Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2925

Search results for: survival rates

2925 Prognostic Value of Tumor Markers in Younger Patients with Breast Cancer

Authors: Lola T. Alimkhodjaeva, Lola T. Zakirova, Soniya S. Ziyavidenova


Background: Breast cancer occupies the first place among the cancer in women in the world. It is urgent today to study the role of molecular markers which are capable of predicting the dynamics and outcome of the disease. The aim of this study is to define the prognostic value of the content of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and amplification of HER-2 / neu oncoprotein by studying 3 and 5-year overall and relapse-free survival in 470 patients with primary operable and 280 patients with locally–advanced breast cancer. Materials and methods: Study results of 3 and 5-year overall and relapse-free survival, depending on the content of RE, PgR in primary operable patients showed that ER positive (+) and PgR (+) survival was 100 (96.2%) and 97.3 (94.6%), for ER negative (-) and PgR (-) - 69.2 (60.3%) and 65.4 (57.7%), for ER positive (+) and negative PgR (-) 87.4 (80.1%) and 81.5 (79.3%), for ER negative (-) and positive PgR (+) - 97.4 (93.4%) and 90.4 (88.5%), respectively. Survival results depended also on the level of HER-2 / neu expression. In patients with HER-2 / neu negative the survival rates were as follows: 98.6 (94.7%) and 96.2 (92.3%). In group of patients with the level of HER-2 / neu (2+) expression these figures were: 45.3 (44.3%) and 45.1 (40.2%), and in group of patients with the level of HER-2 / neu (3+) expression - 41.2 (33.1%) and 34.3 (29.4%). The combination of ER negative (-), PgR (-), HER-2 / neu (-) they were 27.2 (25.4%) and 19.5 (15.3%), respectively. In patients with locally-advanced breast cancer the results of 3 and 5-year OS and RFS for ER (+) and PgR (+) were 76.3 (69.3%) and 62.2 (61.4%), for ER (-) and RP (-) 29.1 (23.7%) and 18.3 (12.6%), for ER (+) and PgR (-) 61.2 (47.2%) and 39.4 (25.6%), for ER (-) and PgR (+) 54.3 (43.1%) and 41.3 (18.3%), respectively. The level of HER-2 / neu expression also affected the survival results. Therefore, in HER-2/ neu negative patients the survival rate was 74.1 (67.6%) and 65.1 (57.3%), with the level of expression (2+) 20.4 (14.2%) and 8.6 (6.4%), with the level of expression (3+) 6.2 (3.1%) and 1.2 (1.5%), respectively. The combination for ER, PgR, HER-2 / neu negative was 22.1 (14.3%) and 8.4 (1.2%). Conclusion: Thus, the presence of steroid hormone receptors in breast tumor tissues at primary operable and locally- advanced process as the lack of HER-2/neu oncoprotein correlates with the highest rates of 3- and 5-year overall and relapse-free survival. The absence of steroid hormone receptors as well as of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant breast tissues significantly degrades the 3- and 5-year overall and relapse-free survival. Tumors with ER, PgR and HER-2/neu negative have the most unfavorable prognostics.

Keywords: breast cancer, estrogen receptor, oncoprotein, progesterone receptor

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2924 Intelligent Prediction of Breast Cancer Severity

Authors: Wahab Ali, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman


Breast cancer remains a threat to the woman’s world in view of survival rates, it early diagnosis and mortality statistics. So far, research has shown that many survivors of breast cancer cases are in the ones with early diagnosis. Breast cancer is usually categorized into stages which indicates its severity and corresponding survival rates for patients. Investigations show that the farther into the stages before diagnosis the lesser the chance of survival; hence the early diagnosis of breast cancer becomes imperative, and consequently the application of novel technologies to achieving this. Over the year, mammograms have used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, but the inconclusive deductions made from such scans lead to either false negative cases where cancer patients may be left untreated or false positive where unnecessary biopsies are carried out. This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in the prediction of severity of breast tumour (whether benign or malignant) using mammography reports and other factors that are related to breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, intelligent classification, neural networks, mammography

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2923 Evaluation of Growth Performance and Survival Rate of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fed with Graded Levels of Egg Shell Substituted Ration

Authors: A. Bello-Olusoji, M. O. Sodamola, Y. A. Adejola, D. D Akinbola


An eight (8) weeks study was carried out on Four hundred and five (405) African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles to examine the effect of graded levels of egg shell on their growth performance and survival rates. They were acclimatized for two (2) weeks after which they were weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments of three (3) replicates each and 27 fishes per replicate making a total number of eighty-one (81) fishes per treatment. The dietary treatments contained 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100(%) egg shell inclusion from treatment one to treatment five respectively. Parameter on daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, and daily mortalities were recorded. The result of the experiment indicated that treatment four (4) with 75% inclusion of egg shell was the best in terms of weight gain and survival rates and was significantly different (P<0.05) when compared with the other treatments. For Catfish farming to remain viable in the nearest future, lower feed cost and increased profit are required; it is therefore recommended that diets of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) be supplemented with well processed egg shell at 75% level of inclusion to achieve this.

Keywords: African catfish, egg shell, performance, performance, survival rate, weight gain

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2922 The Clinical and Survival Differences between Primary B-cell and T/NK-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the Nasopharynx, Nasal cavity and Nasal sinus: a Population-based Study of 3839 cases in the SEER database

Authors: Jiajia Peng, Danni Cheng, Jianqing Qiu, Yufang Rao, Minzi Mao, Ke Qiu, Junhong Li, Fei Chen, Feng Liu, Jun Liu, Xiaosong Mu, Wenxin Yu, Wei Zhang, Wei Xu, Yu Zhao, Jianjun Ren


Background: Currently, primary B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and T/NK-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NKT-NHL) originated fromnasal cavity (NC), nasopharynx (NP), and nasal sinus (NS) distinguished unclearly in clinic. Objective: We sought to compare the clinical and survival differences of B-NHL and NKT-NHL occurred in NC, NP, and NS, respectively. Methods: Retrospectivedata of patients diagnosed with nasal cavity lymphoma (NCL), nasopharyngeal lymphoma (NPL), and nasal sinus lymphoma (NSL) between 1975 and 2017 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were collected. We identified the B/NKT-NHL patients based on the histological type and performed univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier analyses to investigate the survival rates. Results: Of the identified 3,101 B-NHL and 738 NKT-NHL patients, those with B-NHL in NP were the majority (43%) and had better cancer-specific survival than those in NC and NS during2010 to 2017(5-year-CSS, NC vs. NP vs. NS: 81% vs. 83% vs. 82%). In contrast, most of the NKT-NHL originated from NC (68%) and had the highest CSS rate in the recent 7 years (2010-2017, 5-year-CSS: 63%). Additionally, the survival outcomes of patients with NKT-NHL-NP(HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.62-2.89, P=0.460)who had received surgery were much worse than those of patients with NKT-NHL-NC (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.75-1.52, P=0.710)and NKT-NHL-NS (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.59-2.07, P=0.740).NKT-NHL-NS patients who had radiation performed (HR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.19-0.73, P=0.004)shown the highest survival rates while chemotherapy performed (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.43-2.37, P=0.980)presented opposite results. Conclusions: AlthoughB-NHL and NKT-NHL originating from NC, NP, and NS had similar anatomical locations, their clinical characteristics, treatment therapies, and prognoses were different in this study. Our findings may suggest that B-NHL and NKT-NHL in NC, NP, and NS should be treated as different diseases in the clinic.

Keywords: nasopharyngeal lymphoma, nasal cavity lymphoma, nasal sinus lymphoma, B-cell non-hodgkin lymphoma, T/NK-cell non-hodgkin lymphoma

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2921 Preservation of Sensitive Biological Products: An Insight into Conventional and Upcoming Drying Techniques

Authors: Jannika Dombrowski, Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik


Several drying techniques are used to preserve sensitive substances such as probiotic lactic acid bacteria. With the aim to better understand differences between these processes, this work gives new insights into structural variations resulting from different preservation methods and their impact on product quality and storage stability. Industrially established methods (freeze drying, spray drying) were compared to upcoming vacuum, microwave-freeze, and microwave-vacuum drying. For freeze and microwave-freeze dried samples, survival and activity maintained 100%, whereas vacuum and microwave-vacuum dried cultures achieved 30-40% survival. Spray drying yielded in lowest viability. The results are directly related to temperature and oxygen content during drying. Interestingly, most storage stable products resulted from vacuum and microwave-vacuum drying due to denser product structures as determined by helium pycnometry and SEM images. Further, lower water adsorption velocities were responsible for lower inactivation rates. Concluding, resulting product structures as well as survival rates and storage stability mainly depend on the type of water removal instead of energy input. Microwave energy compared to conductive heating did not lead to significant differences regarding the examined factors. Correlations could be proven for three investigated microbial strains. The presentation will be completed by an overview on the energy efficiency of the presented methods.

Keywords: drying techniques, energy efficiency, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, survival rates, structure characterization

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2920 Comparative Survival Rates of Yeasts during Freeze-Drying, Traditional Drying and Spray Drying

Authors: Latifa Hamoudi-Belarbi, L'Hadi Nouri, Khaled Belkacemi


The effect of three methods of drying (traditional drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying) on the survival of concentrated cultures of Geotrichum fragrans and Wickerhamomyces anomalus was studied. The survival of yeast cultures was initially compared immediately after freeze-drying using HES 12%(w/v)+Sucrose 7% (w/v) as protectant, traditional drying in dry rice cakes and finally spray-drying with whey proteins. The survival of G. fragrans and W. anomalus was studied during 4 months of storage at 4°C and 25°C, in the darkness, under vacuum and at 0% relative humidity. The results demonstrated that high survival was obtained using traditional method of preservation in rice cakes (60% for G. fragrans and 65% for W. anomalus) and freeze-drying in (68% for G. fragrans and 74% for W. anomalus). However, poor survival was obtained by spray-drying method in whey protein with 20% for G. fragrans and 29% for W. anomalus. During storage at 25°C, yeast cultures of G. fragrans and W. anomalus preserved by traditional and freeze-drying methods showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 3 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 4 months of storage at 25°C. During storage at 4°C, preservation of yeasts cultures using traditional method of preservation provided better survival than freeze-drying. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of the traditional method to preserve yeasts cultures compared to the high cost methods like freeze-drying and spray-drying.

Keywords: freeze-drying, traditional drying, spray drying, yeasts

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2919 Significant Factor of Magnetic Resonance for Survival Outcome in Rectal Cancer Patients Following Neoadjuvant Combined Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy: Stratification of Lateral Pelvic Lymph Node

Authors: Min Ju Kim, Beom Jin Park, Deuk Jae Sung, Na Yeon Han, Kichoon Sim


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the significant magnetic resonance (MR) imaging factors of lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) on the assessment of survival outcomes of neoadjuvant combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CRT) in patients with mid/low rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study of 63 patients with mid/low rectal cancer who underwent MR before and after CRT and patient consent was not required. Surgery performed within 4 weeks after CRT. The location of LPLNs was divided into following four groups; 1) common iliac, 2) external iliac, 3) obturator, and 4) internal iliac lymph nodes. The short and long axis diameters, numbers, shape (ovoid vs round), signal intensity (homogenous vs heterogenous), margin (smooth vs irregular), and diffusion-weighted restriction of LPLN were analyzed on pre- and post-CRT images. For treatment response using size, lymph node groups were defined as group 1) short axis diameter ≤ 5mm on both MR, group 2) > 5mm change into ≤ 5mm after CRT, and group 3) persistent size > 5mm before and after CRT. Clinical findings were also evaluated. The disease-free survival and overall survival rate were evaluated and the risk factors for survival outcomes were analyzed using cox regression analysis. Results: Patients in the group 3 (persistent size >5mm) showed significantly lower survival rates than the group 1 and 2 (Disease-free survival rates of 36.1% and 78.8, 88.8%, p < 0.001). The size response (group 1-3), multiplicity of LPLN, the level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), patient’s age, T and N stage, vessel invasion, perineural invasion were significant factors affecting disease-free survival rate or overall survival rate using univariate analysis (p < 0.05). The persistent size (group 3) and multiplicity of LPLN were independent risk factors among MR imaging features influencing disease-free survival rate (HR = 10.087, p < 0.05; HR = 4.808, p < 0.05). Perineural invasion and T stage were shown as independent histologic risk factors (HR = 16.594, p < 0.05; HR = 15.891, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The persistent size greater than 5mm and multiplicity of LPLN on both pre- and post-MR after CRT were significant MR factors affecting survival outcomes in the patients with mid/low rectal cancer.

Keywords: rectal cancer, MRI, lymph node, combined chemoradiotherapy

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2918 Evaluation of Complications Observed in Porcelain Fused to Metal Crowns Placed at a Teaching Institution

Authors: Shizrah Jamal, Robia Ghafoor, Farhan Raza


Porcelain fused to metal crown is the most versatile variety of crown that is commonly placed worldwide. Various complications have been reported in the PFM crowns with use over the period of time. These include chipping of the porcelain, recurrent caries, loss of retention, open contacts, and tooth fracture. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of these complications in crowns cemented over a period of five years in a tertiary care hospital and also to report the survival of these crowns. A retrospective study was conducted in Dental clinics, Aga Khan University Hospital in which 150 PFM crowns cemented over a period of five years were evaluated. Patient demographics, oral hygiene habits, para-functional habits, crown insertion and follow-up dates were recorded in a specially designed proforma. All PFM crowns fulfilling the inclusion criteria were assessed both clinically and radiographically for the presence of any complication. SPSS version 22.0 was used for statistical analysis. Frequency distribution and proportion of complications were determined. Chi-square test was used to determine the association of complications of PFM crowns with multiple variables including tooth wear, opposing dentition and betel nut chewing. Kaplan- meier survival analysis was used to determine the survival of PFM crowns over the period of five years. Level of significance was kept at 0.05. A total of 107 patients, with a mean age of 43.51 + 12.4 years, having 150 PFM crowns were evaluated. The most common complication observed was open proximal contacts (8.7%) followed by porcelain chipping (6%), decementation (5.3%), and abutment fracture (1.3%). Chi square test showed that there was no statistically significant association of PFM crown complication with tooth wear, betel nut and opposing dentition (p-value <0.05). The overall success and survival rates of PFM crowns turned out to be 78.7 and 84.7% respectively. Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that PFM crowns are an effective treatment modality with high success and survival rates. Since it was a single centered study; the results should be generalized with caution.

Keywords: chipping, complication, crown, survival rate

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2917 In vitro Control of Aedes aegypti Larvae Using Beauveria bassiana

Authors: R. O. B. Bitencourt, F. S. Farias, M. C. Freitas, C. J. R. Balduino, E.S. Mesquita, A. R. C. Corval, P. S. Gôlo, E. G. Pontes, V. R. E. P. Bittencourt, I. C. Angelo


Aedes aegypti larval survival rate was assessed after exposure to blastopores or conidia (mineral oil-in-water formulation or aqueous suspension) of Beauveria bassiana CG 479 propagules (blastospores or conidia). Here, mineral oil was used in the fungal formulation to control Aedes aegypti larvae. 1%, 0.5% or 0.1% mineral oil-in-water solutions were used to evaluate mineral oil toxicity for mosquito larvae. In the oil toxicity test, 0.1% mineral oil solution reduced only 4.5% larval survival; accordingly, this concentration was chosen for fungal oil-in-water formulations. Aqueous suspensions were prepared using 0.01% Tween 80® in sterile dechlorinated water. A. aegypti larvae (L2) were exposed in aqueous suspensions or mineral oil-in-water fungal formulations at 1×107 propagules mL-1; the survival rate (assessed daily, for 7 days) and the median survival time (S50) were calculated. Seven days after the treatment, mosquito larvae survival rates were 8.56%, 16.22%, 58%, and 42.56% after exposure to oil-in-water blastospores, oil-in-water conidia, blastospores aqueous suspension and conidia aqueous suspension (respectively). Larvae exposed to 0.01% Tween 80® had 100% survival rate and the ones treated with 0.1% mineral oil-in-water had 95.11% survival rate. Larvae treated with conidia (regardless the presence of oil) or treated with blastospores formulation had survival median time (S50) ranging from one to two days. S50 was not determined (ND) when larvae were exposed to blastospores aqueous suspension, 0.01% Tween 80® (aqueous control) or 0.1% mineral oil-in-water formulation (oil control). B. bassiana conidia and blastospores (mineral oil-in-water formulated or suspended in water) had potential to control A. aegypti mosquito larvae, despite mineral oil-in-water formulation yielded better results in comparison to aqueous suspensions. Here, B. bassiana CG 479 isolate is suggested as a potential biocontrol agent of A. aegypti mosquito larvae.

Keywords: blastospores, formulation, mosquitoes, conidia

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2916 Infant and Child Mortality among the Low Socio-Economic Households in India

Authors: Narendra Kumar


This study uses data from the ‘National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06’ to investigate the predictors of infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. The cross tabulation, life table survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard model techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of infant and child mortality. The life table survival estimates for infant and child mortality shows that infant mortality in female child is lower in comparison to male child but with child mortality, the rates are higher for female in comparison to male child and the Cox proportional hazard model also give highly significant in female in comparison to male child. The infant and child mortality rates among poor households highest in the Central region followed by North and Northeast region and the lowest in South region in comparison to all regions of India. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics in both analyzes, further birth interval, respondent occupation, caste/tribe and place of delivery has substantial impact on infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. Finally these findings specified that an increase in parents’ education, improve health care services and improve socioeconomic conditions of low economic households which should in turn raise infant and child survival and should decrease child mortality among low economic households in India.

Keywords: infant, child, mortality, socio-economic, India

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2915 Micropropagation and in vitro Conservation via Slow Growth Techniques of Prunus webbii (Spach) Vierh: An Endangered Plant Species in Albania

Authors: Valbona Sota, Efigjeni Kongjika


Wild almond is a woody species, which is difficult to propagate either generatively by seed or by vegetative methods (grafting or cuttings) and also considered as Endangered (EN) in Albania based on IUCN criteria. As a wild relative of cultivated fruit trees, this species represents a source of genetic variability and can be very important in breeding programs and cultivation. For this reason, it would be of interest to use an effective method of in vitro mid-term conservation, which involves strategies to slow plant growth through physicochemical alterations of in vitro growth conditions. Multiplication of wild almond was carried out using zygotic embryos, as primary explants, with the purpose to develop a successful propagation protocol. Results showed that zygotic embryos can proliferate through direct or indirect organogenesis. During subculture, stage was obtained a great number of new plantlets identical to mother plants derived from the zygotic embryos. All in vitro plantlets obtained from subcultures underwent in vitro conservation by minimal growth in low temperature (4ºC) and darkness. The efficiency of this technique was evaluated for 3, 6, and 10 months of conservation period. Maintenance in these conditions reduced micro cuttings growth. Survival and regeneration rates for each period were evaluated and resulted that the maximal time of conservation without subculture on 4ºC was 10 months, but survival and regeneration rates were significantly reduced, specifically 15.6% and 7.6%. An optimal period of conservation in these conditions can be considered the 5-6 months storage, which can lead to 60-50% of survival and regeneration rates. This protocol may be beneficial for mass propagation, mid-term conservation, and for genetic manipulation of wild almond.

Keywords: micropropagation, minimal growth, storage, wild almond

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2914 Effects of Feeding Time on Survival Rates, Growth Performance and Feeding Behavior of Juvenile Catfish

Authors: Abdullahi Ibrahim


The culture of Clarias gariepinus for fish production is becoming increasingly essential as the fish is contributing to the food abundance and nutritional benefit to family health, income generation, and employment opportunities. The effect of feeding frequency was investigated over a period of ten (10) weeks; the experiment was conducted to monitor survival rates, growth performance, and feeding behavior of juvenile catfish. The experimental fish were randomly assigned to five treatment groups; (i.e., with different feeding frequency intervals) of 100 fish each. Each treatment was replicated twice with 50 fish per replicate. All the groups were fed with floating fish feed (blue crown®). The five treatments (feeding frequency) were T1- once a day feeding of night hours only, T2- twice a day feeding time of morning and night hours, T3- trice a day feeding time of morning, evening and night hours, T-4 four times a day feeding of morning, afternoon, evening, and night hours, T-5 five times a day feeding at four hours interval. There were significant differences (p > 0.05) among treatments. Feed intake and weight gain improved significantly (p < 0.05) in T-4 and T-3. The best of the feeding time on weight gain, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio were obtained at three times a day feeding (T-3) compared to other treatments, especially those fed once and five times feeding a regiment. This might be attributed to the high level of dissolve oxygen and less stress. Feeding fish three times a day is therefore recommended for efficient catfish production to maximize profits as the feed represents more than 50% of aquaculture inputs, particularly in intensive farming systems.

Keywords: catfish, floating fish feed, dissolve oxygen, juvenile

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2913 The Predictability of Three Implants to Support a Fixed Prosthesis in the Edentulous Mandible

Authors: M. Hirani, M. Devine, O. Obisesan, C. Bryant


Introduction: The use of four or more implants to support a fixed prosthesis in the edentulous mandible is well documented, with high levels of clinical outcomes recorded. Despite this, the use of three implant-supported fixed prostheses offers the potential to deliver a more cost-effective method of oral rehabilitation in the lower arch, an important consideration given that edentulism is most prevalent in low-income subpopulations. The purpose of this study aimed to evaluate the implant and prosthetic survival rate, changes in marginal bone level, and patient satisfaction associated with a three-implant-supported fixed prosthesis for rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible over a follow-up period of at least one year. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed to evaluate studies that met the selection criteria. The information extracted included the study design and population, participant demographics, observation period, loading protocol, and the number of implants placed together with the required outcome measures. Mean values and standard deviations (SD) were calculated using SPSS® (IBM Corporation, New York, USA), and the level of statistical significance across all comparative studies described was set at P < 0.05. Results: The eligible studies included a total of 1968 implants that were placed in 652 patients. The subjects ranged in age from 33-89 years, with a mean of 63.2 years. The mean cumulative implant and prosthetic survival rates were 95.5% and 96.2%, respectively, over a mean follow-up period of 3.25 years. The mean marginal bone loss recorded was 1.04 mm, and high patient satisfaction rates were reported across the studies. Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that a three implant-supported fixed prosthesis for the edentulous mandible is a successful treatment strategy presenting high implant and prosthetic survival rates over the short-to-medium term. Further well-designed controlled clinical trials are required to evaluate longer-term outcomes, with supplemental data correlating implant dimensions and prosthetic design.

Keywords: implants, mandible, fixed, prosthesis

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2912 Impact of Mammographic Screening on Ethnic Inequalities in Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis and Survival in New Zealand

Authors: Sanjeewa Seneviratne, Ian Campbell, Nina Scott, Ross Lawrenson


Introduction: Indigenous Māori women experience a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We explored the impact of difference in the rate of screen detected breast cancer between Māori and European women on more advanced disease at diagnosis and lower survival in Māori women. Methods: All primary in-situ and invasive breast cancers diagnosed in screening age women (as defined by the New Zealand National Breast Cancer Screening Programme) between 1999 and 2012 in the Waikato area were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register and the national screening database. Association between screen versus non-screen detection and cancer stage at diagnosis and survival were compared by ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Results: Māori women had 50% higher odds of being diagnosed with more advance staged cancer compared with NZ European women, a half of which was explained by the lower rate of screen detected cancer in Māori women. Significantly lower breast cancer survival rates were observed for Māori compared with NZ European and most deprived compared with most affluent socioeconomic groups for symptomatically detected breast cancer. No significant survival differences by ethnicity or socioeconomic deprivation were observed for screen detected breast cancer. Conclusions: Low rate of screen detected breast cancer appears to be a major contributor for more advanced stage disease at diagnosis and lower breast cancer survival in Māori compared with NZ European women. Increasing screening participation for Māori has the potential to substantially reduce breast cancer mortality inequity between Māori and NZ European women.

Keywords: breast cancer, screening, ethnicity, inequity

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2911 Different Sampling Schemes for Semi-Parametric Frailty Model

Authors: Nursel Koyuncu, Nihal Ata Tutkun


Frailty model is a survival model that takes into account the unobserved heterogeneity for exploring the relationship between the survival of an individual and several covariates. In the recent years, proposed survival models become more complex and this feature causes convergence problems especially in large data sets. Therefore selection of sample from these big data sets is very important for estimation of parameters. In sampling literature, some authors have defined new sampling schemes to predict the parameters correctly. For this aim, we try to see the effect of sampling design in semi-parametric frailty model. We conducted a simulation study in R programme to estimate the parameters of semi-parametric frailty model for different sample sizes, censoring rates under classical simple random sampling and ranked set sampling schemes. In the simulation study, we used data set recording 17260 male Civil Servants aged 40–64 years with complete 10-year follow-up as population. Time to death from coronary heart disease is treated as a survival-time and age, systolic blood pressure are used as covariates. We select the 1000 samples from population using different sampling schemes and estimate the parameters. From the simulation study, we concluded that ranked set sampling design performs better than simple random sampling for each scenario.

Keywords: frailty model, ranked set sampling, efficiency, simple random sampling

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2910 Risk of Mortality and Spectrum of Second Primary Malignancies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma before and after Ibrutinib Approval: A Population-Based Study

Authors: Karthik Chamari, Vasudha Rudraraju, Gaurav Chaudhari


Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the mature B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The course of MCL is moderately aggressive and variable, and it has median overall survival of 8 to 10 years. Ibrutinib, a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration in November of 2013 for the treatment of MCL patients who have received at least one prior therapy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether there has been a change in survival and patterns of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among the MCL population in the US after ibrutinib approval. Methods: Using the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18, we conducted a retrospective study with patients diagnosed with MCL (ICD-0-3 code 9673/3) between 2007 and 2018. We divided patients into two six-year cohorts, pre-ibrutinib approval (2007-2012) and post-ibrutinib approval (2013-2018), and compared relative survival rates (RSRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPMs between cohorts. Results: We included 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL between 2007 and 2018 in the SEER-18 survival and SIR registries. Of these, 4,205 (45%) patients were included in the pre-ibrutinib cohort, and 5052 (55%) patients were included in the post-ibrutinib cohort. The median follow-up duration for the pre-ibrutinib cohort was 54 months (range 0 to 143 months), and the post-ibrutinib cohort was 20 months (range 0 to 71 months). There was a significant difference in the five-year RSRs between pre-ibrutinib and post-ibrutinib cohorts (57.5% vs. 62.6%, p < 0.005). Out of the 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL, 920 developed SPMs. A higher proportion of SPMs occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (63%) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (37%). Non-hematological malignancies comprised most of all SPMs. A higher incidence of non-hematological malignancies occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.14, 95% CI 1 to 1.3). There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of cancers of the respiratory tract (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.18), urinary tract (SIR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.06) when compared with other non-hematological malignancies in post-ibrutinib cohort. Conclusions: Our study results suggest the relative survival rates have increased since the approval of ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma patients. Additionally, for some unclear reasons, the incidence of SPM’s (non-hematological malignancies), mainly cancers of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, have increased in the six years following the approval of ibrutinib. Further studies should be conducted to determine the cause of these findings.

Keywords: mantle cell lymphoma, Ibrutinib, relative survival analysis, secondary primary cancers

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2909 The Role of Language Strategy on International Survival of Firm: A Conceptual Framework from Resource Dependence Perspective

Authors: Sazzad Hossain Talukder


Survival in the competitive international market with unforeseen environmental contingencies has always been a concern of the firms that led to adopting different strategies to deal with different situations. Language strategy is considered to enhance the international performance of a firm by organizing language diversity and fostering communications within and outside the firm. Yet there is a lack of theoretical attention or model development on the role of language strategy on firm international survival. From resource dependence perspective, the adoption of language strategy and its relationship with firm survival are determined by the firm´s capability to prevent dependency concentration and/or increase relative power on the external environment. However, the impact of language strategy on firm survival is complex and multifaceted as the strategy influence firm performance indirectly through communication, coordination, learning and value creation. The evidence of various types of language strategies and different forms of firm survival also bring in complexities to understand the effects of a language strategy on the international survival of a firm. Based on language literatures and resource dependence logic, certain propositions are developed to conceptualize the relationship between language strategy and firm international survival in this conceptual paper. For the purpose of this paper, a conceptual model is proposed to examine how different kinds of language strategy foster reduction of resource dependency that lead to firm international survival in respond to local responsiveness and global integration. In this proposed model, it is theorized that language strategy has a positive relationship with the international survival of the firm, as the strategy is likely to reduce external resource dependency and increase the ability to continue independent operations both in short and long term.

Keywords: language strategy, language diversity, firm international survival, resource dependence logic

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2908 Survival Data with Incomplete Missing Categorical Covariates

Authors: Madaki Umar Yusuf, Mohd Rizam B. Abubakar


The survival censored data with incomplete covariate data is a common occurrence in many studies in which the outcome is survival time. With model when the missing covariates are categorical, a useful technique for obtaining parameter estimates is the EM by the method of weights. The survival outcome for the class of generalized linear model is applied and this method requires the estimation of the parameters of the distribution of the covariates. In this paper, we propose some clinical trials with ve covariates, four of which have some missing values which clearly show that they were fully censored data.

Keywords: EM algorithm, incomplete categorical covariates, ignorable missing data, missing at random (MAR), Weibull Distribution

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2907 Winter – Not Spring - Climate Drives Annual Adult Survival in Common Passerines: A Country-Wide, Multi-Species Modeling Exercise

Authors: Manon Ghislain, Timothée Bonnet, Olivier Gimenez, Olivier Dehorter, Pierre-Yves Henry


Climatic fluctuations affect the demography of animal populations, generating changes in population size, phenology, distribution and community assemblages. However, very few studies have identified the underlying demographic processes. For short-lived species, like common passerine birds, are these changes generated by changes in adult survival or in fecundity and recruitment? This study tests for an effect of annual climatic conditions (spring and winter) on annual, local adult survival at very large spatial (a country, 252 sites), temporal (25 years) and biological (25 species) scales. The Constant Effort Site ringing has allowed the collection of capture - mark - recapture data for 100 000 adult individuals since 1989, over metropolitan France, thus documenting annual, local survival rates of the most common passerine birds. We specifically developed a set of multi-year, multi-species, multi-site Bayesian models describing variations in local survival and recapture probabilities. This method allows for a statistically powerful hierarchical assessment (global versus species-specific) of the effects of climate variables on survival. A major part of between-year variations in survival rate was common to all species (74% of between-year variance), whereas only 26% of temporal variation was species-specific. Although changing spring climate is commonly invoked as a cause of population size fluctuations, spring climatic anomalies (mean precipitation or temperature for March-August) do not impact adult survival: only 1% of between-year variation of species survival is explained by spring climatic anomalies. However, for sedentary birds, winter climatic anomalies (North Atlantic Oscillation) had a significant, quadratic effect on adult survival, birds surviving less during intermediate years than during more extreme years. For migratory birds, we do not detect an effect of winter climatic anomalies (Sahel Rainfall). We will analyze the life history traits (migration, habitat, thermal range) that could explain a different sensitivity of species to winter climate anomalies. Overall, we conclude that changes in population sizes for passerine birds are unlikely to be the consequences of climate-driven mortality (or emigration) in spring but could be induced by other demographic parameters, like fecundity.

Keywords: Bayesian approach, capture-recapture, climate anomaly, constant effort sites scheme, passerine, seasons, survival

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2906 Eco-Biological Study of Artemia salina (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) in Sahline Salt Lake, Tunisia

Authors: Khalil Trigui, Rafik Ben Said, Fourat Akrout, Neji Aloui


In this study, we examined in the first part the eco-biology of Artemia (A.salina) collected from Sahline Salt Lake (governorate of Monastir: Tunisia) during an annual cycle. The correlations between environmental factors and some biological parameters of Artemia were determined. The results obtained showed that the environmental factors affected the biology of Artemia. The highest abundance was recorded in May (550 ± 2,16 ind/l) and all life history stages existed with different seasonal proportions. The Artemia population is bisexual with ovoviviparous reproduction at the beginning and oviparous at the end of the life cycle. We also recorded the dominance of males at the start and the females at the end of the cycle. During all the study period, the size of mature females is bigger than that of males. The fertility obtained resulted in a significant production of cysts compared to the nauplii. A negative correlation with highly significant effect was deduced between environmental factors (temperature and salinity) and the production of nauplii (ovoviviparity) in contrast with dissolved oxygen. In the second part of our work is consecrated to the mastery of breeding Artemia. For this, we tested the effect of five external factors (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, light intensity and food) on the survival of this crustacean. Thereby, the survival rates of Artemia were affected by the different values of studied factors. The recorded results showed that Artemia salina has an optimum temperature ranged from 25 to 27°C with a survival rate ranging from 84 to 88%. The optimal salinity to breed Artemia salina was 37 psu (62 ± 0,23%). Nevertheless, this crustacean was able to survive and withstand the salinity of 0 psu (freshwater). The optimum concentration of dissolved oxygen was 7mg/l with a survival rate of 87,11 ± 0,04%. An optimum light intensity of 10 lux revealed a survival rate equal to 85,33 ± 0,01%. The results also showed that the preferred micro-algae by Artemia is Dunaliella salina with a maximum survival rate of the order of 80 ± 0,15%. There is a significant effect for all experienced parameters on the survival of Artemia reared except the nature of food.

Keywords: Artemia salina, biology, breeding, ecology, Sahline salt lake

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2905 Biodegradable Poly D,L-Lactide-Co-Glycolic Acid Microparticle Vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila Infection

Authors: Saekil Yun, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jung Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park


In aquaculture, vaccination is important to control and prevent diseases. In the study, we utilized poly D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) for encapsulating formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila cells. To assess the innate and adaptive immune responses, carps and loaches were used for the experiments. Fish were divided into three groups (A, B, C). Total antigen of 0.1 ml vaccine was adjusted by 2 x 108 CFU and injected via intraperitoneal route. Group A was vaccinated with 0.1 ml of PLGA vaccine, group B was with 0.1 ml of FKC vaccine and group C was with 0.1 ml of sterile PBS. All three groups were challenged with A. hydrophila and challenge dose was lethal dose (LD50). Loaches and carp were then challenged with A. hydrophila at 12 and 20 weeks post vaccination (wpv), and 10 and 14 wpv, respectively, and relative survival rates were calculated. For both fish species, the curve of antibody titer over time was shallower in the PLGA group than the FKC group and the PLGA groups demonstrated higher survival rates at all time-points. In the groups of PLGA-MP, relative mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme C and IgM were significantly upregulated than FKC treated groups. Biodegradable PLGA microparticle vaccine could induce longer immune responses than original FKC vaccines to protect from A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: PLGA, microparticles, Aeromonas hydrophila, vaccine

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2904 A Seven Year Single-Centre Study of Dental Implant Survival in Head and Neck Oncology Patients

Authors: Sidra Suleman, Maliha Suleman, Stephen Brindley


Oral rehabilitation of head and neck cancer patients plays a crucial role in the quality of life for such individuals post-treatment. Placement of dental implants or implant-retained prostheses can help restore oral function and aesthetics, which is often compromised following surgery. Conventional prosthodontic techniques can be insufficient in rehabilitating such patients due to their altered anatomy and reduced oral competence. Hence, there is a strong clinical need for the placement of dental implants. With an increasing incidence of head and neck cancer patients, the demand for such treatment is rising. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the survival rate of dental implants in head and neck cancer patients placed at the Restorative and Maxillofacial Department, Royal Stoke University Hospital (RSUH), United Kingdom. Methodology: All patients who received dental implants between January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2020 were identified. Patients were excluded based on three criteria: 1) non-head and neck cancer patients, 2) no outpatient follow-up post-implant placement 3) provision of non-dental implants. Scanned paper notes and electronic records were extracted and analyzed. Implant survival was defined as fixtures that had remained in-situ / not required removal. Sample: Overall, 61 individuals were recruited from the 143 patients identified. The mean age was 64.9 years, with a range of 35 – 89 years. The sample included 37 (60.7%) males and 24 (39.3%) females. In total, 211 implants were placed, of which 40 (19.0%) were in the maxilla, 152 (72.0%) in the mandible and 19 (9.0%) in autogenous bone graft sites. Histologically 57 (93.4%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma, with 43 (70.5%) patients having either stage IVA or IVB disease. As part of treatment, 42 (68.9%) patients received radiotherapy, which was carried out post-operatively for 29 (69.0%) cases. Whereas 21 (34.4%) patients underwent chemotherapy, 13 (61.9%) of which were post-operative. The Median follow-up period was 21.9 months with a range from 0.9 – 91.4 months. During the study, 23 (37.7%) patients died and their data was censored beyond the date of death. Results: In total, four patients who had received radiotherapy had one implant failure each. Two mandibular implants failed secondary to osteoradionecrosis, and two maxillary implants did not survive as a result of failure to osseointegrate. The overall implant survival rates were 99.1% at three years and 98.1% at both 5 and 7 years. Conclusions: Although this data shows that implant failure rates are low, it highlights the difficulty in predicting which patients will be affected. Future studies involving larger cohorts are warranted to further analyze factors affecting outcomes.

Keywords: oncology, dental implants, survival, restorative

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2903 Interaction of Racial and Gender Disparities in Salivary Gland Cancer Survival in the United States: A Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Study

Authors: Sarpong Boateng, Rohit Balasundaram, Akua Afrah Amoah


Introduction: Racial and Gender disparities have been found to be independently associated with Salivary Gland Cancers (SGCs) survival; however, to our best knowledge, there are no previous studies on the interplay of these social determinants on the prognosis of SGCs. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of race and gender on the survival of SGCs. Methods: We analyzed survival outcomes of 13,547 histologically confirmed cases of SGCs using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (2004 to 2015). Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) after controlling for age, tumor characteristics, treatment type and year of diagnosis. Results: 73.5% of the participants were whites, 8.5% were blacks, 10.1% were Hispanics and 58.5% were males. Overall, males had poorer survival than females (HR = 1.16, p=0.003). In the adjusted multivariable model, there were no significant differences in survival by race. However, the interaction of gender and race was statistically significant (p=0.01) in Hispanic males. Thus, compared to White females (reference), Hispanic females had significantly better survival (HR=0.53), whiles Hispanic males had worse survival outcomes (HR=1.82) for SGCs. Conclusions: Our results show significant interactions between race and gender, with racial disparities varying across the different genders for SGCs survival. This study indicates that racial and gender differences are crucial factors to be considered in the prognostic counseling and management of patients with SGCs. Biologic factors, tumor genetic characteristics, chemotherapy, lifestyle, environmental exposures, and socioeconomic and dietary factors are potential yet proven reasons that could account for racial and gender differences in the survival of SGCs.

Keywords: salivary, cancer, survival, disparity, race, gender, SEER

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2902 Incidence of Orphans Neonatal Puppies Attend in Veterinary Hospital – Causes, Consequences and Mortality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado


Orphaned is a risk factor for mortality in newborns since it is a condition with total or partial absence of maternal care that is essential for neonatal survival, including nursing (nutrition, the transference of passive immunity and hydration), warmth, urination, and defecation stimuli, and protection. The most common causes of mortality in orphans are related to lack of assistance, handling mistakes and infections. This study aims to describe the orphans rates in neonatal puppies, the main causes, and the mortality rates. The study included 735 neonates admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, between January 2018 and November 2019. The orphans rate was 43.4% (319/735) of all neonates included, and the main causes for orphaned were related to maternal agalactia/hypogalactia (23.5%, 75/319); numerous litter (15.7%, 50/319), toxic milk syndrome due to maternal mastitis (14.4%, 46/319), absence of suction/weak neonate (12.2%, 39/319), maternal disease (9.4%, 30/319), cleft palate/lip (6.3%, 20/319), maternal death (5.9%, 19/319), prematurity (5.3%, 17/319), rejection/failure in maternal instinct (3.8%, 12/319) and abandonment by the owner/separation of mother and neonate (3.5%, 11/319). The main consequences of orphaned observed in the admitted neonates were hypoglycemia, hypothermia, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, wasting syndrome, failure in the transference of passive immunity, infections and sepsis, which happened due to failure of identifying the problem early, lack of adequate assistance, negligence and handling mistakes by the owner. The total neonatal mortality rate was 8% (59/735) and the neonatal mortality rate among orphans was 18.5% (59/319). The orphaned and mortality rates were considered high, but even higher rates may be observed in locations without adequate neonatal assistance and owner orientation. The survival of these patients is related to constant monitoring of the litter, early diagnosis and assistance, and the implementation of effective handling for orphans. Understanding the correct handling for neonates and instructing the owners regarding proper handling are essential to minimize the consequences of orphaned and the mortality rates.

Keywords: orphans, neonatal care, puppies, newborn dogs

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2901 An Exploration Survival Risk Factors of Stroke Patients at a General Hospital in Northern Taiwan

Authors: Hui-Chi Huang, Su-Ju Yang, Ching-Wei Lin, Jui-Yao Tsai, Liang-Yiang


Background: The most common serious complication following acute stroke is pneumonia. It has been associated with the increased morbidity, mortality, and medical cost after acute stroke in elderly patients. Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between stroke patients, risk factors of pneumonia, and one-year survival rates in a group of patients, in a tertiary referal center in Northern Taiwan. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1730 consecutively administered stroke patients were recruited. The Survival analysis and multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the predictors for the one-year survival in stroke patients of a stroke registry database from northern Taiwan. Results: The risk of stroke mortality increased with age≧ 75 (OR=2.305, p < .0001), cancer (OR=3.221, p=<.0001), stayed in intensive care unit (ICU) (OR=2.28, p <.0006), dysphagia (OR=5.026, p<.0001), without speech therapy(OR=0.192, p < .0001),serum albumin < 2.5(OR=0.322, p=.0053) , eGFR > 60(OR=0.438, p <. 0001), admission NIHSS >11(OR=1.631, p=.0196), length of hospitalization (d) > 30(OR=0.608, p=.0227), and stroke subtype (OR=0.506, p=.0032). After adjustment of confounders, pneumonia was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality. However, it is most likely to develop in patients who are age ≧ 75, dyslipidemia , coronary artery disease , albumin < 2.5 , eGFR <60 , ventilator use , stay in ICU , dysphagia, without speech therapy , urinary tract infection , Atrial fibrillation , Admission NIHSS > 11, length of hospitalization > 30(d) , stroke severity (mRS=3-5) ,stroke Conclusion: In this study, different from previous research findings, we found that elderly age, severe neurological deficit and rehabilitation therapy were significantly associated with Post-stroke Pneumonia. However, specific preventive strategies are needed to target the high risk groups to improve their long-term outcomes after acute stroke. These findings could open new avenues in the management of stroke patients.

Keywords: stroke, risk, pneumonia, survival

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2900 Survival Pattern of Under-five Mortality in High Focus States in India

Authors: Rahul Kumar


Background: Under-FiveMortality Rate(U5MR)ofanationiswidelyacceptedandlong-standing indicators of well-beingofherchildren.They measuredtheprobability of dying before theageoffive(expressedper1000livebirths).TheU5MRisanappropriate indicator of the cumulative exposure totheriskofdeathduringthefirstfiveyearsoflife, and accepted globalindicator ofthehealthandsocioeconomicstatusofagiven population.Itisalsousefulforassessing theimpactofvariousintervention programmes aimed at improving child survival.Under-fivemortalitytrendsconstitutealeadingindicatorofthelevel ofchildhealthandoveralldevelopmentincountries. Objectives: The first aim of our research is to study the level, trends, and Pattern of Under-five mortality using different sources of data. The second objective is to examine the survival pattern of Under-five mortality by different background characteristics. Data Source and Methodology: SRS and NFHS data have been used forobservingthelevelandtrendofUnder-Five mortality rate. Kaplan Meier Estimate has been used to understand the survival Pattern of Under-five mortality. Result: WefindthatallmostallthestatesmadesomeprogressbyreducingU5MRin recent decades.During1992-93highestU5MR(per thousand live birth) was observed in Assam(142)followed by up(141),Odisha(131),MP(130),andBihar(127.5).While the least U5MR(perthousandlive birth)wasobservedinRajasthan(102). The highestU5MR(per thousandlive birth)isobservedinUP(78.1), followed by MP(64.9)and Chhattisgarh(63.7)which are far away from the national level(50). Among them, Uttarakhand(46.7)hadleastU5MR(perthousandlivebirth), followed by Odisha(48.6). TheU5MR(perthousandlivebirth)ofcombinedhighfocusstateis63.7whichisfar away fromthenationallevel(50). Weidentified thatthesurvivalprobability ofunder-fivechildrenfromadolescentmotherislessin comparisontootherchildrenbornby differentagegroupofmothers. thatduringneonatalperiodusually male mortality exceedsthefemale mortality butthisdifferentialreversedinthepostneonatalperiod. Astheirageincreasesand approachingtofiveyears,weidentifiedthatthesurvivalprobability ofbothsexdecreasesbut female’s survival probabilitydecrement is more than male as their ageincreases. The poorer children’s survival probability is minimum. Children using improved toilet facility has more survival probability throughout thefiveyearsthan who uses unimproved. The survival probability of children under five who got Full ANCis more than the survival probability of children under five who doesn’t get any ANC. Conclusions: Improvement of maternal education is an urgent need to improve their health seeking behavior and thus the health of their children. Awareness on reproductive health and environmental sanitation should be strengthened.

Keywords: under-five mortality, survival pattern, ANC, trend

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2899 A Comparative Analysis on Survival in Patients with Node Positive Cutaneous Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma as per TNM 7th and TNM 8th Editions

Authors: Petr Daniel Edward Kovarik, Malcolm Jackson, Charles Kelly, Rahul Patil, Shahid Iqbal


Introduction: Recognition of the presence of extra capsular spread (ECS) has been a major change in TNM 8th edition published by the American Joint Committee on Cancer in 2018. Irrespective of size or number of lymph nodes, the presence of ECS makes N3b disease, stage IV disease. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to conduct a comparative analysis on survival outcomes in patients with lymph node positive cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (CHNSCC), based on their TNM 7th and TNM 8th editions classification. Materials and methods: From January 2010 to December 2020, 71 patients with CHNSCC were identified from our centre’s database who were treated with radical surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. All histopathological reports were reviewed and comprehensive nodal mapping was performed. The data were collected retrospectively and survival outcomes were compared using TNM 7th and 8th editions. Results: The median age of the whole group of 71 patients was 78 years, range 54 – 94 years, 63 were male and 8 female. In total, 2246 lymph nodes were analysed; 195 were positive for cancer. ECS was present in 130 lymph nodes, which led to a change in TNM staging. The details on N-stage as per TNM 7th edition was as follows; pN1 = 23, pN2a = 14, pN2b = 32, pN2c = 0, pN3 = 2. After incorporating the TNM 8th edition criterion (presence of ECS), the details on N-stage was as follows; pN1 = 6, pN2a = 5, pN2b = 3, pN2c = 0, pN3a = 0, pN3b = 57. This showed an increase in overall stage. According to TNM 7th edition, there were 23 patients were with stage III and remaining 48 patients, stage IV. As per TNM 8th edition, there were only 6 patients with stage III as compared to 65 patients with stage IV. For all patients, 2-year disease specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were 70% and 46%. 5-year DSS and OS rates were 66% and 20% respectively. Comparing the survival between stage III and stage IV of the two cohorts using both TNM 7th and 8th editions, there is an obvious greater survival difference between the stages if TNM 8th staging is used. However, meaningful statistics were not possible as the majority of patients (n = 65) were with stage IV and only 6 patients were stage III in the TNM 8th cohort. Conclusion: Our study provides a comprehensive analysis on lymph node data mapping in this specific patient population. It shows a better differentiation between stage III and stage IV in the TNM 8th edition as compared to the TNM 7th however meaningful statistics were not possible due to imbalance of patients in the sub-cohorts of the groups.

Keywords: cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, extra capsular spread, neck lymphadenopathy, TNM 7th and 8th editions

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2898 Plant Supporting Units (Ekobox) Application Project for Increasing Planting Success in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Authors: Gürcan D. Baysal, Ali Tanış


In this study, samples of plant types including rose hip (Rosa canina L.), jujube (Ziziphus jujube), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) were grown using plant supporting units called Ekobox and drip irrigation systems in the Karapınar, Konya region of Turkey to reveal the efficiency of Ekobox and drip irrigation compared against a control with no irrigation. The plant diameter, height, and survival rates were determined, compared with each other, and statistically analyzed. According to the statistical analysis of the results, Ekobox applications resulted in the highest values for survival rate, diameter, and height measurements whereas the lowest values were determined in the control groups. These results indicate that the cultivation of plants with Ekobox may help protect against the loss of fertile soils as an effective mechanism for combating erosion and desertification. These advantages may also lead to a lasting economic effect on the cultivation of plants by locals of the Karapınar, Konya province who suffer from an ever-decreasing underground water level as a result of agricultural consumption.

Keywords: drip irrigation, ekobox, plant diameter, plant height, plant survival rate

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2897 Nutritional Indices and Biology of the Armyworm, Spodoptera litura on Five Cotton Varieties

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin


The effects of CB1, CB3, CB5, CB8 and CB12 cotton varieties on the nutritional indices and biological parameters of armyworm Spodoptera litura were studied under laboratory conditions. The armyworm larvae showed the highest and lowest food consumption rates on CB8 and CB1 variety, respectively. The efficiency of the conversion of digested food, efficiency of conversion of ingested food, approximate digestibility rates were statistically higher and similar on CB5 and CB8, and lowest on CB1. The larvae reared on CB12 variety exerted the lowest feeding and growth indices, and the relative growth rate was highest on CB8. The survival rates of egg, larva, pupa and adult moths were found highest on CB8 and lowest on CB12. The development durations of the immature stages of the insect differed significantly and the time elapsed from egg-to-adult emergence, longevity of both male and female moths, and their lifecycle were shortest on CB12 variety. The nutritional indices and biological parameters of the armyworm indicated that the varieties CB5 and CB8 were suitable host plants for feeding and development of S. litura.

Keywords: gossypium hirsutum, spodoptera litura, food consumption, life history

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2896 Apollo Clinical Excellence Scorecard ([email protected]): An Initiative to Drive Quality Improvement in Hospitals

Authors: Anupam Sibal


Whatever is measured tends to improve. With a view to objectively measuring and improving clinical quality across the Apollo Group Hospitals, the initiative of ACE @ 25 (Apollo Clinical [email protected]) was launched on Jan 09. ACE @ 25 is a clinically balanced scorecard incorporating 25 clinical quality parameters involving complication rates, mortality rates, one-year survival rates and average length of stay after major procedures like liver and renal transplant, CABG, TKR, THR, TURP, PTCA, endoscopy, large bowel resection and MRM covering all major specialties. Also included are hospital acquired infection rates, pain satisfaction and medication errors. Benchmarks have been chosen from the world’s best hospitals. There are weighted scores for outcomes color coded green, orange and red. The cumulative score is 100. Data is reported monthly by 43 Group Hospitals online on the Lighthouse platform. Action taken reports for parameters falling in red are submitted quarterly and reviewed by the board. An audit team audits the data at all locations every six months. Scores are linked to appraisal of the medical head and there is an “ACE @ 25” Champion Award for the highest scorer. Scores for different parameters were variable from green to red at the start of the initiative. Most hospitals showed an improvement in scores over the last four years for parameters where they had showed scores in red or orange at the start of the initiative. The overall scores for the group have shown an increase from 72 in 2010 to 81 in 2015.

Keywords: benchmarks, clinical quality, lighthouse, platform, scores

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