factors may have affected her technique and vocal health.

Keywords: French, nineteenth-century, opera, pedagogy, vocality

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19 A Machine Learning Approach for Anomaly Detection in Environmental IoT-Driven Wastewater Purification Systems

Authors: Giovanni Cicceri, Roberta Maisano, Nathalie Morey, Salvatore Distefano


The main goal of this paper is to present a solution for a water purification system based on an Environmental Internet of Things (EIoT) platform to monitor and control water quality and machine learning (ML) models to support decision making and speed up the processes of purification of water. A real case study has been implemented by deploying an EIoT platform and a network of devices, called Gramb meters and belonging to the Gramb project, on wastewater purification systems located in Calabria, south of Italy. The data thus collected are used to control the wastewater quality, detect anomalies and predict the behaviour of the purification system. To this extent, three different statistical and machine learning models have been adopted and thus compared: Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) autoencoder, and Facebook Prophet (FP). The results demonstrated that the ML solution (LSTM) out-perform classical statistical approaches (ARIMA, FP), in terms of both accuracy, efficiency and effectiveness in monitoring and controlling the wastewater purification processes.

Keywords: environmental internet of things, EIoT, machine learning, anomaly detection, environment monitoring

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18 Systems for Air Renewal Inside Bus Bodies Importance in the Prevention of Disease Transmission

Authors: Giovanni Matheus Rech, Gilberto Zan, Filipe P. Aguiar


The current pandemic scenario raises questions that many times would have previously gone unnoticed. One of these issues is the quality of the air we breathe in the most diverse environments in which we are inserted in an everyday. It is plausible to suppose that, at times like this, there is apprehension regarding the possibility of contamination by pathological agents such as viruses and bacterias through the airways. However, the renewal of indoor air, combined with a properly sanitized air conditioning system, are important tools for the prevention of viral diseases, as is the case with COVID-19. The bus is an example of an environment where renovation is applied to improve the quality of indoor air, helping to reduce the possibility of spreading pathological agents. Together with other care, such as an alcohol gel dispenser, curtains to separate the passengers, cleaning the environment more frequently, and mandatory use of masks, help to reduce the transmission of pathologies, such as COVID-19. Knowing the reality of a large part of the population regarding the need for public transport, there are standards and devices dedicated to promoting air quality, ensuring greater comfort and safety for users. This paper seeks to present such standards and recommendations to improve the quality of indoor air, as well as the equipment responsible for the renewal of the air in the body of a bus. Experimental measurement of the flow rates of the renewal devices present in the bus body allows quantifying the average volume of external air admitted in each type of body. This way, it was possible to compare, in terms of airflow per person, the values of a bus in relation to a series of other environments, using recommendations for air renewal are described through the Brazilian standard ABNT NBR 16401.

Keywords: air quality, air renewal, buses, Covid-19

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17 Electricity Load Modeling: An Application to Italian Market

Authors: Giovanni Masala, Stefania Marica


Forecasting electricity load plays a crucial role regards decision making and planning for economical purposes. Besides, in the light of the recent privatization and deregulation of the power industry, the forecasting of future electricity load turned out to be a very challenging problem. Empirical data about electricity load highlights a clear seasonal behavior (higher load during the winter season), which is partly due to climatic effects. We also emphasize the presence of load periodicity at a weekly basis (electricity load is usually lower on weekends or holidays) and at daily basis (electricity load is clearly influenced by the hour). Finally, a long-term trend may depend on the general economic situation (for example, industrial production affects electricity load). All these features must be captured by the model. The purpose of this paper is then to build an hourly electricity load model. The deterministic component of the model requires non-linear regression and Fourier series while we will investigate the stochastic component through econometrical tools. The calibration of the parameters’ model will be performed by using data coming from the Italian market in a 6 year period (2007- 2012). Then, we will perform a Monte Carlo simulation in order to compare the simulated data respect to the real data (both in-sample and out-of-sample inspection). The reliability of the model will be deduced thanks to standard tests which highlight a good fitting of the simulated values.

Keywords: ARMA-GARCH process, electricity load, fitting tests, Fourier series, Monte Carlo simulation, non-linear regression

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16 A Radiomics Approach to Predict the Evolution of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Score 3/5 Prostate Areas in Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Natascha C. D'Amico, Enzo Grossi, Giovanni Valbusa, Ala Malasevschi, Gianpiero Cardone, Sergio Papa


Purpose: To characterize, through a radiomic approach, the nature of areas classified PI-RADS (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) 3/5, recognized in multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance with T2-weighted (T2w), diffusion and perfusion sequences with paramagnetic contrast. Methods and Materials: 24 cases undergoing multiparametric prostate MR and biopsy were admitted to this pilot study. Clinical outcome of the PI-RADS 3/5 was found through biopsy, finding 8 malignant tumours. The analysed images were acquired with a Philips achieva 1.5T machine with a CE- T2-weighted sequence in the axial plane. Semi-automatic tumour segmentation was carried out on MR images using 3DSlicer image analysis software. 45 shape-based, intensity-based and texture-based features were extracted and represented the input for preprocessing. An evolutionary algorithm (a TWIST system based on KNN algorithm) was used to subdivide the dataset into training and testing set and select features yielding the maximal amount of information. After this pre-processing 20 input variables were selected and different machine learning systems were used to develop a predictive model based on a training testing crossover procedure. Results: The best machine learning system (three-layers feed-forward neural network) obtained a global accuracy of 90% ( 80 % sensitivity and 100% specificity ) with a ROC of 0.82. Conclusion: Machine learning systems coupled with radiomics show a promising potential in distinguishing benign from malign tumours in PI-RADS 3/5 areas.

Keywords: machine learning, MR prostate, PI-Rads 3, radiomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
15 Full-Scale Shake Table Tests of a R.C. Building Equipped with an Active Mass Damper: Experimental Results and Numerical Simulations

Authors: Giovanni Rebecchi, Alberto Bussini, Fabio Menardo, Matteo Rosti


This paper presents the results of an experimental program involving shake table testing of two full-scale reinforced concrete frame buildings at the Eucentre laboratory in Pavia (Italy). These tests were conducted to investigate the effectiveness and reliability of an Active Mass Damper (AMD) that can be designed to enhance the target seismic performance of a building at multiple earthquake intensity levels. The two nominally identical case-study buildings were intentionally designed to exhibit a “soft story” mechanism at the first level when subject to ground shaking of sufficient intensity, but one was equipped with the newly proposed AMD installed on the roof. The two specimens were then subject to the same loading protocol consisting of a ground shaking sequence of varying intensity, with the seismic input consisting of a selected natural ground motion. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed AMD is extremely effective at enhancing building seismic performance. Specifically, the AMD provided peak displacement reductions in the order of 70% and was shown capable of absorbing more than 60% of the total input energy. Therefore, the un-retrofitted structure suffered nontrivial structural and non-structural damage, while the AMD-retrofitted building remained virtually undamaged at all shaking intensities considered. Therefore, numerical models of both structures have been developed using a commercial FEM software for the interpretation of the experimental results. In addition, an in-house software has been developed to run simulations that fully describe the operational mechanism of the building equipped with the active control system.

Keywords: vibration control, active mass damper, non linear dynamic analysis, experimental tests

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14 Optimum Turbomachine Preliminary Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: Sayyed Benyamin Alavi, Giovanni Cerri, Leila Chennaoui, Ambra Giovannelli, Stefano Mazzoni


Primary energy consumption and emissions of pollutants (including CO2) sustainability call to search methodologies to lower power absorption for unit of a given product. Cool production plants based on vapour compression are widely used for many applications: air conditioning, food conservation, domestic refrigerators and freezers, special industrial processes, etc. In the field of cool production, the amount of Yearly Consumed Primary Energy is enormous, thus, saving some percentage of it, leads to big worldwide impact in the energy consumption and related energy sustainability. Among various techniques to reduce power required by a Vapour Compression Cool Production Plant (VCCPP), the technique based on Power Regeneration by means of Internal Direct Cycle (IDC) will be considered in this paper. Power produced by IDC reduces power need for unit of produced Cool Power by the VCCPP. The paper contains basic concepts that lead to develop IDCs and the proposed options to use the IDC Power. Among various selections for using turbo machines, Best Economically Available Technologies (BEATs) have been explored. Based on vehicle engine turbochargers, they have been taken into consideration for this application. According to BEAT Database and similarity rules, the best turbo machine selection leads to the minimum nominal power required by VCCPP Main Compressor. Results obtained installing the prototype in “ad hoc” designed test bench will be discussed and compared with the expected performance. Forecasts for the upgrading VCCPP, various applications will be given and discussed. 4-6% saving is expected for air conditioning cooling plants and 15-22% is expected for cryogenic plants.

Keywords: Refrigeration Plant, Vapour Pressure Amplifier, Compressor, Expander, Turbine, Turbomachinery Selection, Power Saving

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13 Climate Change Effects in a Mediterranean Island and Streamflow Changes for a Small Basin Using Euro-Cordex Regional Climate Simulations Combined with the SWAT Model

Authors: Pier Andrea Marras, Daniela Lima, Pedro Matos Soares, Rita Maria Cardoso, Daniela Medas, Elisabetta Dore, Giovanni De Giudici


Climate change effects on the hydrologic cycle are the main concern for the evaluation of water management strategies. Climate models project scenarios of precipitation changes in the future, considering greenhouse emissions. In this study, the EURO-CORDEX (European Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment) climate models were first evaluated in a Mediterranean island (Sardinia) against observed precipitation for a historical reference period (1976-2005). A weighted multi-model ensemble (ENS) was built, weighting the single models based on their ability to reproduce observed rainfall. Future projections (2071-2100) were carried out using the 8.5 RCP emissions scenario to evaluate changes in precipitations. ENS was then used as climate forcing for the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), with the aim to assess the consequences of such projected changes on streamflow and runoff of two small catchments located in the South-West Sardinia. Results showed that a decrease of mean rainfall values, up to -25 % at yearly scale, is expected for the future, along with an increase of extreme precipitation events. Particularly in the eastern and southern areas, extreme events are projected to increase by 30%. Such changes reflect on the hydrologic cycle with a decrease of mean streamflow and runoff, except in spring, when runoff is projected to increase by 20-30%. These results stress that the Mediterranean is a hotspot for climate change, and the use of model tools can provide very useful information to adopt water and land management strategies to deal with such changes.

Keywords: EURO-CORDEX, climate change, hydrology, SWAT model, Sardinia, multi-model ensemble

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12 A Gold-Based Nanoformulation for Delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein for Genome Editing

Authors: Soultana Konstantinidou, Tiziana Schmidt, Elena Landi, Alessandro De Carli, Giovanni Maltinti, Darius Witt, Alicja Dziadosz, Agnieszka Lindstaedt, Michele Lai, Mauro Pistello, Valentina Cappello, Luciana Dente, Chiara Gabellini, Piotr Barski, Vittoria Raffa


CRISPR/Cas9 technology has gained the interest of researchers in the field of biotechnology for genome editing. Since its discovery as a microbial adaptive immune defense, this system has been widely adopted and is acknowledged for having a variety of applications. However, critical barriers related to safety and delivery are persisting. Here, we propose a new concept of genome engineering, which is based on a nano-formulation of Cas9. The Cas9 enzyme was conjugated to a gold nanoparticle (AuNP-Cas9). The AuNP-Cas9 maintained its cleavage efficiency in vitro, to the same extent as the ribonucleoprotein, including non-conjugated Cas9 enzyme, and showed high gene editing efficiency in vivo in zebrafish embryos. Since CRISPR/Cas9 technology is extensively used in cancer research, melanoma was selected as a validation target. Cell studies were performed in A375 human melanoma cells. Particles per se had no impact on cell metabolism and proliferation. Intriguingly, the AuNP-Cas9 internalized spontaneously in cells and localized as a single particle in the cytoplasm and organelles. More importantly, the AuNP-Cas9 showed a high nuclear localization signal. The AuNP-Cas9, overcoming the delivery difficulties of Cas9, could be used in cellular biology and localization studies. Taking advantage of the plasmonic properties of gold nanoparticles, this technology could potentially be a bio-tool for combining gene editing and photothermal therapy in cancer cells. Further work will be focused on intracellular interactions of the nano-formulation and characterization of the optical properties.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, gene editing, gold nanoparticles, nanotechnology

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11 Aero-Hydrodynamic Model for a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine

Authors: Beatrice Fenu, Francesco Niosi, Giovanni Bracco, Giuliana Mattiazzo


In recent years, Europe has seen a great development of renewable energy, in a perspective of reducing polluting emissions and transitioning to cleaner forms of energy, as established by the European Green New Deal. Wind energy has come to cover almost 15% of European electricity needs andis constantly growing. In particular, far-offshore wind turbines are attractive from the point of view of exploiting high-speed winds and high wind availability. Considering offshore wind turbine siting that combines the resources analysis, the bathymetry, environmental regulations, and maritime traffic and considering the waves influence in the stability of the platform, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the platform become fundamental for the evaluation of the performances of the turbine, especially for the pitch motion. Many platform's geometries have been studied and used in the last few years. Their concept is based upon different considerations as hydrostatic stability, material, cost and mooring system. A new method to reach a high-performances substructure for different kinds of wind turbines is proposed. The system that considers substructure, mooring, and wind turbine is implemented in Orcaflex, and the simulations are performed considering several sea states and wind speeds. An external dynamic library is implemented for the turbine control system. The study shows the comparison among different substructures and the new concepts developed. In order to validate the model, CFD simulations will be performed by mean of STAR CCM+, and a comparison between rigid and elastic body for what concerns blades and tower will be carried out. A global model will be built to predict the productivity of the floating turbine according to siting, resources, substructure, and mooring. The Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) of the system is estimated, giving a complete overview about the advantages of floating offshore wind turbine plants. Different case studies will be presented.

Keywords: aero-hydrodynamic model, computational fluid dynamics, floating offshore wind, siting, verification, and validation

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10 MIMO Radar-Based System for Structural Health Monitoring and Geophysical Applications

Authors: Davide D’Aria, Paolo Falcone, Luigi Maggi, Aldo Cero, Giovanni Amoroso


The paper presents a methodology for real-time structural health monitoring and geophysical applications. The key elements of the system are a high performance MIMO RADAR sensor, an optical camera and a dedicated set of software algorithms encompassing interferometry, tomography and photogrammetry. The MIMO Radar sensor proposed in this work, provides an extremely high sensitivity to displacements making the system able to react to tiny deformations (up to tens of microns) with a time scale which spans from milliseconds to hours. The MIMO feature of the system makes the system capable of providing a set of two-dimensional images of the observed scene, each mapped on the azimuth-range directions with noticeably resolution in both the dimensions and with an outstanding repetition rate. The back-scattered energy, which is distributed in the 3D space, is projected on a 2D plane, where each pixel has as coordinates the Line-Of-Sight distance and the cross-range azimuthal angle. At the same time, the high performing processing unit allows to sense the observed scene with remarkable refresh periods (up to milliseconds), thus opening the way for combined static and dynamic structural health monitoring. Thanks to the smart TX/RX antenna array layout, the MIMO data can be processed through a tomographic approach to reconstruct the three-dimensional map of the observed scene. This 3D point cloud is then accurately mapped on a 2D digital optical image through photogrammetric techniques, allowing for easy and straightforward interpretations of the measurements. Once the three-dimensional image is reconstructed, a 'repeat-pass' interferometric approach is exploited to provide the user of the system with high frequency three-dimensional motion/vibration estimation of each point of the reconstructed image. At this stage, the methodology leverages consolidated atmospheric correction algorithms to provide reliable displacement and vibration measurements.

Keywords: interferometry, MIMO RADAR, SAR, tomography

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9 Development of a Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Model Using System Identification Technique

Authors: Antonio Vitale, Nicola Genito, Giovanni Cuciniello, Ferdinando Montemari


The introduction of tilt-rotor aircraft into the existing civilian air transportation system will provide beneficial effects due to tilt-rotor capability to combine the characteristics of a helicopter and a fixed-wing aircraft into one vehicle. The disposability of reliable tilt-rotor simulation models supports the development of such vehicle. Indeed, simulation models are required to design automatic control systems that increase safety, reduce pilot's workload and stress, and ensure the optimal aircraft configuration with respect to flight envelope limits, especially during the most critical flight phases such as conversion from helicopter to aircraft mode and vice versa. This article presents a process to build a simplified tilt-rotor simulation model, derived from the analysis of flight data. The model aims to reproduce the complex dynamics of tilt-rotor during the in-flight conversion phase. It uses a set of scheduled linear transfer functions to relate the autopilot reference inputs to the most relevant rigid body state variables. The model also computes information about the rotor flapping dynamics, which are useful to evaluate the aircraft control margin in terms of rotor collective and cyclic commands. The rotor flapping model is derived through a mixed theoretical-empirical approach, which includes physical analytical equations (applicable to helicopter configuration) and parametric corrective functions. The latter are introduced to best fit the actual rotor behavior and balance the differences existing between helicopter and tilt-rotor during flight. Time-domain system identification from flight data is exploited to optimize the model structure and to estimate the model parameters. The presented model-building process was applied to simulated flight data of the ERICA Tilt-Rotor, generated by using a high fidelity simulation model implemented in FlightLab environment. The validation of the obtained model was very satisfying, confirming the validity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: flapping dynamics, flight dynamics, system identification, tilt-rotor modeling and simulation

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8 Application of Thermal Dimensioning Tools to Consider Different Strategies for the Disposal of High-Heat-Generating Waste

Authors: David Holton, Michelle Dickinson, Giovanni Carta


The principle of geological disposal is to isolate higher-activity radioactive wastes deep inside a suitable rock formation to ensure that no harmful quantities of radioactivity reach the surface environment. To achieve this, wastes will be placed in an engineered underground containment facility – the geological disposal facility (GDF) – which will be designed so that natural and man-made barriers work together to minimise the escape of radioactivity. Internationally, various multi-barrier concepts have been developed for the disposal of higher-activity radioactive wastes. High-heat-generating wastes (HLW, spent fuel and Pu) provide a number of different technical challenges to those associated with the disposal of low-heat-generating waste. Thermal management of the disposal system must be taken into consideration in GDF design; temperature constraints might apply to the wasteform, container, buffer and host rock. Of these, the temperature limit placed on the buffer component of the engineered barrier system (EBS) can be the most constraining factor. The heat must therefore be managed such that the properties of the buffer are not compromised to the extent that it cannot deliver the required level of safety. The maximum temperature of a buffer surrounding a container at the centre of a fixed array of heat-generating sources, arises due to heat diffusing from neighbouring heat-generating wastes, incrementally contributing to the temperature of the EBS. A range of strategies can be employed for managing heat in a GDF, including the spatial arrangements or patterns of those containers; different geometrical configurations can influence the overall thermal density in a disposal facility (or area within a facility) and therefore the maximum buffer temperature. A semi-analytical thermal dimensioning tool and methodology have been applied at a generic stage to explore a range of strategies to manage the disposal of high-heat-generating waste. A number of examples, including different geometrical layouts and chequer-boarding, have been illustrated to demonstrate how these tools can be used to consider safety margins and inform strategic disposal options when faced with uncertainty, at a generic stage of the development of a GDF.

Keywords: buffer, geological disposal facility, high-heat-generating waste, spent fuel

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7 Urban Noise and Air Quality: Correlation between Air and Noise Pollution; Sensors, Data Collection, Analysis and Mapping in Urban Planning

Authors: Massimiliano Condotta, Paolo Ruggeri, Chiara Scanagatta, Giovanni Borga


Architects and urban planners, when designing and renewing cities, have to face a complex set of problems, including the issues of noise and air pollution which are considered as hot topics (i.e., the Clean Air Act of London and the Soundscape definition). It is usually taken for granted that these problems go by together because the noise pollution present in cities is often linked to traffic and industries, and these produce air pollutants as well. Traffic congestion can create both noise pollution and air pollution, because NO₂ is mostly created from the oxidation of NO, and these two are notoriously produced by processes of combustion at high temperatures (i.e., car engines or thermal power stations). We can see the same process for industrial plants as well. What have to be investigated – and is the topic of this paper – is whether or not there really is a correlation between noise pollution and air pollution (taking into account NO₂) in urban areas. To evaluate if there is a correlation, some low-cost methodologies will be used. For noise measurements, the OpeNoise App will be installed on an Android phone. The smartphone will be positioned inside a waterproof box, to stay outdoor, with an external battery to allow it to collect data continuously. The box will have a small hole to install an external microphone, connected to the smartphone, which will be calibrated to collect the most accurate data. For air, pollution measurements will be used the AirMonitor device, an Arduino board to which the sensors, and all the other components, are plugged. After assembling the sensors, they will be coupled (one noise and one air sensor) and placed in different critical locations in the area of Mestre (Venice) to map the existing situation. The sensors will collect data for a fixed period of time to have an input for both week and weekend days, in this way it will be possible to see the changes of the situation during the week. The novelty is that data will be compared to check if there is a correlation between the two pollutants using graphs that should show the percentage of pollution instead of the values obtained with the sensors. To do so, the data will be converted to fit on a scale that goes up to 100% and will be shown thru a mapping of the measurement using GIS methods. Another relevant aspect is that this comparison can help to choose which are the right mitigation solutions to be applied in the area of the analysis because it will make it possible to solve both the noise and the air pollution problem making only one intervention. The mitigation solutions must consider not only the health aspect but also how to create a more livable space for citizens. The paper will describe in detail the methodology and the technical solution adopted for the realization of the sensors, the data collection, noise and pollution mapping and analysis.

Keywords: air quality, data analysis, data collection, NO₂, noise mapping, noise pollution, particulate matter

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6 The Importance of the Phases of Information, Diagnosis, Planning, Intervention and Management in a Historic Center

Authors: Giovanni Duran Polo


Demonstrate the importance of the stages such as Information, Diagnosis, Management, and Intervention is fundamental to have a historical, live, and quality inhabited center. One of the major actions to take is to promote the concept of the management of a historic center with harmonious development. For that, concerned actors should strengthen the concept that said historic center may be the neighborhood of all and for all. The centers of historical cities, presented as any other urban area, social, environmental issues etc; yet they get added value that have no other city neighborhoods. The equity component, either by the urban plan, or environmental quality offered properties of architectural, landscape or some land uses are the differentiating element, while the tool that makes them attractive face pressure exerted by new housing developments or shopping centers. That's why through the experience of working in historical centers, they are declared the actions in heritage areas. This paper will show how the encounter with each of these places are trying to take the phases of information, to gather all the data needed to be closer to the territory with specific data, diagnosis; which allowed the actors to see what state they were, felt how the heart is related to the rest of the city, show what problems affected the situation and what potential it had to compete in a global market. Also, to discuss the importance of the organization, as it is legal and normative basis for it have an order and a concept, when you know what can and what cannot, in an area where the citizen has many myth or history, when he wanted to intervene in protected buildings. It is also appropriate to show how it could develop the intervention phase, where the shares on the tangible elements and intervention for the protection of the heritage property are executed. The management is the final phase which will carry out all that was raised on paper, it's time to orient, explain, persuade, promote, and encourage citizens to take care of the heritage. It is profitable and also an obligation and it is not an insurmountable burden. It has to be said this is the time to pull all the cards to make the historical center and heritage becoming more alive today. It is the moment to make it more inhabited and to transformer it into a quality place, so citizens will cherish and understand the importance of such a place. Inhabited historical centers, endowments and equipment required, with trade quality, with constant cultural offer, with well-preserved buildings and tidy, modern and safe public spaces are always attractive for tourism, but first of all, the place should be conceived for citizens, otherwise everything will be doomed to failure.

Keywords: development, diagnosis, heritage historic center, intervention, management, patrimony

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5 Survival of Byzantine Heritage in Gerace, Calabria

Authors: Marcus Papandrea


Gerace survives as one of the best examples of unspoiled Byzantine heritage in Calabria and the world due to its strategic location. As the last western province of the Byzantine Empire, Calabria was not subject to the destruction or conversion of sites which took place by the Ottomans in the east or the Arabs in Sicily and North Africa. Situated ten kilometers inland atop a 500m high table mountain, Gerace overlooks the Ionian coast and is a gateway to the rugged and wild mountain interior of the Calabrian peninsula. It is only connected to the outside world by a single windy and crumbling road and, unfortunately, faces serious economic and demographic decline. Largely due to its isolation, Gerace has remained understudied and under-recognized in a country that boasts the most UNESCO sites in the world despite its wealth and high density of Byzantine monuments. In 1995, the Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox church, Bartholomew I, visited Gerace. He re-opened and blessed the ancient Byzantine church San Giovanni Crisostomo, reviving Gerace’s cultural origins and links to Byzantium. This paper examines how these links have persisted over a millennium, starting from the community’s humble origins as a refuge for ascetic monks to becoming the “city of one-hundred churches.” While little is documented or written about Gerace’s early history, this paper employs archaeological findings as well as hagiography to present valuable insight into this area which became known as the “land of the saints.” By characterizingGerace’s early Byzantine society and helping to understand its strong spiritual roots, this paper creates the basis necessary to understand the endurance of its Byzantine legacy and appreciate its important cultural contributions to the Italian Renaissance as a hub of Greek literacy which attracted great humanists from the fourteenth to fifteenth century such as Barlaam of Seminara, Simone Autumano, Bessarion, and AthanasioChalkeolopus.Inbringing together these characters, this paper propels Gerace onto the world stage as an important cultural center in medieval Mediterranean history which facilitated cross cultural interactions between Byzantine Greeks, Sicilian Arabs, Jews, and Normans. From this intersection developed a syncretism which led to modern-day Calabrian identity culture and society and is perhaps most visible in some of Gerace’s last surviving monuments from this time. While emphasizing this unassuming town’s cultural importance and unique Byzantine heritage, this paper also highlights the criteria which Gerace fulfills for being included in the World Heritage List.

Keywords: byzantine rite, greek rite, italo-greek, latinization

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