Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2072

Search results for: elite class

2072 Comparison of Competitive State Anxiety among Elite and Non-Elite Futsal Players and Its Relationship with Situational Factors

Authors: Hassan Habibi, Hossein Soltani, Amir Moghadam, Najmeh Bakhshi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare competitive state anxiety among elite and non-elite futsal players and its relationship with situational factors. 130 non-elite and 70 elite male futsal players participated in the study. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and situational factors Inventory were applied. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and product moment correlation. Results showed there was significant difference between competitive state anxiety subscales (cognitive anxiety somatic anxiety & self-confidence) and situational factors among elite and non-elite futsal players (P<0.05) but there was no significant correlations between situational factors subscales among elite and non-elite futsal players (P<0.05).

Keywords: competitive state anxiety, situational factors, elite players, non-elite players

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2071 Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Ability Profile of Elite and Non-Elite Boxers of Manipur

Authors: Anthropometric, Physical Fitness Ability Profile of Elite, Non-Elite Boxers of Manipur

Abstract:

Background: Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports where different anthropological and fitness ability parameters determine performance. It is characterized by short duration, high intensity bursts of activity. The purpose of this research was to determine anthropometric and physical fitness profile of male elite and non-elite boxers of Manipur and to compare the two groups. Materials and Methods: Nineteen subjects were selected as elite boxers and twenty-four were non-elite boxers of Manipur. A cross-sectional study was conducted on anthropometric measurements and physical fitness ability tests on 33 subjects (elite and non-elite boxers). Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistics, t-test and logistic regression with the help of SPSS version 15 software. Results: Results showed elite boxers have significantly reduced neck girth and calf girth as compare to non-elite boxers. Elite boxers have significantly lower sub scapular skin fold (SSF) and supra iliac skin fold (SISF) than their counterparts. Higher stature, larger BTB and lower percent fat are associated with higher performance in boxing. Sit ups (SU), standing Broad Jump (SBJ), Plat taping (PT), Sit and reach (SAR) and Harvard Step Test (HST) are predicted as most contributing factors enhancing performance level among the physical fitness components. Elite boxers are found to have more functional strength (sit ups), higher explosive strength (SBJ), more agility (PT), cardio-vascular endurance and flexibility (SAR) than non-elite boxers. Conclusion: In conclusion, lower fat, higher lean body mass, larger bi-trochantric breadth, high explosive strength, agility and flexibility are significantly associated with higher performance and chance of becoming elite boxers.

Keywords: anthropometry, elite and non-elite boxers, Manipur, physical fitness

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2070 Reducing Anxiety in Elite Athletes: The Effects of Implementing a Moderate Running Regimen, a Literature Review

Authors: Spencer C. Pratt

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Anxiety is an emotional response that many, if not all, elite athletes struggle with on a daily basis. Recently, attention has been drawn to the strong need for athletes to receive mental training in order to help remedy the situation. The conceptual paper explores the effectiveness of a mental training component, based on the anxiolytic effects of exercise by investigating the positive relationship between physical activity and mental health through a comprehensive literature review. The review synthesizes pertinent research regarding the need for mental skills training among elite athletes and the anxiolytic effects of exercise. The paper concludes that with clear positive results from further experimentation with a (moderate intensity) running regimen, a wide range of elite athletes experiencing anxiety problems may have a viable solution.

Keywords: anxiety, mental training component, anxiolytic effects, elite athletes, moderate intensity running, mental skills training, running regimen

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2069 The Prevalence of Cardiac Events in Elite Athletes of International Triathlon Sports Disciplines: An Internet-based Study From 2006-2019

Authors: Lingxia Li, Frédéric Schnell, Shuzhe Ding, Solène Le Douairon Lahaye

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Background: The prevalence of adverse cardiac events in different triathlon sports disciplines has not been determined systematically despite important cardiovascular constraints. Purpose: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiac events in world-class elite triathletes according to their sex and triathlon disciplines (aquathlon, duathlon, triathlon…) and formats (short, long, and ultra-long distance) practiced. Methods: All male and female athletes from 11 triathlon disciplines, ranked in the internationally yearly top 10 between 2006 and 2019, were included. The name of each of them was associated in Google search with selected key terms related to heart disease and/or acute cardiac events during their inclusion date. The prevalence and the hazard function of sex and triathlon disciplines and formats variation were calculated, and the difference was then compared between all triathlon sports. Results: From 1320 athletes included (male 633, female 687), 13 cases of accidents (0.98%, 95% CI: [0.45-1.52]) were identified, average age was 29.1 ± 6.4, including 2 cardiac deaths in males (0.15%, 95% CI: [0.00-0.36]), and 3 progressed congenital cardiac disease. Short-distance formats (0.95%, 95% CI: [0.12-1.78]), especially short-distance triathlon (0.39%, 95% CI: [0.08-0.70]) were most affected than long-distance (0.00%, 95% CI: [0.00-0.00]) and ultra-long distance (0.00%, 95% CI: [0.00-0.00]). Interestingly, athletes who participated in two or three types of triathlon disciplines have a higher prevalence than athletes who participated in four and five types of sports disciplines (p < 0.01). No sex difference was found in different formats and each triathlon discipline (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Athletes in short-distance formats, especially short-distance triathlon, were more affected than long-distance and ultra-long distances. Athletes who participate in short-distance formats should be closely monitored regardless of male or female.

Keywords: cardiac events, sudden cardiac arrest/death, triathlon sports disciplines, world-class elite athletes

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2068 Television Global Market: International Success of Spanish Show Elite

Authors: Ana Avila Bohorquez

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Elite (Netflix, 2018-) is the second original series produced by Netflix in Spain. Premiered in 2018, it became an international success, both critically and among audiences. Reviewers praised its use of teen drama tropes with a more progressive twist. Netflix announced that the first season had been streamed by over 20 million accounts within its first month of release. This paper aims to determine what characteristics led to Elite’s international success, finding the elements of its narrative and visual design that resonate with global audiences. After reviewing the bibliography about transnational fiction, questionnaires sent to international audience members through social media shed light on what these characteristics are. Additionally, interviews with the creative team were performed in order to compare their point of view with the audiences’ perception. Even though Elite can be considered a Spanish show from its inception, it's setting in the “fantasy” world of the rich and its lack of social realism so common among Spanish productions managed to attract global audiences, to whom it has appealed on a more emotional level.

Keywords: elite, global television, Netflix, teen drama, transnational fiction

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2067 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

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Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure

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2066 Shaping of World-Class Delhi: Politics of Marginalization and Inclusion

Authors: Aparajita Santra

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In the context of the government's vision of turning Delhi into a green, privatized and slum free city, giving it a world-class image at par with the global cities of the world, this paper investigates into the various processes and politics of things that went behind defining spaces in the city and attributing an aesthetic image to it. The paper will explore two cases that were forged primarily through the forces of one particular type of power relation. One would be to look at the modernist movement adopted by the Nehruvian government post-independence and the next case will look at special periods like Emergency and Commonwealth games. The study of these cases will help understand the ambivalence embedded in the different rationales of the Government and different powerful agencies adopted in order to build world-classness. Through the study, it will be easier to discern how city spaces were reconfigured in the name of 'good governance'. In this process, it also became important to analyze the double nature of law, both as a protector of people’s rights and as a threat to people. What was interesting to note through the study was that in the process of nation building and creating an image for the city, the government’s policies and programs were mostly aimed at the richer sections of the society and the poorer sections and people from lower income groups kept getting marginalized, subdued, and pushed further away (These marginalized people were pushed away even geographically!). The reconfiguration of city space and attributing an aesthetic character to it, led to an alteration not only in the way in which citizens perceived and engaged with these spaces, but also brought about changes in the way they envisioned their place in the city. Ironically, it was found that every attempt to build any kind of facility for the city’s elite in turn led to an inevitable removal of the marginalized sections of the society as a necessary step to achieve a clean, green and world-class city. The paper questions the claim made by the government for creating a just, equitable city and granting rights to all. An argument is put forth that in the politics of redistribution of space, the city that has been designed is meant for the aspirational middle-class and elite only, who are ideally primed to live in world-class cities. Thus, the aim is to study city spaces, urban form, the associated politics and power plays involved within and understand whether segmented cities are being built in the name of creating sensible, inclusive cities.

Keywords: aesthetics, ambivalence, governmentality, power, World-class

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2065 Experts' Opinions of Considerations for Competition Landings in Gymnastics

Authors: Helmut Geiblinger

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Dismounts performed by elite gymnasts during competition require great courage and virtuoso displays of precisely organized movements and skills. The dismount and landing leave the final impression in a routine and are often the key to a successful evaluation by the judges. Landings require precise body control and the skillful dissipation of substantial body momentum. The aim of this research study was to investigate landing techniques and strategies used by elite male gymnasts through the eyes of gymnastics experts. It drew from the accrued knowledge and experience of 21 male expert participants who were elite coaches, elite gymnasts, international judges or combinations of these. The experts made a number of subtle points, many of which are not in the extant literature. The experts highlighted concerns about safety and the study concluded that on-going monitoring of the rules on competition landings within the Code of Points would be beneficial to the sport.

Keywords: controlled competition landings, landing technique, landing strategies, optimal body segment coordination

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2064 Grit and Psychological Well-Being Among Elite Wushu Players

Authors: Guneet Inder Jit Kaur, Kuldeep Singh, Sunil G. Purohit

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Being a collective phrase for Martial arts that originated from China, Wushu is a form of self-defense and an international (Olympic) sport. Having emerged as a competitive sport, the competitions are generally in two disciplines in Wushu, namely ‘taolu,’ which refers to the forms, and ‘sanda’, which refers to the sparring. Indeed, the competition at the elite level is challenging more mentally than physically. Being masters of their games, excellence at that level is immensely defined by the mental strength characterized by perseverance and passion (grit) along with the psychological wellbeing. Thus, research attempting to understand this relationship is important. The present study was aimed to investigate the relationship between grit and psychological wellbeing among elite Wushu players. The sample of the present study comprised of 35 elite wushu players from India. Out of the 35 players, 16 were females (45.7%), and 19 were males (54.3%), and all had represented at the National and International level. 14 players were from the event of Taolu, and 21 players were from the event of Sanda. The questionnaires used were the short grit scale (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) and the flourishing scale for psychological wellbeing (Diener et. al., 2009). The statistics included Descriptive (Mean, Standard deviation) and Inferential analysis (correlation). The results highlighted the relationship between the two variables. The insights gained from this study indeed seem immensely helpful in adding to the research of the psychological profile of Elite wushu players and has implications for psychological interventions and mental training for the players.

Keywords: wushu, elite athletes, grit, psychological wellbeing, excellence

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2063 The Role of the Coach in Elite Equestrian Sport

Authors: Victoria Lewis, L. Dumbell

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The British Equestrian Federation (BEF) aims to develop a holistic coach education and certification program, moving away from traditional autocratic instruction in line with the UK Coaching Framework. This framework is based on generic coaching science research where the coach is cited as a pivotal aspect in developing sporting success. Theoretic knowledge suggests that the role of the sports coach is to develop the physical, tactical, technical and psychological attributes of the athlete and is responsible for the planning, organization and delivery of the training plan and competition schedule. However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, there is no empirical evidence to suggest that is the role required in equestrian sport as the rider takes responsibility for many of these tasks. This research aimed to address the void in current knowledge by gaining an understanding of coaching in equestrian sport in order to improve coaching education system through awareness of the role of the coach. Objectives were to examine the relationship between coach and rider at elite level in equestrian sport providing empirical evidence to suggest that the rider is, in part, ‘self –coached’. To identify the elite equestrian coaches’ role in coaching these ‘self-coached riders. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews was used. A sample of elite coaches (N=3) and elite riders (N=3) were interviewed. Analysis of the transcripts revealed a total of 534 meaning units that were further grouped into sub-themes and general themes from the coaches’ perspective and the riders’ perspective. This led to the development of a final thematic structure revealing major dimensions that characterized coaching in elite equestrian sport. It was found that the riders at the elite level coach themselves the majority of the time, therefore, can be considered as ‘self-coached’ athletes. However, they do use elite coaches in a mentoring and consultancy role, where they seek guidance from the coach on specific problems, to sound ideas off or to seek reassurance that what they are doing is correct. Findings from this research suggest that the rider-coach relationship at the elite level is a professional one, based on trust and respect, but not a close relationship as seen in other sports. The results show the imperative need for the BEF to educate coaches in coaching the self-coached rider at the elite level, particularly in terms of mentoring skills. As well as incorporating rider education aimed at developing the independent, self-coached riders.

Keywords: coaching, elite sport, equestrian, self coached

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2062 Empirical Investigation for the Correlation between Object-Oriented Class Lack of Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

The design of the internal relationships among object-oriented class members (i.e., attributes and methods) and the external relationships among classes affects the overall quality of the object-oriented software. The degree of relatedness among class members is referred to as class cohesion and the degree to which a class is related to other classes is called class coupling. Well designed classes are expected to exhibit high cohesion and low coupling values. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the relation between class cohesion and coupling. In the empirical study, five lack-of-cohesion metrics and eight coupling metrics are considered. The empirical study results show that class cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation highly depends on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: class cohesion measure, class coupling measure, object-oriented class, software quality

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2061 The Impact of University League Tables on the Development of Non-Elite Universities. A Case Study of England

Authors: Lois Cheung

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This article examines the impact of League Tables on non-elite universities in the English higher education system. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of rankings in strategic planning by low-ranked universities in this highly competitive higher education market. A sample of non-elite universities was selected for a content analysis based on the measures used by The Guardian rankings. Interestingly, these universities care about their rankings within a single national system. The content analysis appears to be an effective approach to investigating the presence of such influences. It is particularly noteworthy that all sampled universities use these measure terminologies in their strategic plans, missions and news coverage on their institutional web-pages. This analysis may be an example of the key challenges that many low-ranking universities in England are probably facing in the highly competitive and diversified higher education market. These universities use rankings to communicate with their stakeholders, mainly students, in order to fill places to secure their major source of funding. The study concludes with comments on the likely effects of the rankings paradigm in undermining the contributions of non-elite universities.

Keywords: League tables, measures, post-1992 universities, ranking, strategy

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2060 Effects of Monofin Training on Left Ventricular Performance in Elite Egyptian Children Athletes

Authors: Magdy Abouzeid

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Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Monofin training, 36 weeks, 6 times per week, 90 min/unit on left ventricular performance in elite Egyptian Monofin athletes. Background: The elite athletes are one who has superior athletic talent. Monofin swimming already provide the most efficient way of swimming for human being, it is an aquatics sport practice on the surface or under water. Methods :To study these effects,14 elite Monofin children(3 girls and 11boys) aged(11.95± 1.09yr) HT (153.07± 4.2 cm) , WT(52.4 ± 3.7 kg ) , body surface area (BSA.m2 1.48 ± 5.6 m2 ) took part in long-term Monofin Training(LTMT).All subjects underwent two-dimension and M-mode Echordiography at rest before and after(LTMT). Results: There was significant difference (P < 0.01) and percentage improvement for all echocardiography parameter after (LTMT). Inter ventricular septal thickness in diastole and in systole increased by 27.9 % and 42.75 %. Left ventricular end systolic dimension and diastole increased by 16.81 % and 42.7 % respectively. Posterior wall thickness in systole was very highly increased by 283.3 % and in diastole increased by 51.78 %. Left ventricular mass in diastole and in systole increased by 44.8 % and 40.1 % respectively. Stroke volume and resting heart rate (HR) significant changed (sv) 25 %, (HR) 14.7 %. Conclusion: Monofin training is an effective sport to enhance ‘Heart athlete's’ for children, because the unique swim fin tool and create propulsion and overcome resistance. Further researches are needed to determine the effects of Monofin training on right ventricular in child athletes.

Keywords: prepubertal, monofin training, heart athlete's, elite child athlete, echocardiography

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2059 Linguistic Codes: Food as a Class Indicator

Authors: Elena Valeryevna Pozhidaeva

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This linguistic case study is based on an interaction between the social position and foodways. In every culture there is a social hierarchical system in which there can be means to express and to identify the social status of a person. Food serves as a class indicator. The British being a verbal nation use the words as a preferred medium for signalling and recognising the social status. The linguistic analysis reflects a symbolic hierarchy determined by social groups in the UK. The linguistic class indicators of a British hierarchical system are detectable directly – in speech acts. They are articulated in every aspect of a national identity’s life from preferences of the food and the choice to call it to the names of the meals. The linguistic class indicators can as well be detected indirectly – through symbolic meaning or via the choice of the mealtime, its class (e.g the classes of tea or marmalade), the place to buy food (the class of the supermarket) and consume it (the places for eating out and the frequency of such practices). Under analysis of this study are not only food items and their names but also such categories as cutlery as a class indicator and the act of eating together as a practice of social significance and a class indicator. Current social changes and economic developments are considered and their influence on the class indicators appearance and transformation.

Keywords: linguistic, class, social indicator, English, food class

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2058 The Effect of Taekwondo on Plantar Pressure Distribution and Arch Index

Authors: Maryam Kakavand, Samira Entezari, Sara Khoshjamalfekri, Raghad Mimar

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The objective of this study is 1) to compare elite female and beginner taekwondo players in terms of plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure, and right and left longitudinal arches, and 2) to compare preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite players. To the best of authors’ knowledge, as of yet, there is no information available about the plantar pressure distribution and arch index among taekwondo players. Material and Methods: An analytical-comparative research method is applied. Therefore seven elite athletes and eight novice athletes were selected. The emed-C50 platform was used to assess plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure of different areas, and planter longitudinal arch in a second step protocol. Independent t-test and dependent t-test were used at a level of 0.05 to compare the elites and beginners' right and left feet, and preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite athletes, respectively. Results: In comparing the right and left limbs of elite and beginner groups, findings indicate that there is only a significant difference in the mean pressure of the first metatarsal of the right foot. Findings also showed a significant difference in the contact area of the toes 3, 4, 5 regions between elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups’ right and left limbs and elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs in terms of pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, and arch index. Conclusion: It seems that taekwondo exercises have affected pressure distribution patterns among advanced players causing some differences in their planter pressure distribution pattern when compared to that of beginners. Therefore, taekwondo exercises may be a factor contributing to asymmetry performance in preferred and non-preferred limbs.

Keywords: planter pressure, arch index, taekwondo, elite

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2057 Gymnastics-Oriented Training Program: Impact of 6 weeks Training on the Fitness and Performance of Basketball Players

Authors: Syed Ibrahim, Syed Muneer Ahmed

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It is a global phenomenon that fitness is a pre-requisite to the desired end of optimum efficiency in elite class basketballers achieved through appropriate conditioning program. This study was undertaken to find out the effect of gymnastic oriented training program on the physical fitness and the level of technical performance of basketball players. Method: 27 basketballers were divided into 12 experimental and 15 control groups aged between 19 to 25 years. Physical fitness tests comprising of vertical jump, push-ups, chin ups, sit ups, back strength, 30 m sprint, boomerangs test, 600 m run, sit and reach, bridge up and shoulder rotation and technical skill tests like dribbling, layup shots and rebound collection were used for the study. A pre- and post-test was conducted before and after the training program of 6 weeks. Results: The results indicated no significant difference in the anthropometric measurements of age, height and weight between the experimental and control group as the ‘t’ values observed were 0.28, 1.63 and 1.60 respectively . There were significant improvements in vertical jump, push-ups, sit-ups, modified boomerang test, bridge test and shoulder rotation index with the ‘t’ values being 2.60, 3.41, 3.91, 4.02, 3.55 and 2.33 respectively. However, no significant differences existed in chin-ups, back strength, 30 m sprint and 6000 m run with the ‘t’ values being 2.08, 1.77, 1.28 and 0.80 respectively. There was significant improvement in the post-test for the technical skills tests in the experimental group with ‘t’ values being 3.65, 2.57, and 3.62 for the dribble, layup shots and rebound collection respectively. There was no significant difference in the values of the control group except in the rebound collection which showed significant difference. Conclusion: It was found that both the physical fitness and skill proficiency of the basketballers increased through the participation in the gymnastics oriented program.

Keywords: gymnastic, technical, pre-requisite, elite class

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2056 From User's Requirements to UML Class Diagram

Authors: Zeineb Ben Azzouz, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem Karaa

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The automated extraction of UML class diagram from natural language requirements is a highly challenging task. Many approaches, frameworks and tools have been presented in this field. Nonetheless, the experiments of these tools have shown that there is no approach that can work best all the time. In this context, we propose a new accurate approach to facilitate the automatic mapping from textual requirements to UML class diagram. Our new approach integrates the best properties of statistical Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to reduce ambiguity when analysing natural language requirements text. In addition, our approach follows the best practices defined by conceptual modelling experts to determine some patterns indispensable for the extraction of basic elements and concepts of the class diagram. Once the relevant information of class diagram is captured, a XMI document is generated and imported with a CASE tool to build the corresponding UML class diagram.

Keywords: class diagram, user’s requirements, XMI, software engineering

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2055 Applications for Accounting of Inherited Object-Oriented Class Members

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

A class in an Object-Oriented (OO) system is the basic unit of design, and it encapsulates a set of attributes and methods. In OO systems, instead of redefining the attributes and methods that are included in other classes, a class can inherit these attributes and methods and only implement its unique attributes and methods, which results in reducing code redundancy and improving code testability and maintainability. Such mechanism is called Class Inheritance. However, some software engineering applications may require accounting for all the inherited class members (i.e., attributes and methods). This paper explains how to account for inherited class members and discusses the software engineering applications that require such consideration.

Keywords: class flattening, external quality attribute, inheritance, internal quality attribute, object-oriented design

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2054 The Influence of Training and Competition on Cortisol Levels and Sleep in Elite Female Athletes

Authors: Shannon O’Donnell, Matthew Driller, Gregory Jacobson, Steve Bird

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Stress hormone levels in a competition vs. training setting are yet to be evaluated in elite female athletes. The effect that these levels of stress have on subsequent sleep quality and quantity is also yet to be investigated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate different psychophysiological stress markers in competition and training environments and the subsequent effect on sleep indices in an elite female athlete population. The study involved 10 elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yrs) providing multiple salivary hormone measures and having their sleep monitored on two occasions; a match day, and a training day. The training and match were performed at the same time of day and were matched for intensity and duration. Saliva samples were collected immediately pre (5:00 pm) and post session (7:15 pm), and at 10:00 pm and were analysed for cortisol concentrations. Sleep monitoring was performed using wrist actigraphy to assess total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%) and sleep latency (SL). Cortisol levels were significantly higher (p < 0.01) immediately post the match vs post training (mean ± SD; 0.925 ± 0.341 μg/dL and 0.239 ± 0.284 μg/dL, respectively) and at 10:00pm (0.143 ± 0.085 μg/dL and 0.072 ± 0.064 μg/dL, respectively, p < 0.01). The difference between trials was associated with a very large effect (ES: 2.23) immediately post (7:15 pm) and a large effect (ES: 1.02) at 10:00 pm. There was a significant reduction in TST (mean ± SD; -117.9 ± 111.9 minutes, p < 0.01, ES: -1.89) and SE% (-7.7 ± 8.5%, p < 0.02, ES: -0.79) on the night following the netball match compared to the training session. Although not significant (p > 0.05), there was an increase in SL following the netball match v the training session (67.0 ± 51.9 minutes and 38.5 ± 29.3 minutes, respectively), which was associated with a moderate effect (ES: 0.80). The current study reports that cortisol levels are significantly higher and subsequent sleep quantity and quality is significantly reduced in elite female athletes following a match compared to a training session.

Keywords: cortisol, netball, performance, recovery

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2053 The Bully in the Boat: Discovering Co-Destructive Transformative Value in Olympic and Elite Rowers

Authors: Edwina Luck, Rory Mulcahy

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This paper explores a distinctive perspective of resources which are integrated to co-destroy transformative value in sport. Combining previously published transformative service research and sports literature with data from twenty in-depth interviews with elite and Olympic rowers, our study uncovers the co-destructive resources of ‘interpersonal misbehavior’ and ‘sport misbehavior’. We also identified transformative value in sport is multi-dimensional, encompassing important benefits that support well-being. This research has important implications for transformative sport service research, recommending the need to embrace a transformative service lens to value, a more holistic understanding of co-destruction, and the need to utilise multi-dimensional frameworks to ensure greater insights into sport and sports services and their impact on sportsperson’s well-being. Gaining this understanding will encourage sport managers, sporting bodies to justify resources that they integrate based upon their impact on co-destruction of value.

Keywords: elite sports, sport misbehavior, transformative sport service research, value co-destruction

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2052 Women Domestic Violence in Nepalese Society: A Case Study of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski

Authors: Rajani Bogati, Gopini Pathak

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Women living in husband’s home (second home) after getting married is a common culture in Nepalese society. Most of the marriages are arranged between the mutual understandings of their parents as per their cultural practice. Culturally, arranged marriage system protects women in the society. Even though, women domestic violence is also still alive in the society. It depends upon the family class, ethnicity, caste, religion etc. Lower class (poor) family always try to get marriage from the higher class (rich) family of girl and also try to send their girl in higher class family. This study analysis the freedom of women of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski district on the base of the family class of girl where she born (First home). 88% women are getting more respect in their second home if their family class of first home and second homes are same. They feel more comfortable and freedom in their second home. 79% of Women are suffering from domestic violence while the marriage between the boys from higher class and the girls from lower class. But less than 10% women are getting distress from violence if the marriage is accompanied between the girls from higher class and the boys from lower class. Less domestic violence is seem where the both families are educated, even though they are from different class. This study recommends that the society should be educated first to reduce women domestic violence.

Keywords: arranged marriage, women, family class, domestic violence

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2051 Suitability of Class F Flyash for Construction Industry: An Indian Scenario

Authors: M. N. Akhtar, J. N. Akhtar

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The present study evaluates the properties of class F fly ash as a replacement of natural materials in civil engineering construction industry. The low-lime flash similar to class F is the prime variety generated in India, although it has significantly smaller volumes of high-lime fly ash as compared to class C. The chemical and physical characterization of the sample is carried out with the number of experimental approaches in order to investigate all relevant features present in the samples. For chemical analysis, elementary quantitative results from point analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used to identify the element images of different fractions. The physical properties found very close to the range of common soils. Furthermore, the fly ash-based bricks were prepared by the same sample of class F fly ash and the results of compressive strength similar to that of Standard Clay Brick Grade 1 available in the local market of India.

Keywords: fly ash, class F, class C, chemical, physical, SEM, EDS

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2050 Degree of Approximation of Functions by Product Means

Authors: Hare Krishna Nigam

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In this paper, for the first time, (E,q)(C,2) product summability method is introduced and two quite new results on degree of approximation of the function f belonging to Lip (alpha,r)class and W(L(r), xi(t)) class by (E,q)(C,2) product means of Fourier series, has been obtained.

Keywords: Degree of approximation, (E, q)(C, 2) means, Fourier series, Lebesgue integral, Lip (alpha, r)class, W(L(r), xi(t))class of functions

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2049 Elite Child Athletes Are Our Future: Cardiac Adaptation to Monofin Training in Prepubertal Egyptian Athletes

Authors: Magdy Abouzeid, Nancy Abouzeid, Afaf Salem

Abstract:

Background: The elite child athletes are one who has superior athletic talent. Monofin (a single surface swim fin) swimming already proved to be the most efficient method of swimming for human being. This is a novel descriptive study examining myocardial function indices in prepubertal monofin children. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of long-term monofin training (LTMT), 36 weeks, 6 times per week, 90 min per unit on Myocardial function adaptation in elite child monofin athletes. Methods: 14 elite monofin children aged 11.95 years (± 1.09 yr) took part for (LTMT). All subjects underwent two-dimension, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiography before and after training to evaluate cardiac dimensions and function; septal and posterior wall thickness. Statistical methods of SPSS, means ± SD and paired t test, % of improvement were used. Findings: There was significant difference (p<0.01) and % improvement for all echocardiography parameter after (LTMT). Inter ventricular septal thickness in diastole and in systole increased by 27.9 % and 42.75 %. Left ventricular end systolic dimension and diastole increased by 16.81 % and 42.7 % respectively. Posterior wall thickness in systole very highly increased by 283.3 % and in diastole increased by 51.78 %. Left ventricular mass in diastole and in systole increased by 44.8 % and 40.1 % respectively. Stroke volume (SV) and resting heart rate (HR) significant changed (sv) 25 %, (HR) 14.7 %. Interpretation: the unique swim fin tool and create propulsion and overcome resistance. Further researches are needed to determine the effects of monofin training on right ventricular in child athletes.

Keywords: prepubertal, monofin training, heart athlete's, elite child athlete, echocardiography

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2048 Mechanical Properties of Class F Fly Ash Blended Concrete Incorporation with Natural Admixture

Authors: T. S. Ramesh Babu, D. Neeraja

Abstract:

This research work revealed that effect of Natural admixture (NAD) on Conventional Concrete (CC) and Class F Fly Ash(FA) blended concrete. Broiler hen egg white albumen and yellow yolk were used as Natural Admixture. Cement was replaced by Class F fly ash at various levels of 0%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% by its mass and NAD was added to concrete at different replacement dosages of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.00% by its volume to water content and liquid to binder ratio was maintained at 0.5. For all replacement levels of FA and NAD, the mechanical properties viz unit weight, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of CC and Class F fly ash (FA) were studied at 7, 28, 56 and 112 days. From the results, it was concluded that 0.25% of NAD dosage was considered as optimum dosage for both CC and class F fly ash blended concrete. The studies revealed that 35% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as optimum mix and 55% Class F fly ash blended concrete mix is concluded as economical mix with 0.25% NAD dosage.

Keywords: Class F fly ash, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, natural admixture, splitting tensile strength, unit weight

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2047 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia

Abstract:

This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ~72% PAE and output power of > 39 dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5 GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The load- and source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: power amplifier (PA), high power, class-J and class-E, high efficiency

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2046 The Role of Middle Class in Forming of Consumption Habits of Market Institutions among Kazakh Households in Transition Period

Authors: Daurenbek Kuleimenov, Elmira Otar

Abstract:

Market institutions extension within transit societies contributes to constituting the new type of middle class and households livelihood strategies. The middle class households as an example of prosperity in many cases encourage the ordinary ones to do the same economic actions. Therefore, practices of using market institutions by middle class households in transit societies, which are mostly characterized by huge influence of traditional attitudes, can carry habitual features for the whole society. Market institutions consumption habit of the middle class households makes them trendsetters of economic habits of other households while adapting to the market economy. Moreover different social-economic positions of households lead them to different consuming results such as worsening or improving household economy due to indebtedness.

Keywords: middle class, households, market institutions, transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2045 Promoting Critical Thinking in a Robotics Class

Authors: Ian D. Walker

Abstract:

This paper describes the creation and teaching of an undergraduate course aimed at promoting critical thinking among the students in the course. The class, Robots in Business and Society, taught at Clemson University, is open to all undergraduate students of any discipline. It is taught as part of Clemson’s online class program and is structured to promote critical thinking via a series of interactive discussion boards and assignments. Critical thinking is measured via pre- and post-testing using a benchmark standardized test. The paper will detail the class organization, and describe and discuss the results and lessons learned with respect to improvement of student critical thinking from three offerings of the class.

Keywords: critical thinking, pedagogy, robotics, undergraduate teaching

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2044 Seasonal Variation in 25(OH)D Concentration and Sprint Performance in Elite Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Robert C. Pritchett, Elizabeth Broad, Kelly L. Pritchett

Abstract:

Individuals a with spinal cord injuries have been suggested to be at risk for a 25(OH)D insufficiency. However, little is known regarding the relationship between seasonal Vitamin D status and performance in a spinally injured athletic population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was: 1) to examine the seasonal change in 25(OH)D concentrations and 2) to determine whether 25(OH)D status impacts athletic performance in US Paralympic athletes. Methods: 25 (OH)D concentrations were measured in 11 outdoor track athletes ( 5 men/6 females), between fall (October/November) and winter(February). Dietary intake and lifestyle habits were assessed via questionnaire, and performance measurements were assessed using a 20meter sprint test. 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed using a blood spot method (ZRT Laboratory). Results: There was no significant change in 25 (OH) D concentrations across seasons (P=0.505; 31 + 6.35 ng/mL, 29 + 8.72 ng/mL (mean + SD) for Fall and Winter, respectively. In the Fall,42% of the athletes had sufficient levels (>32ng/mL), and 58% were insufficient. (20ng/mL -31ng/mL) where as the winter levels dropped with 33% being sufficient and 58% being insufficient and 1% being deficient (<20ng/mL). There was a weak but significant correlation between a change in 25(OH)D concentrations, and change in 20m sprint time (p<0.05; r=0.408). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with an SCI have low vitamin D status. However, results suggest there was little seasonal variation in 25(OH)D status in elite track athletes with an SCI. Furthermore, any change that was observed demonstrated a very weak relationship with a change in performance.

Keywords: 25(oh)d, performance, spinal cord injuries, elite, sprint, concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
2043 Elite Netball Players’ Perspectives on Long Term Athlete Development Programmes in South Africa

Authors: Petrus Louis Nolte

Abstract:

University sport in South Africa is not isolated from the complexity of globalization and professionalization of sport, as it forms an integral part of the sport development environment in South Africa. In order to align their sport programmes with global and professional requirements, several universities opted to develop elite sport programmes; recruit specialized personnel such as coaches, administrators and athletes; provide expert coaching; scientific and medical services; sports testing; fitness, technical and tactical expertise; sport psychological and rehabilitation support; academic guidance and career assistance; and student-athlete accommodation. In addition, universities provide administrative support and high-quality physical resources (training facilities) for the benefit of the overall South African sport system. Although it is not compulsory for universities to develop elite sport programmes to prepare their teams for competitions, elite competitions such as the annual Varsity Sport, University Sport South Africa (USSA) and local club competitions and leagues within university international competitions where universities not only compete but also deliver players for representative national netball teams. The aim of this study is therefore to describe the perceptions of players of the university elite netball programmes they were participating in. This study adopted a descriptive design with a quantitative approach, utilizing a self-structured questionnaire as research technique. As this research formed part of a national research project for NSA with a population of 172 national and provincial netball players, a sample of 92 university netball players from the population was selected. Content validity of the self-structured questionnaire was secured through a test-retest process, with construct validity through a member of the Statistical Consultation Services (STATCON) of the University of Johannesburg that provided feedback on the structural format of the questionnaire. Reliability was measured utilising Cronbach Alpha on p<0.005 level of significance. A reliability score of 0.87 was measured. The research was approved by the Board of Netball South Africa and ethical conduct implemented according to the processes and procedures approved by the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg with clearance number REC-01-30-2019. From the results it is evident that university elite netball programmes are professional, especially with regards to the employment of knowledgeable and competent coaches and technical officials such as team managers and sport sciences staff. These professionals have access to elite training facilities, support staff, and relatively large groups of elite players, all elements of an elite programme that could enhance the national federation’s (Netball South Africa) system. Universities could serve the dual purpose of serving as university netball clubs, as well as providing elite training services and facilities as performance hubs for national players.

Keywords: elite sport programmes, university netball, player experiences, Varsity Sport netball

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