Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 133

Search results for: pre-requisite

133 An Approach in Design of Large-Scale Hydrogen Plants

Authors: Hamidreza Sahaleh

Abstract:

Because of the stringent prerequisite of low sulfur and heavier raw oil feedstock more hydrogen will be devoured in the refineries. Specifically if huge scale limits are the reaction to an expanded hydrogen request, certain configuration and building background are obliged with, which will be depicted in this paper with an illustration. Chosen procedure plan prerequisite will be recorded and portrayed in agreement to the flowsheet. Also, a determination of imaginative outline elements, similar to process condensate reuse, safe reformer start up and prerequisites will be highlighted.

Keywords: low sulfur, raw oil, refineries, flowsheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
132 Early Identification and Early Intervention: Pre and Post Diagnostic Tests in Mathematics Courses

Authors: Kailash Ghimire, Manoj Thapa

Abstract:

This study focuses on early identification of deficiencies in pre-required areas of students who are enrolled in College Algebra and Calculus I classes. The students were given pre-diagnostic tests on the first day of the class before they are provided with the syllabus. The tests consist of prerequisite, uniform and advanced content outlined by the University System of Georgia (USG). The results show that 48% of students in College Algebra are lacking prerequisite skills while 52% of Calculus I students are lacking prerequisite skills but, interestingly these students are prior exposed to uniform content and advanced content. The study is still in progress and this paper contains the outcome from Fall 2017 and Spring 2018. In this paper, early intervention used in these classes: two days vs three days meeting a week and students’ self-assessment using exam wrappers and their effectiveness on students’ learning will also be discussed. A result of this study shows that there is an improvement on Drop, Fail and Withdraw (DFW) rates by 7%-10% compared to those in previous semesters.

Keywords: student at risk, diagnostic tests, identification, intervention, normalization gain, validity of tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
131 Mathematical Knowledge a Prerequisite for Science Education Courses in Tertiary Institution

Authors: Esther Yemisi Akinjiola

Abstract:

Mathematics has been regarded as the backbone of science and technological development, without which no nation can achieve any sustainable growth and development. Mathematics is a useful tool to simplify science by quantification of phenomena; hence physics and chemistry cannot be done without Calculus and Statistics. Mathematics is used in physical science to calculate the measurement of objects and their characteristics, as well as to show the relationship between different functions and properties. Mathematics is the building block for everything in our daily lives, including the use of mobile devices, architecture design, ancient arts, engineering sports, and. among others. Therefore the study of Mathematics is made compulsory at primary, basic, and secondary school levels. Thus, this paper discusses the concepts of Mathematics, science, and their relationships. Also, it discusses Mathematics contents needed to study science-oriented courses such as physics education, chemistry education, and biology education in the tertiary institution. The paper concluded that without adequate knowledge of Mathematics, it will be difficult, if not impossible, for science education students to cope in their field of study.

Keywords: mathematical knowledge, prerequisite, science education, tertiary institution

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
130 Analysis of Legal System of Land Use in Archaeological Sites

Authors: Yen-Sheng Ho

Abstract:

It is important to actively adjust the legal system of land use in archaeological sites and the reward system to meet the needs of modern society and to solve the dilemma of government management. Under the principle of administration according to law and the principle of the clarity of law, human rights, legal orders and legitimate expectation shall be regulated. The Cultural Heritage Preservation Act has many norms related to archaeological sites in Taiwan. However, in practice, the preservation of archaeological sites still encounters many challenges. For instance, some archaeological sites have ‘management and maintenance plans’. The restrictions of land uses are not clearly defined making it difficult to determine how planting types and cultivation methods will impact the underground relics. In addition, there are questions as follows. How to coordinate the ‘site preservation plan’ with the Regional Planning Act and the Urban Planning Act? How to define preservation of land, preservation area and other uses of land or area? How to define land use in practice? How to control land use? After selecting three sites for the case investigation, this study will analyze the site’s land use status and propose the direction of land use and control methods. This study suggests that the prerequisite to limit the use of land is to determine the public interest in the preservation of the site. Another prerequisite is to establish a mechanism for permitting the use of the site and for setting the site preservation and zoning maintenance practices according to the Regional Planning Act, Urban Planning Act and other relevant rules, such as, land use zoning, land use control, land management, land maintenance, regional development and management and etc.

Keywords: archaeological site, land use and site preservation plan, regional planning, urban planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
129 Identifying Applicant Potential Through Admissions Testing

Authors: Belinda Brunner

Abstract:

Objectives: Communicate common test constructs of well-known higher education admissions tests. Discuss influences on admissions test construct definition and design and discuss research on related to factors influencing success in academic study. Discuss how admissions tests can be used to identify relevant talent. Examine how admissions test can be used to facilitate educational mobility and inform selection decisions when the prerequisite curricula is not standardized Observations: Generally speaking, constructs of admissions tests can be placed along a continuum from curriculum-related knowledge to more general reasoning abilities. For example, subject-specific achievement tests are more closely aligned to a prescribed curriculum, while reasoning tests are typically not associated with a specific curriculum. This session will draw reference from the test-constructs of well-known international higher education admissions tests, such as the UK clinical aptitude test (UKCAT) which is used for medicine and dentistry admissions. Conclusions: The purpose of academic admissions testing is to identify potential students with the prerequisite skills set needed to succeed in the academic environment, but how can the test construct help achieve this goal? Determination of the appropriate test construct for tests used in the admissions selection decisions should be influenced by a number of factors, including the preceding academic curricula, other criteria influencing the admissions decision, and the principal purpose for testing. Attendees of this session will learn the types of aptitudes and knowledge that are assessed higher education admissions tests and will have the opportunity to gain insight into how careful and deliberate consideration of the desired test constructs can aid in identifying potential students with the greatest likelihood of success in medical school.

Keywords: admissions, measuring success, selection, identify skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
128 Towards a Systematic Evaluation of Web Design

Authors: Ivayla Trifonova, Naoum Jamous, Holger Schrödl

Abstract:

A good web design is a prerequisite for a successful business nowadays, especially since the internet is the most common way for people to inform themselves. Web design includes the optical composition, the structure, and the user guidance of websites. The importance of each website leads to the question if there is a way to measure its usefulness. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the evaluation of web design. The desired outcome is to have an evaluation that is concentrated on a specific website and its target group.

Keywords: evaluation methodology, factor analysis, target group, web design

Procedia PDF Downloads 554
127 Biosphere Compatibility and Sustainable Development

Authors: Zinaida I. Ivanova, Olga V. Yudenkova

Abstract:

The article addresses the pressing need to implement the principle of the biosphere compatibility as the core prerequisite for sustainable development. The co-authors argue that a careful attitude towards the biosphere, termination of its overutilization, analysis of the ratio between the biospheric potential of a specific area and its population numbers, coupled with population regulation techniques represent the factors that may solve the problems of ecological depletion. However these problems may only be tackled through the employment of the high-quality human capital, capable of acting with account for the principles of nature conservation.

Keywords: biosphere compatibility, eco-centered conscience, human capital, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
126 English and the Question of National Language in Nigeria

Authors: Foyewa R. A.

Abstract:

This paper examined the role of English language and the quest for a national language in Nigeria. Various hindrances to the choice of a national language in Nigeria were observed. These include: The dominant role of English language, political instability and multilingual nature of the country. The writer suggested that ’’the three big’’ that is, Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba should be selected as the national languages. It was also suggested that a credit pass in a student’s mother tongue and one of “the three big” (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba) should constitute the prerequisite for admission into Nigerian higher institutions.

Keywords: English, roles of English, national language, Nigerian languages, Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba

Procedia PDF Downloads 688
125 Logistics Information and Customer Service

Authors: Š. Čemerková, M. Wilczková

Abstract:

The paper deals with the importance of information flow for providing of defined level of customer service in the firms. Setting of the criteria for the selection and implementation of logistics information system is a prerequisite for ensuring of the flow of information in firms. The decision on the selection and implementation of logistics information system is linked to the investment costs and operating costs, which are included in the total logistics costs. The article also deals with the conclusions of the research focused on the logistics information system selection in companies in the Czech Republic.

Keywords: customer service, information system, logistics, research

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
124 Learning Gains and Constraints Resulting from Haptic Sensory Feedback among Preschoolers' Engagement during Science Experimentation

Authors: Marios Papaevripidou, Yvoni Pavlou, Zacharias Zacharia

Abstract:

Embodied cognition and additional (touch) sensory channel theories indicate that physical manipulation is crucial to learning since it provides, among others, touch sensory input, which is needed for constructing knowledge. Given these theories, the use of Physical Manipulatives (PM) becomes a prerequisite for learning. On the other hand, empirical research on Virtual Manipulatives (VM) (e.g., simulations) learning has provided evidence showing that the use of PM, and thus haptic sensory input, is not always a prerequisite for learning. In order to investigate which means of experimentation, PM or VM, are required for enhancing student science learning at the kindergarten level, an empirical study was conducted that sought to investigate the impact of haptic feedback on the conceptual understanding of pre-school students (n=44, age mean=5,7) in three science domains: beam balance (D1), sinking/floating (D2) and springs (D3). The participants were equally divided in two groups according to the type of manipulatives used (PM: presence of haptic feedback, VM: absence of haptic feedback) during a semi-structured interview for each of the domains. All interviews followed the Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) strategy and consisted of three phases: initial evaluation, experimentation, final evaluation. The data collected through the interviews were analyzed qualitatively (open-coding for identifying students’ ideas in each domain) and quantitatively (use of non-parametric tests). Findings revealed that the haptic feedback enabled students to distinguish heavier to lighter objects when held in hands during experimentation. In D1 the haptic feedback did not differentiate PM and VM students' conceptual understanding of the function of the beam as a mean to compare the mass of objects. In D2 the haptic feedback appeared to have a negative impact on PM students’ learning. Feeling the weight of an object strengthen PM students’ misconception that heavier objects always sink, whereas the scientifically correct idea that the material of an object determines its sinking/floating behavior in the water was found to be significantly higher among the VM students than the PM ones. In D3 the PM students outperformed significantly the VM students with regard to the idea that the heavier an object is the more the spring will expand, indicating that the haptic input experienced by the PM students served as an advantage to their learning. These findings point to the fact that PMs, and thus touch sensory input, might not always be a requirement for science learning and that VMs could be considered, under certain circumstances, as a viable means for experimentation.

Keywords: haptic feedback, physical and virtual manipulatives, pre-school science learning, science experimentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
123 Zeros Elimination from the National Currency

Authors: Zahra Karimi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role and importance of accounting for the implementation of the VAT system in the country. For this purpose, after the evaluation of specifications and important advantages of the VAT and the experience of other countries, important role of accounting in the precise determination of taxes, strategies to prevent escape of tax and realization of tax revenues of government, necessary control to increase the efficiency and accuracy of the calculations discussed. High-dependence of government to borrowing from the banking system and inflation tax and a low general ratio of tax revenues to GDP, indicating the inadequacy of the country's tax system. It can be said that being of a proper accounting system consider as a prerequisite for successful implementation of VAT in the country. So it's crucial for accountants with responsibility announce its full fitness to meet the requirements. For successful implementation of VAT as such a multi-stage sales tax and the tax on the price.

Keywords: accounting, tax reform in Iran, Value Added Tax (VAT), economic

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
122 Internal and External Validity in Experimental Economics

Authors: Helena Chytilova, Robin Maialeh

Abstract:

Experimental economics is subject to criticism with regards to frequently discussed trade-off between internal and external validity requirements, which seems to be critically flawed. Incompatibility of trade-off condition and condition of internal validity as a prerequisite for external validity is presented. In addition, the imprecise concept of artificiality found to be rather improving external validity, seems to strengthen illusory status of external versus internal validity tension. Internal validity will be further analysed with regards to Duhem-Quine problem, where unpredictability argument is significantly weakened trough application of inductivism within the illustrative hypothetical-deductive model. Discussion outlined above partially weakens critical arguments related to robustness of results in experimental economics, if perfectly controlled experimental environment is secured.

Keywords: Duhem-Quine problem, external validity, inductivism, internal validity

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
121 Public Procurement Development Stages in Georgia

Authors: Giorgi Gaprindashvili

Abstract:

One of the best examples, in evolution of the public procurement, from post-soviet countries are reforms carried out in Georgia, which brought them close to international standards of procurement. In Georgia, public procurement legislation started functioning in 1998. The reform has passed several stages and came in the form as it is today. It should also be noted, that countries with economy in transition, including Georgia, implemented all the reforms in public procurement based on recommendations and support of World Bank, the United Nations and other international organizations. The first law on public procurement in Georgia was adopted on December 9, 1998 which aimed regulation of the procurement process of budget-organizations, transparent and competitive environment for private companies to access state funds legally. The priorities were identified quite clearly in the wording of the law, but operation/function of this law could not be reached on its level, because of some objective and subjective reasons. The high level of corruption in all levels of governance, can be considered as a main obstacle reason and of course, it is natural, that it had direct impact on the procurement process, as well as on transparency and rational use of state funds. This circumstances were the reasons that reforms in this sphere continued, to improve procurement process, in particular, the first wave of reforms began in 2001. Public procurement agency carried out reform with World Bank with main purpose of smartening the procurement legislation and its harmonization with international treaties and agreements. Also with the support of World Bank various activities were carried out to raise awareness of participants involved in procurement system. Further major changes in the legislation were filed in May 2005, which was also directed towards the improvement and smarten of the procurement process. The third wave of the reform began in 2010, which more or less guaranteed the transparency of the procurement process, which later became the basis for the rational spending of state funds. The reform of the procurement system completely changed the procedures. Carried out reform in Georgia resulted in introducing new electronic tendering system, which benefit the transparency of the process, after this became the basis for the further development of a competitive environment, which become a prerequisite for the state rational spending. Increased number of supplier organizations participating in the procurement process resulted in reduction of the estimated cost and the actual cost from 20% up to 40%, it is quite large saving for the procuring organizations and allows them to use the freed-up funds for their other needs. Assessment of the reforms in Georgia in the field of public procurement can be concluded, that proper regulation of the sector and relevant policy may proceed to rational and transparent spending of the budget from country’s state institutions. Also, the business sector has the opportunity to work in competitive market conditions and to make a preliminary analysis, which is a prerequisite for future strategy and development.

Keywords: public administration, public procurement, reforms, transparency

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
120 Obtain the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) in a Medium Containing a Penny-Shaped Crack by the Ritz Method

Authors: A. Tavangari, N. Salehzadeh

Abstract:

In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) of three-dimensional penny-Shaped crack is obtained in an isotropic elastic cylindrical medium with arbitrary dimensions under arbitrary loading at the top of the cylinder, by the semi-analytical method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This method that is based on minimizing the potential energy amount of the whole of the system, gives a very close results to the previous studies. Defining the displacements (elastic fields) by hypothetical functions in a defined coordinate system is the base of this research. So for creating the singularity conditions at the tip of the crack the appropriate terms should be found.

Keywords: penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, fracture mechanics, Ritz method

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
119 Heterogeneous Artifacts Construction for Software Evolution Control

Authors: Mounir Zekkaoui, Abdelhadi Fennan

Abstract:

The software evolution control requires a deep understanding of the changes and their impact on different system heterogeneous artifacts. And an understanding of descriptive knowledge of the developed software artifacts is a prerequisite condition for the success of the evolutionary process. The implementation of an evolutionary process is to make changes more or less important to many heterogeneous software artifacts such as source code, analysis and design models, unit testing, XML deployment descriptors, user guides, and others. These changes can be a source of degradation in functional, qualitative or behavioral terms of modified software. Hence the need for a unified approach for extraction and representation of different heterogeneous artifacts in order to ensure a unified and detailed description of heterogeneous software artifacts, exploitable by several software tools and allowing to responsible for the evolution of carry out the reasoning change concerned.

Keywords: heterogeneous software artifacts, software evolution control, unified approach, meta model, software architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
118 Additive Manufacturing with Ceramic Filler

Authors: Irsa Wolfram, Boruch Lorenz

Abstract:

Innovative solutions with additive manufacturing applying material extrusion for functional parts necessitate innovative filaments with persistent quality. Uniform homogeneity and a consistent dispersion of particles embedded in filaments generally require multiple cycles of extrusion or well-prepared primal matter by injection molding, kneader machines, or mixing equipment. These technologies commit to dedicated equipment that is rarely at the disposal in production laboratories unfamiliar with research in polymer materials. This stands in contrast to laboratories that investigate complex material topics and technology science to leverage the potential of 3-D printing. Consequently, scientific studies in labs are often constrained to compositions and concentrations of fillersofferedfrom the market. Therefore, we introduce a prototypal laboratory methodology scalable to tailoredprimal matter for extruding ceramic composite filaments with fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. - A desktop single-screw extruder serves as a core device for the experiments. Custom-made filaments encapsulate the ceramic fillers and serve with polylactide (PLA), which is a thermoplastic polyester, as primal matter and is processed in the melting area of the extruder, preserving the defined concentration of the fillers. Validated results demonstrate that this approach enables continuously produced and uniform composite filaments with consistent homogeneity. Itis 3-D printable with controllable dimensions, which is a prerequisite for any scalable application. Additionally, digital microscopy confirms the steady dispersion of the ceramic particles in the composite filament. - This permits a 2D reconstruction of the planar distribution of the embedded ceramic particles in the PLA matrices. The innovation of the introduced method lies in the smart simplicity of preparing the composite primal matter. It circumvents the inconvenience of numerous extrusion operations and expensive laboratory equipment. Nevertheless, it deliversconsistent filaments of controlled, predictable, and reproducible filler concentration, which is the prerequisite for any industrial application. The introduced prototypal laboratory methodology seems capable for other polymer matrices and suitable to further utilitarian particle types beyond and above ceramic fillers. This inaugurates a roadmap for supplementary laboratory development of peculiar composite filaments, providing value for industries and societies. This low-threshold entry of sophisticated preparation of composite filaments - enabling businesses to create their own dedicated filaments - will support the mutual efforts for establishing 3D printing to new functional devices.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, ceramic composites, complex filament, industrial application

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
117 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta

Abstract:

The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
116 Investigation of Learning Challenges in Building Measurement Unit

Authors: Argaw T. Gurmu, Muhammad N. Mahmood

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to identify the architecture and construction management students’ learning challenges of the building measurement. This research used the survey data obtained collected from the students who completed the building measurement unit. NVivo qualitative data analysis software was used to identify relevant themes. The analysis of the qualitative data revealed the major learning difficulties such as inadequacy of practice questions for the examination, inability to work as a team, lack of detailed understanding of the prerequisite units, insufficiency of the time allocated for tutorials and incompatibility of lecture and tutorial schedules. The output of this research can be used as a basis for improving the teaching and learning activities in construction measurement units.

Keywords: building measurement, construction management, learning challenges, evaluate survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
115 The Improvement of Environmental Protection through Motor Vehicle Noise Abatement

Authors: Z. Jovanovic, Z. Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology for noise reduction of motor vehicles in use is presented. The methodology relies on synergic model of noise generation as a function of time. The arbitrary number of motor vehicle noise sources act in concert yielding the generation of the overall noise level of motor vehicle thereafter. The number of noise sources participating in the overall noise level of motor vehicle is subjected to the constraint of the calculation of the acoustic potential of each noise source under consideration. It is the prerequisite condition for the calculation of the acoustic potential of the whole vehicle. The recast form of pertinent set of equations describing the synergic model is laid down and solved by dint of Gauss method. The bunch of results emerged and some of them i.e. those ensuing from model application to MDD FAP Priboj motor vehicle in use are particularly elucidated.

Keywords: noise abatement, MV noise sources, noise source identification, muffler

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
114 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande

Abstract:

Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: translation, degree in translation, translation quality, professional experience

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
113 Innovative Business Education Pedagogy: A Case Study of Action Learning at NITIE, Mumbai

Authors: Sudheer Dhume, T. Prasad

Abstract:

There are distinct signs of Business Education losing its sheen. It is more so in developing countries. One of the reasons is the value addition at the end of 2 year MBA program is not matching with the requirements of present times and expectations of the students. In this backdrop, Pedagogy Innovation has become prerequisite for making our MBA programs relevant and useful. This paper is the description and analysis of innovative Action Learning pedagogical approach adopted by a group of faculty members at NITIE Mumbai. It not only promotes multidisciplinary research but also enhances integration of the functional areas skillsets in the students. The paper discusses the theoretical bases of this pedagogy and evaluates the effectiveness of it vis-à-vis conventional pedagogical tools. The evaluation research using Bloom’s taxonomy framework showed that this blended method of Business Education is much superior as compared to conventional pedagogy.

Keywords: action learning, blooms taxonomy, business education, innovation, pedagogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
112 The Role of Social Infrastructure on Entrepreneurship Performance

Authors: Obasan Kehinde

Abstract:

Social Infrastructure such as transport, telecommunications, energy, water, health, housing, and educational facilities have become part and parcel of human existence and have since been seen as prerequisite for the development of any economy. It is difficult to imagine a modern world without these facilities. Using a survey research design, data was gathered through a multi-stage sampling and a random sampling method from a total of 117 respondents, the study investigates the role of social infrastructure on the performance of entrepreneurs drawn from 10 Local Government Areas across two carefully selected states in the South-West, Nigeria. The data was analyzed using a descriptive statistical analysis and a t-test. The result shows that the impact of social infrastructure on entrepreneur performance is significant at 0.00 level of significant. Thus, this study recommends that entrepreneurs should take note of the social infrastructures available in the environment for the purpose of citing business in order to reduce the cost of production and other business costs.

Keywords: social infrastructure, entrepreneur performance, entrepreneurship, business

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
111 Understanding Human Rights Violations in the Fight against Boko Haram: A Historical Perspective

Authors: Anthony Mpiani

Abstract:

Recent media and NGO reports suggest that human rights violations have been a salient characteristic of the government Joint Task Force (JTF) in the war on Boko Haram. However, there has been relatively scant scholarly engagement with the forms of abuses committed by the JTF against civilians and why such human rights violations occur. The focus of this paper is to analyse the various human rights violations committed by JTF in the war against Boko Haram. Employing a historical approach, it argues that the JTF's human rights violations is shaped by the philosophy of colonial policing in Nigeria. Consequently, the failure of successive post-colonial governments to ideologically transform policing is accountable for the human rights abuses being witnessed in Nigeria today. A philosophical transformation in Nigeria's security forces especially the police and military is a prerequisite for ending human rights abuses in the fight against Boko Haram.

Keywords: colonialism, policing, joint task force, counterinsurgency, Boko Haram, human rights violations

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
110 The Early Stages of the Standardisation of Finnish Building Sector

Authors: Anu Soikkeli

Abstract:

Early 20th century functionalism aimed at generalising living and rationalising construction, thus laying the foundation for the standardisation of construction components and products. From the 1930s onwards, all measurement and quality instructions for building products, different types of building components, descriptions of working methods complying with advisable building practises, planning, measurement and calculation guidelines, terminology, etc. were called standards. Standardisation was regarded as a necessary prerequisite for the mass production of housing. This article examines the early stages of standardisation in Finland in the 1940s and 1950s, as reflected on the working history of an individual architect, Erkki Koiso-Kanttila (1914-2006). In 1950 Koiso-Kanttila was appointed the Head of Design of the Finnish Association of Architects’ Building Standards Committee, a position which he held until 1958. His main responsibilities were the development of the RT Building Information File and compiling of the files.

Keywords: architecture, post WWII period, reconstruction, standardisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
109 Analysis of Three-Dimensional Cracks in an Isotropic Medium by the Semi-Analytical Method

Authors: Abdoulnabi Tavangari, Nasim Salehzadeh

Abstract:

We presume a cylindrical medium that is under a uniform loading and there is a penny shaped crack located in the center of cylinder. In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, according to the RITZ method and by considering a cylindrical coordinate system as the main coordinate and a local polar coordinate, the mode-I SIF of threedimensional penny-shaped crack is obtained. In this method the unknown coefficients will be obtained with minimizing the potential energy that is including the strain energy and the external force work. By using the hook's law, stress fields will be obtained and then by using the Irvine equations, the amount of SIF will be obtained near the edge of the crack. This question has been solved for extreme medium in the Tada handbook and the result of the present research has been compared with that.

Keywords: three-dimensional cracks, penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, fracture mechanics, Ritz method

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
108 WHSS: A Platform for Designing Water Harvesting Systems for Multiple Purposes

Authors: Ignacio Sanchez Cohen, Aurelio Pedroza Sandoval, Ricardo Trejo Calzada

Abstract:

Water harvesting systems (WHS) has become the unique alternative that farmers in dry areas accounts for surviving dry periods. Nevertheless, technicians, agronomists, and users, in general, have to cope with the difficulty of finding suitable technology for optimal design of WHS. In this paper, we describe a user-friendly computer program that uses readily available information for the design of multiple WHS depending upon the water final use (agriculture, household, conservation, etc). The application (APP) itself contains several links to help the user complete the input requirements. It is not a prerequisite to have any computer skills for the use of the APP. Outputs of the APP are the dimensions of the WHS named terraces, micro-catchments, cisterns, and small household cisterns for roof water catchment. The APP also provides guidance on crops for backyard agriculture. We believe that this tool may guide users to better optimize WHS for multiple purposes and to widen the possibility of copping with dry spells in arid lands.

Keywords: rainfall-catchment, models, computer aid, arid lands

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
107 On Increase and Development Prospects of Competitiveness of Georgia’s Transport-Logistical System on the Contemporary Stage

Authors: Ketevan Goletiani

Abstract:

MMultimodal transport is Europe-Asia’s rational decision of the XXI century. Success prerequisite of this form of cargo carriage is not technologic decision, but the comprehensive attitude towards it. Integration of the transport industry must refer to both technical and organizational-economic fields. Support of the multimodal’s must be the priority of the transport policy in different organizations of Europe and Asia. The method of approach to the transport as a unified system has been changed to a certain extent in the market conditions. Nowadays the competition between the different kinds of transport is not to be considered as a competition of one kind of transport towards another one, but is to be considered as a stimulator of the transport development. Basically, transport logistic, as the recent methodology and organization of the rationally flow of cargos at the specialized logistic centres during their procession provides effective rise of such flow of cargos, decreases non-operating expenses and gives the opportunity to the transport companies to come along with the time, to meet market clients’ requirements. It is apparent that the advanced transport-forwarding and logistic firms are being analized.

Keywords: transport systems, multimodal transport, competition, transport logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
106 Commercial Surrogacy and Rights of the Children Born

Authors: Neha Tiwari

Abstract:

Rights are prerequisite for individuals to pursue their aims and enrich themselves. Laski has said rights are, ‘conditions of social life without which no man can seek himself at his best.’ However with superior technology, rights of many individuals are at stake as well. One such sufferer is the babies born out of the practice of commercial surrogacy. Commercial surrogacy has emerged as the most viable option for the childless couples. The practice has garnered lot of debate in both academia and media. Some argue for a complete ban and some for strict rules and regulation. Most of the time the debate is regarding the rights of the surrogate, something which we cannot ignore. Equally important are the rights of the children born out of such arrangements. However, not much attention is being paid to them. Recently, a controversy emerged when a surrogate gave birth to twins. One of the babies, Gammy born with down syndrome was left behind by the couple. Gammy could die because his poor Thai surrogate mother may not be able to pay for his treatment. Even if he survives, he will never know his twin sister as her identity would never be disclosed. This is just one of many such cases where the future of such babies is being played with. If the rights of these children are not taken care of many of them will have to bear the brunt of society's ignorance and perhaps live with a scar which won't heal in their lifetime.

Keywords: babies, commercial surrogacy, rights, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
105 Twenty-First Century Masculinities in Popular Romance Genre

Authors: Eirini Arvanitaki

Abstract:

The popular romance novel has the ability to withstand the test of time by carefully adjusting its contents to the twenty-first century and modern society. At the same time, it manages to preserve unaltered its traditional foundations (heteronormativity, heterosexual love, monogamy). This paper focuses on the projection of the hero’s masculinity in a selection of post-millennial popular romance narratives and attempts to discover if, and to what extent, this projection reinforces or challenges patriarchal ideas about gender. In the majority of these narratives, the hero is often presented as a hegemonic alpha male. However, hegemonic masculinity is not a fixed concept. Rather, it is subject to continuous change, which allows for the emergence of various dominant masculinities. With this in mind, and through a close textual analysis approach and a gender reading of romance narratives, the paper suggests that to a certain extent, the romance hero could be described as a platform onto which different forms of dominant masculinity are displayed and highlights that these masculinities do not necessarily clash, depend on, or function as a prerequisite for each other.

Keywords: gender, literary projections, masculinity, twenty-first century popular romance narratives

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
104 Anglicisms in the Magazine Glamour France: The Influence of English on the French Language of Fashion

Authors: Vivian Orsi

Abstract:

In this research, we aim to investigate the lexicon of women's magazines, with special attention to fashion, whose universe is very receptive to lexical borrowings, especially those from English, called Anglicisms. Thus, we intend to discuss the presence of English items and expressions on the online French women's magazine Glamour France collected from six months. Highlighting the quantitative aspects of the use of English in that publication, we can affirm that the use of those lexical borrowings seems to represent sophistication to attract readers and identification with other cultures, establishing communication and intensifying the language of fashion. The potential for creativity in fashion lexicon is made possible by its permeability to social and linguistic phenomena across all social classes that allow constant manipulation of genuine borrowings. Besides, it seems to assume the value of prerequisite to participate in the fashion centers of the world. The use of Anglicisms in Glamour France is not limited to designate concepts and fashionable items that have no equivalent in French, but it acts as a kind of seduction tool, which uses the symbolic capital of English as the global language of communication.

Keywords: Anglicisms, lexicology, borrowings, fashion language

Procedia PDF Downloads 208