Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 227

Search results for: biogenic amine

227 Ammonia and Biogenic Amine Production of Fish Spoilage Bacteria: Affected by Olive Leaf, Olive Cake and Black Water

Authors: E. Kuley, M. Durmuş, E. Balikci, G. Ozyurt, Y. Uçar, F. Kuley, F. Ozogul, Y. Ozogul


Ammonia and biogenic amine production of fish spoilage bacteria in sardine infusion decarboxylase broth and antimicrobial effect of olive by products (olive leaf extract:OL, olive cake: OC and black water:BW) was monitored using HPLC method. Fish spoilage bacteria produced all biogenic amine tested, mainly histamine and serotonin. Ammonia was accumulated more than 13.60 mg/L. Histamine production was in range 37.50 mg/L by Ser. liquefaciens and 86.71 mg/L by Ent. cloacae. The highest putrescine and cadaverine production was observed by Ent. cloacae (17.80 vs. 17.69 mg/L). The presence of OL, OC and BW in the broth significantly affected biogenic amine accumulation by bacteria. The antibacterial effect of olive by products depended on bacterial strains. OL and OC resulted in significant inhibition effect on HIS accumulation by bacteria apart from Ser. liquefaciens and Prot. mirabilis. The study result revealed that usefulness of OL and OC to prevent the accumulation of this amine which may affect human health.

Keywords: Antimicrobials, biogenic amine, fish spoilage bacteria, olive-by products

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226 Antimicrobial Functions of Some Spice Extracts Such as Sumac, Cumin, Black Pepper and Red Pepper on the Growth of Common Food-Borne Pathogens and Their Biogenic Amine Formation

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Esmeray Kuley Boga, Ferhat Kuley, Yesim Özogul


The impact of diethyl ether extract of spices (sumac, cumin, black pepper and red pepper) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Camplylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia enterocolitica and their biogenic amine production were investigated in tyrosine decarboxylase broth. Sumac extract generally had the highest activity to inhibit bacterial growth compared to other extracts, although antimicrobial effect of extracts used varied depending on bacterial strains. Sumac extract resulted in 3.34 and 2.54 log reduction for Y. enterocolitica and Camp. jejuni growth, whilst red pepper extract induced 0.65, 0.41 and 0.34 log reduction for growth of Y. enterocolitica, S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus, respectively. Spice extracts significantly inhibited ammonia production by bacteria (P < 0.05). Eleven and nine fold reduction on ammonia production by S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus were observed in the presence of sumac extract. Dopamine, agmatine, tyramine, serotonin and TMA were main amines produced by bacteria. Tyramine production by food-borne-pathogens was more than 10 mg/L, whereas histamine accumulated below 52 mg/L. The effect of spice extracts on biogenic amine production varied depending on amino acid decarboxylase broth, spice type, bacterial strains and specific amine, although cumin extract generally increased biogenic amine production by bacteria.

Keywords: antimicrobials, biogenic amines, food-borne pathogens, spice extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
225 The Impact of the Cell-Free Solution of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Cadaverine Production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Lysine-Decarboxylase Broth

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Nurten Toy, Yesim Özogul


The influences of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on cadaverine and other biogenic amine production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in lysine decarboxylase broth (LDB) using HPLC. Cell-free solutions were prepared from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophiles. Two different concentrations that were 50% and 25% CFS and the control without CFSs were prepared. Significant variations on biogenic amine production were observed in the presence of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus (P<0.05). The role of CFS on biogenic amine production by foodborne pathogens varied depending on strains and specific amine. Cadaverine formation in control by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 500.9 and 948.1 mg/L, respectively while the CFSs of LAB induced 4-fold lower cadaverine production by L. monocytogenes and 7-fold lower cadaverine production by S. aureus. CFSs resulted in strong decreases in cadaverine and putrescine production by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, although remarkable increases were observed for histamine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, tyramine, and agmatine, in the presence of LAB in lysine decarboxylase broth.

Keywords: cell-free solution, lactic acid bacteria, cadaverine, food borne-pathogen

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224 Biogenic Amines Production during RAS Cheese Ripening

Authors: Amr Amer


Cheeses are among those high-protein-containing foodstuffs in which enzymatic and microbial activities cause the formation of biogenic amines from amino acids decarboxylation. The amount of biogenic amines in cheese may act as a useful indicator of the hygienic quality of the product. In other words, their presence in cheese is related to its spoilage and safety. Formation of biogenic amines during Ras cheese (Egyptian hard cheese) ripening was investigated for 4 months. Three batches of Ras cheese were manufactured using Egyptian traditional method. From each batch, Samples were collected at 1, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after cheese manufacture. The concentrations of biogenic amines (Tyramine, Histamine, Cadaverine and Tryptamine) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There was a significant increased (P<0.05) in Tyramine levels from 4.34± 0.07 mg|100g in the first day of storage till reached 88.77± 0.14 mg|100g at a 120-day of storage. Also, Histamine and Cadaverine levels had the same increased pattern of Tyramine reaching 64.94± 0.10 and 28.28± 0.08 mg|100g in a 120- day of storage, respectively. While, there was a fluctuation in the concentration of Tryptamine level during ripening period as it decreased from 3.24± 0.06 to 2.66± 0.11 mg|100g at 60-day of storage then reached 5.38±0.08 mg|100g in a 120- day of storage. Biogenic amines can be formed in cheese during production and storage: many variables, as pH, salt concentration, bacterial activity as well as moisture, storage temperature and ripening time, play a relevant role in their formation. Comparing the obtained results with the recommended standard by Food and Drug Administration "FDA" (2001), High levels of biogenic amines in various Ras cheeses consumed in Egypt exceeded the permissible value (10 mg%) which seemed to pose a threat to public health. In this study, presence of high concentrations of biogenic amines (Tyramine, Histamine, cadaverine and Tryptamine) in Egyptian Ras cheeses reflects the bad hygienic conditions under which they produced and stored. Accordingly, the levels of biogenic amines in different cheeses should be come in accordance with the safe permissible limit recommended by FDA to ensure human safety.

Keywords: Ras cheese, biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, cadaverine

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223 Methods for Mitigating Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid in Sewerage Systems: State of the Art Review

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, M. Avella


Corrosion is an imminent process in nature, which affects all types of materials. In sewerage systems, the corrosion process caused by microorganisms, also known as biogenic sulfuric acid attack, has been studied. This affects the structural integrity of the concrete drainage pipes and the sewage treatment plants. This article is a review of research which focuses on the study of how to reduce the production of hydrogen sulfide, how to improve the resistance of concrete through the use of additives and the implementation of antimicrobial techniques to reduce bacterial growth.

Keywords: bactericides, biogenic sulfuric acid, corrosion, concrete, hydrogen sulphide, nano materials, zeolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
222 Synthesis and Characterization of Model Amines for Corrosion Applications

Authors: John Vergara, Giuseppe Palmese


Fundamental studies aimed at elucidating the key contributions to corrosion performance are needed to make progress toward effective and environmentally compliant corrosion control. Epoxy/amine systems are typically employed as barrier coatings for corrosion control. However, the hardening agents used for coating applications can be very complex, making fundamental studies of water and oxygen permeability challenging to carry out. Creating model building blocks for epoxy/amine coatings is the first step in carrying out these studies. We will demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of model amine building blocks from saturated fatty acids and simple amines such as diethylenetriamine (DETA) and Bis(3-aminopropyl)amine. The structure-property relationship of thermosets made from these model amines and Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGBEA) will be discussed.

Keywords: building block, amine, synthesis, characterization

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221 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan


PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of the concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to a decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
220 Evaluation of Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid (BSA) on the Concrete Structures of Sewerage Systems: Chemical Tests

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, O. Rojas


The research studies of the kinetics of the corrosion process that attacks concrete and occurs within sewerage systems agree on the amount of variables that interfere in the process. This study aims to check the impact of the pH levels of the corrosive environment and the concrete surface, the concentrations of chemical sulfuric acid, and in turn, measure the resistance of concrete to this attack under controlled laboratory conditions; it also aims to contribute to the development of further research related to the topic, in order to compare the impact of biogenic sulfuric acid and chemical sulfuric acid involvement on concrete structures, especially in scenarios such as sewerage systems.

Keywords: acid sulfuric, concrete, corrosion, biogenic

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219 Synthesis, Characterization of Pd Nanoparticle Supported on Amine-Functionalized Graphene and Its Catalytic Activity for Suzuki Coupling Reaction

Authors: Surjyakanta Rana, Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda


Synthesis of well distributed Pd nanoparticles (3 – 7 nm) on organo amine-functionalized graphene is reported, which demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards Suzuki coupling reaction. The active material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier-transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and HRTEM. FT-IR revealed that the organic amine functional group was successfully grafted onto the graphene oxide surface. The formation of palladium nanoparticles was confirmed by XPS, TEM and HRTEM techniques. The catalytic activity in the coupling reaction was superb with 100% conversion and 98 % yield and also activity remained almost unaltered up to six cycles. Typically, an extremely high turnover frequency of 185,078 h-1 is observed in the C-C Suzuki coupling reaction using organo di-amine functionalized graphene as catalyst.

Keywords: Di-amine, graphene, Pd nanoparticle, suzuki coupling

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218 Investigation of Alfa Fibers Reinforced Epoxy-Amine Composites Properties

Authors: Amar Boukerrou, Ouerdia Belhadj, Dalila Hammiche, Jean Francois Gerard, Jannick Rumeau


The main goal of this study is the investigation of alfa fiber content, treated with alkali treatment, on the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-amine matrix-based composites. The fibers were treated with 5% of sodium hydroxide solution and varied between 10% to 30% weight fractions. The tensile, flexural, and hardness tests are carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of composites. The results show those composites’ mechanical properties are higher than the neat epoxy-amine. It was noticed that the alkali treatment is more effective in the case of the tensile and flexural modulus than the tensile and flexural strength. The decline of both the tensile and flexural behavior of all composites with the increasing of the filler content was due probably to the random dispersion of the fibers in the epoxy resin The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was employed to analyze the chemical structure of epoxy resin before and after curing with amine hardener. FTIR and DSC analysis confirmed that epoxy resin was completely cured with amine hardener at room temperature. SEM analysis has highlighted the microstructure of epoxy matrix and its composites.

Keywords: alfa fiber, epoxy resin, alkali treatment, mechanical properties

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217 Chiral Amine Synthesis and Recovery by Using High Molecular Weight Amine Donors

Authors: Claudia Matassa, Matthias Hohne, Dominic Ormerod, Yamini Satyawali


Chiral amines integrate the backbone of several active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) used in modern medicine for the treatment of a vast range of diseases. Despite the demand, their synthesis remains challenging. Besides a range of chemicals and enzymatical methods, chiral amine synthesis using transaminases (EC 2.6.1.W) represents a useful alternative to access this important class of compounds. Even though transaminases exhibit excellent stereo and regioselectivity and the potential for high yield, the reaction suffers from a number of challenges, including the thermodynamic equilibrium, product inhibition, and low substrate solubility. In this work, we demonstrate a membrane assisted strategy for addressing these challenges. It involves the use of high molecular weight (HMW) amine donors for the transaminase-catalyzed synthesis of 4-phenyl-2-butylamine in both aqueous and organic solvent media. In contrast to common amine donors such as alanine or isopropylamine, these large molecules, provided in excess for thermodynamic equilibrium shifting, are easily retained by commercial nanofiltration membranes; thus a selective permeation of the desired smaller product amine is possible. The enzymatic transamination in aqueous media, combined with selective product removal shifted the equilibrium enhancing substrate conversion by an additional 25% compared to the control reaction. Along with very efficient amine product removal, there was undesirable loss of ketone substrate and low product concentration was achieved. The system was therefore further improved by performing the reaction in organic solvent (n-heptane). Coupling the reaction system with membrane-assisted product removal resulted in a highly concentrated and relatively pure ( > 97%) product solution. Moreover, a product yield of 60% was reached, compared to 15% without product removal.

Keywords: amine donor, chiral amines, in situ product removal, transamination

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216 Composition and Catalytic Behaviour of Biogenic Iron Containing Materials Obtained by Leptothrix Bacteria Cultivation in Different Growth Media

Authors: M. Shopska, D. Paneva, G. Kadinov, Z. Cherkezova-Zheleva, I. Mitov


The iron containing materials are used as catalysts in different processes. The chemical methods of their synthesis use toxic and expensive chemicals; sophisticated devices; energy consumption processes that raise their cost. Besides, dangerous waste products are formed. At present time such syntheses are out of date and wasteless technologies are indispensable. The bioinspired technologies are consistent with the ecological requirements. Different microorganisms participate in the biomineralization of the iron and some phytochemicals are involved, too. The methods for biogenic production of iron containing materials are clean, simple, nontoxic, realized at ambient temperature and pressure, cheaper. The biogenic iron materials embrace different iron compounds. Due to their origin these substances are nanosized, amorphous or poorly crystalline, porous and have number of useful properties like SPM, high magnetism, low toxicity, biocompatibility, absorption of microwaves, high surface area/volume ratio, active sites on the surface with unusual coordination that distinguish them from the bulk materials. The biogenic iron materials are applied in the heterogeneous catalysis in different roles - precursor, active component, support, immobilizer. The application of biogenic iron oxide materials gives rise to increased catalytic activity in comparison with those of abiotic origin. In our study we investigated the catalytic behavior of biomasses obtained by cultivation of Leptothrix bacteria in three nutrition media – Adler, Fedorov, and Lieske. The biomass composition was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and transmission IRS. Catalytic experiments on CO oxidation were carried out using in situ DRIFTS. Our results showed that: i) the used biomasses contain α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, γ-Fe2O3 in different ratios; ii) the biomass formed in Adler medium contains γ-FeOOH as main phase. The CO conversion was about 50% as evaluated by decreased integrated band intensity in the gas mixture spectra during the reaction. The main phase in the spent sample is γ-Fe2O3; iii) the biomass formed in Lieske medium contains α-FeOOH. The CO conversion was about 20%. The main phase in the spent sample is α-Fe2O3; iv) the biomass formed in Fedorov medium contains γ-Fe2O3 as main phase. CO conversion in the test reaction was about 19%. The results showed that the catalytic activity up to 200°C resulted predominantly from α-FeOOH and γ-FeOOH. The catalytic activity at temperatures higher than 200°C was due to the formation of γ-Fe2O3. The oxyhydroxides, which are the principal compounds in the biomass, have low catalytic activity in the used reaction; the maghemite has relatively good catalytic activity; the hematite has activity commensurate with that of the oxyhydroxides. Moreover it can be affirmed that catalytic activity is inherent in maghemite, which is obtained by transformation of the biogenic lepidocrocite, i.e. it has biogenic precursor.

Keywords: nanosized biogenic iron compounds, catalytic behavior in reaction of CO oxidation, in situ DRIFTS, Moessbauer spectroscopy

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215 Synthesis of Amine Functionalized MOF-74 for Carbon Dioxide Capture

Authors: Ghulam Murshid, Samil Ullah


Scientific studies suggested that the incremented greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, particularly of carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major factors in global warming. The concentration of CO2 in our climate has crossed the milestone level of 400 parts per million (ppm) hence breaking the record of human history. A report by 49 researchers from 10 countries said, 'Global CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels will rise to a record 36 billion metric tons (39.683 billion tons) this year.' Main contributors of CO2 in to the atmosphere are usage of fossil fuel, transportation sector and power generation plants. Among all available technologies, which include; absorption via chemicals, membrane separation, cryogenic and adsorption are in practice around the globe. Adsorption of CO2 using metal organic frameworks (MOF) is getting interest of researcher around the globe. In the current work, MOF-74 as well as modified MOF-74 with a sterically hindered amine (AMP) was synthesized and characterized. The modification was carried out using a sterically hindered amine in order to study the effect on its adsorption capacity. Resulting samples were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analyser (TGA) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The FTIR results clearly confirmed the formation of MOF-74 structure and the presence of AMP. FESEM and TEM revealed the topography and morphology of the both MOF-74 and amine modified MOF. BET isotherm result shows that due to the addition of AMP in to the structure, significant enhancement of CO2 adsorption was observed.

Keywords: adsorbents, amine, CO2, global warming

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214 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review

Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi


Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.

Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
213 Biogas Separation, Alcohol Amine Solutions

Authors: Jingxiao Liang, David Rooneyman


Biogas, which is a valuable renewable energy source, can be produced by anaerobic fermentation of agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste, or food waste. It is composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) but also contains significant quantities of undesirable compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and siloxanes. Since typical raw biogas contains 25–45% CO2, The requirements for biogas quality depend on its further application. Before biogas is being used more efficiently, CO2 should be removed. One of the existing options for biogas separation technologies is based on chemical absorbents, in particular, mono-, di- and tri-alcohol amine solutions. Such amine solutions have been applied as highly efficient CO2 capturing agents. The benchmark in this experiment is N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) with piperazine (PZ) as an activator, from CO2 absorption Isotherm curve, optimization conditions are collected, such as activator percentage, temperature etc. This experiment makes new alcohol amines, which could have the same CO2 absorbing ability as activated MDEA, using glycidol as one of reactant, the result is quite satisfying.

Keywords: biogas, CO2, MDEA, separation

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212 Flowsheet Development, Simulation and Optimization of Carbon-Di-Oxide Removal System at Natural Gas Reserves by Aspen–Hysys Process Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Ruhul Amin, Nusrat Jahan


Natural gas is a cleaner fuel compared to the others. But it needs some treatment before it is in a state to be used. So natural gas purification is an integral part of any process where natural gas is used as raw material or fuel. There are several impurities in natural gas that have to be removed before use. CO2 is one of the major contaminants. In this project we have removed CO2 by amine process by using MEA solution. We have built up the whole amine process for removing CO2 in Aspen Hysys and simulated the process. At the end of simulation we have got very satisfactory results by using MEA solution for the removal of CO2. Simulation result shows that amine absorption process enables to reduce CO2 content from NG by 58%. HYSYS optimizer allowed us to get a perfect optimized plant. After optimization the profit of existing plant is increased by 2.34 %.Simulation and optimization by Aspen-HYSYS simulator makes available us to enormous information which will help us to further research in future.

Keywords: Aspen–Hysys, CO2 removal, flowsheet development, MEA solution, natural gas optimization

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211 Amine Hardeners with Carbon Nanotubes Dispersing Ability for Epoxy Coating Systems

Authors: Szymon Kugler, Krzysztof Kowalczyk, Tadeusz Spychaj


An addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) can simultaneously improve many features of epoxy coatings, i.e. electrical, mechanical, functional and thermal. Unfortunately, this nanofiller negatively affects visual properties of the coatings, such as transparency and gloss. The main reason for the low visual performance of CNT-modified epoxy coatings is the lack of compatibility between CNT and popular amine curing agents, although epoxy resins based on bisphenol A are indisputable good CNT dispersants. This is a serious obstacle in utilization of the coatings in advanced applications, demanding both high transparency and electrical conductivity. The aim of performed investigations was to find amine curing agents exhibiting affinity for CNT, and ensuring good performance of epoxy coatings with them. Commercially available CNT was dispersed in epoxy resin, as well as in different aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and aromatic amines, using one of two dispergation methods: ultrasonic or mechanical. The CNT dispersions were subsequently used in the preparation of epoxy coating compositions and coatings on a transparent substrate. It was found that amine derivative of bio-based cardanol, as well as modified o-tolylbiguanide exhibit significant CNT, dispersing properties, resulting in improved transparent/electroconductive performance of epoxy coatings. In one of prepared coating systems just 0.025 wt.% (250 ppm) of CNT was enough to obtain coatings with semi conductive properties, 83% of transparency as well as perfect chemical resistance to methyl-ethyl ketone and improved thermal stability. Additionally, a theory of the influence of amine chemical structure on CNT dispersing properties was proposed.

Keywords: bio-based cardanol, carbon nanotubes, epoxy coatings, tolylbiguanide

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210 Molecular Dynamic Simulation of CO2 Absorption into Mixed Aqueous Solutions MDEA/PZ

Authors: N. Harun, E. E. Masiren, W. H. W. Ibrahim, F. Adam


Amine absorption process is an approach for mitigation of CO2 from flue gas that produces from power plant. This process is the most common system used in chemical and oil industries for gas purification to remove acid gases. On the challenges of this process is high energy requirement for solvent regeneration to release CO2. In the past few years, mixed alkanolamines have received increasing attention. In most cases, the mixtures contain N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as the base amine with the addition of one or two more reactive amines such as PZ. The reason for the application of such blend amine is to take advantage of high reaction rate of CO2 with the activator combined with the advantages of the low heat of regeneration of MDEA. Several experimental and simulation studies have been undertaken to understand this process using blend MDEA/PZ solvent. Despite those studies, the mechanism of CO2 absorption into the aqueous MDEA is not well understood and available knowledge within the open literature is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the intermolecular interaction of the blend MDEA/PZ using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. MD simulation was run under condition 313K and 1 atm using NVE ensemble at 200ps and NVT ensemble at 1ns. The results were interpreted in term of Radial Distribution Function (RDF) analysis through two system of interest i.e binary and tertiary. The binary system will explain the interaction between amine and water molecule while tertiary system used to determine the interaction between the amine and CO2 molecule. For the binary system, it was observed that the –OH group of MDEA is more attracted to water molecule compared to –NH group of MDEA. The –OH group of MDEA can form the hydrogen bond with water that will assist the solubility of MDEA in water. The intermolecular interaction probability of –OH and –NH group of MDEA with CO2 in blended MDEA/PZ is higher than using single MDEA. This findings show that PZ molecule act as an activator to promote the intermolecular interaction between MDEA and CO2.Thus, blend of MDEA with PZ is expecting to increase the absorption rate of CO2 and reduce the heat regeneration requirement.

Keywords: amine absorption process, blend MDEA/PZ, CO2 capture, molecular dynamic simulation, radial distribution function

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209 Quest for an Efficient Green Multifunctional Agent for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles with Highly Specified Structural Properties

Authors: Niharul Alam


The development of energy efficient, economic and eco-friendly synthetic protocols for metal nanoparticles (NPs) with tailor-made structural properties and biocompatibility is a highly cherished goal for researchers working in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this context, green chemistry is highly relevant and the 12 principles of Green Chemistry can be explored to develop such synthetic protocols which are practically implementable. One of the most promising green chemical synthetic methods which can serve the purpose is biogenic synthetic protocol, which utilizes non-toxic multifunctional reactants derived from natural, biological sources ranging from unicellular organisms to higher plants that are often characterized as “medicinal plants”. Over the past few years, a plethora of medicinal plants have been explored as the source of this kind of multifunctional green chemical agents. In this presentation, we focus on the syntheses of stable monometallic Au and Ag NPs and also bimetallic Au/Ag alloy NPs with highly efficient catalytic property using aqueous extract of leaves of Indian Curry leaf plat (Murraya koenigii Spreng.; Fam. Rutaceae) as green multifunctional agents which is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine and cuisine. We have also studied the interaction between the synthesized metal NPs and surface-adsorbed fluorescent moieties, quercetin and quercetin glycoside which are its chemical constituents. This helped us to understand the surface property of the metal NPs synthesized by this plant based biogenic route and to predict a plausible mechanistic pathway which may help in fine-tuning green chemical methods for the controlled synthesis of various metal NPs in future. We observed that simple experimental parameters e.g. pH and temperature of the reaction medium, concentration of multifunctional agent and precursor metal ions play important role in the biogenic synthesis of Au NPs with finely tuned structures.

Keywords: green multifunctional agent, metal nanoparticles, biogenic synthesis

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208 Preparation and Characterization of AlkylAmines’ Surface Functionalized Activated Carbons for Dye Removal

Authors: Said M. AL-Mashaikhi, El-Said I. El-Shafey, Fakhreldin O. Suliman, Saleh Al-Busafi


Activated carbon (AC) was prepared from date palm leaflets via NaOH activation. AC was oxidized using nitric acid, producing oxidized activated carbon (OAC). OAC was surface functionalized using different amine surfactants, including methylamine (ONM), ethylamine (ONE), and diethylamine (ONDE) using the amide coupling process. Produced carbons were surface characterized for surface area and porosity, X-ray diffraction, SEM, FTIR, and TGA. AC surface area (580 m²/g) has shown a decrease in oxidation to 260 m²/g for OAC. On amine functionalization, the surface area has further decreased to 218, 108, and 20 m²/g on functionalization with methylamine, ethylamine, and diethylamine, respectively. FTIR and TGA showed that the nature of amine functionalization of AC is chemical. Methylene blue sorption was tested on these carbons in terms of kinetics and equilibrium. Sorption was found faster on amine-functionalized carbons than both AC and OAC, and this is due to hydrophobic interaction with the alkyl groups immobilized with data following pseudo second-order reaction. On the other hand, AC showed the slowest adsorption kinetic process due to the diffusion in the porous structure of AC. Sorption equilibrium data was found to follow the Langmuir sorption isotherm with maximum sorption found on ONE. Regardless of its lower surface area than activated carbon, ethylamine functionalized AC showed better performance than AC in terms of kinetics and equilibrium for dye removal.

Keywords: activated carbon, dye removal, functionalization, hydrophobic interaction, water treatment

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207 Cranioplasty with Custom Implant Realized Using 3D Printing Technology

Authors: Trad Khodja Rafik, Mahtout Amine, Ghoul Rachid, Benbouali Amine, Boulahlib Amine, Hariza Abdelmalik


Cranioplasty with custom implant realized using 3D printing technology. Cranioplasty is a surgical act that aims restoring cranial bone losses in order to protect the brain from external aggressions and to improve the patient aesthetic appearance. This objective can be achieved with taking advantage of the current technological development in computer science and biomechanics. The objective of this paper it to present an approach for the realization of high precision biocompatible cranial implants using new 3D printing technologies at the lowest cost. The proposed method is to reproduce the missing part of the skull by referring to its healthy contralateral part. Once the model is validated by the neurosurgeons, a mold is 3D printed for the production of a biocompatible implant in Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic cement. Using this procedure four patients underwent this procedure with excellent aesthetic results.

Keywords: cranioplasty, cranial bone loss, 3D printing technology, custom-made implants, PMMA

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206 Constraints on Source Rock Organic Matter Biodegradation in the Biogenic Gas Fields in the Sanhu Depression, Qaidam Basin, Northwestern China: A Study of Compound Concentration and Concentration Ratio Changes Using GC-MS Data

Authors: Mengsha Yin


Extractable organic matter (EOM) from thirty-six biogenic gas source rocks from the Sanhu Depression in Qaidam Basin in northwestern China were obtained via Soxhlet extraction. Twenty-nine of them were conducted SARA (Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes) separation for bulk composition analysis. Saturated and aromatic fractions of all the extractions were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the compound compositions. More abundant n-alkanes, naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated products occur in samples in shallower depths. From 2000m downward, concentrations of these compounds increase sharply, and concentration ratios of more-over-less biodegradation susceptible compounds coincidently decrease dramatically. ∑iC15-16, 18-20/∑nC15-16, 18-20 and hopanoids/∑n-alkanes concentration ratios and mono- and tri-aromatic sterane concentrations and concentration ratios frequently fluctuate with depth rather than trend with it, reflecting effects from organic input and paleoenvironments other than biodegradation. Saturated and aromatic compound distributions on the saturates and aromatics total ion chromatogram (TIC) traces of samples display different degrees of biodegradation. Dramatic and simultaneous variations in compound concentrations and their ratios at 2000m and their changes with depth underneath cooperatively justified the crucial control of burial depth on organic matter biodegradation scales in source rocks and prompted the proposition that 2000m is the bottom depth boundary for active microbial activities in this study. The study helps to better curb the conditions where effective source rocks occur in terms of depth in the Sanhu biogenic gas fields and calls for additional attention to source rock pore size estimation during biogenic gas source rock appraisals.

Keywords: pore space, Sanhu depression, saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon compound concentration, source rock organic matter biodegradation, total ion chromatogram

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205 Analysis of Histamine Content in Selected Food Products from the Serbian Market

Authors: Brizita Djordjevic, Bojana Vidovic, Milica Zrnic, Uros Cakar, Ivan Stankovic, Davor Korcok, Sladjana Sobajic


Histamine is a biogenic amine, which is formed by enzymatic decarboxylation from the amino acid histidine. It can be found in foods such as fish and fish products, meat and fermented meat products, cheese, wine and beer. The presence of histamine in these foods can indicate microbiological spoilage or poor manufacturing processes. The consumption of food containing large amounts of histamine can have toxicological consequences. In 62 food products (31 canned fish products, 19 wines and 12 cheeses) from the market of Serbia the content of histamine was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (Immunolab GmbH, Kassel, Germany). The detection limits of this assay were 20 µg/kg for fish and cheese and 4 µg/L for wine. The concentration of histamine varied between 0.16-207 mg/kg in canned fish products, 0.03-1.47 mg/kg in cheeses and 0.01- 0.18 mg/L in wines. In all analyzed canned fish products the results obtained for the histamine were below the limits set by European and national legislation, so they can be considered acceptable and safe for the health consumers. The levels of histamine in analyzed cheeses and wines were very low and did not pose safety concerns.

Keywords: cheese, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, histamine, fish products, wine

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204 Characterization of Self-Assembly Behavior of 1-Dodecylamine Molecules on Au (111) Surface

Authors: Wan-Tzu Yen, Yu-Chen Luo, I-Ping Liu, Po-Hsuan Yeh, Sheng-Hsun Fu, Yuh-Lang Lee


Self-assembled characteristics and adsorption performance of 1-dodecylamine molecules on gold (Au) (111) surfaces were characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The present study focused on the formation of 1-dodecylamine (DDA) on a gold surface with respect to the ex-situ arrangement of an adlayer on the Au(111) surface, and phase transition at potential dynamics carried out by EC-STM. This study reveals that alkyl amine molecules were formed an adsorption pattern with highly regular “lie down shape” on Au(111) surface, even in an extreme acid system (pH = 1). Acidic electrolyte (HClO₄) could protonate the surface of alkyl amine of a monolayer of the gold surface when potential shifts to negative. The quite stability of 1-dodecylamine on the gold surface maintained the monolayer across the potential window (0.1-0.8V). This transform model was confirmed by EC-STM. In addition, amine-modified Au(111) electrode adlayer used to examine how to affect an electron transfer across an interface using [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/[Fe(CN)₆]⁴⁻ redox pair containing 0.1 M HClO₄ solution.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, dodecylamine, gold (Au)(111), scanning tunneling microscopy, self-assembled monolayer, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

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203 Split-Flow Method to Reduce Duty Required in Amine Gas Sweetening Units

Authors: Abdallah Sofiane Berrouk, Dara Satyadileep


This paper investigates the feasibility of retrofitting a middle-east based commercial amine sweetening unit with a split-flow scheme which involves withdrawing a portion of partially stripped semi-lean solvent from the stripping column and re-injecting it in the absorption column to reduce the overall energy consumption of the unit. This method is comprehensively explored by performing parametric analysis of the split fraction of the semi-lean solvent using a kinetics based process simulator ProMax V 3.2. Re-boiler duty, condenser duty, solvent cooling and pumping loads are analysed as functions of a split fraction of the semi-lean solvent from the stripper. It is shown that the proposed method significantly reduces the overall energy consumption of the unit resulting in an annual savings of 325,000 USD. The thorough economic analysis is performed using Aspen Economic Evaluation V 8.4 to reveal that the retrofit scheme pays back the capital cost in less than eight years and is highly recommended for any commercial plant having suitable provisions for solvent inlet/withdrawal on the columns.

Keywords: split flow, Amine, gas processing, optimization

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202 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (N-(Pyridin-2-Ylmethylidene)Pyridin-2-Amine: Thermal and Conductivity Properties

Authors: Nuray Yılmaz Baran


The conjugated Schiff base polymers which are also called as polyazomethines are promising materials for various applications due to their good thermal resistance semiconductive, liquid crystal, fiber forming, nonlinear optical outstanding photo- and electroluminescence and antimicrobial properties. In recent years, polyazomethines have attracted intense attention of researchers especially due to optoelectronic properties which have made its usage possible in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells (SCs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and photorefractive holographic materials (PRHMs). In this study, N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine Schiff base was synthesized from condensation reaction of 2-aminopyridine with 2-pyridine carbaldehyde. Polymerization of Schiff base was achieved by polycondensation reaction using NaOCl oxidant in methanol medium at various time and temperatures. The synthesized Schiff base monomer and polymer (Poly(N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine)) was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, XRD techniques. Molecular weight distribution and the surface morphology of the polymer was determined by GPC and SEM-EDAX techniques. Thermal behaviour of the monomer and polymer was investigated by TG/DTG, DTA and DSC techniques.

Keywords: polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers, thermal stability

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201 Study of Isoprene Emissions in Biogenic ad Anthropogenic Environment in Urban Atmosphere of Delhi: The Capital City of India

Authors: Prabhat Kashyap, Krishan Kumar


Delhi, the capital of India, is one of the most populated and polluted city among the world. In terms of air quality, Delhi’s air is degrading day by day & becomes worst of any major city in the world. The role of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) is not much studied in cities like Delhi as a culprit for degraded air quality. They not only play a critical role in rural areas but also determine the atmospheric chemistry of urban areas as well. Particularly, Isoprene (2-methyl 1,3-butadiene, C5H8) is the single largest emitted compound among other BVOCs globally, that influence the tropospheric ozone chemistry in urban environment as the ozone forming potential of isoprene is very high. It is mainly emitted by vegetation & a small but significant portion is also released by vehicular exhaust of petrol operated vehicles. This study investigates the spatial and temporal variations of quantitative measurements of isoprene emissions along with different traffic tracers in 2 different seasons (post-monsoon & winter) at four different locations of Delhi. For the quantification of anthropogenic and biogenic isoprene, two sites from traffic intersections (Punjabi Bagh & CRRI) and two sites from vegetative locations (JNU & Yamuna Biodiversity Park) were selected in the vicinity of isoprene emitting tree species like Ficus religiosa, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus species etc. The concentrations of traffic tracers like benzene, toluene were also determined & their robust ratios with isoprene were used to differentiate anthropogenic isoprene with biogenic portion at each site. The ozone forming potential (OFP) of all selected species along with isoprene was also estimated. For collection of intra-day samples (3 times a day) in each season, a pre-conditioned fenceline monitoring (FLM) carbopack X thermal desorption tubes were used and further analysis was done with Gas chromatography attached with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of the study proposed that the ambient air isoprene is always higher in post-monsoon season as compared to winter season at all the sites because of high temperature & intense sunlight. The maximum isoprene emission flux was always observed during afternoon hours in both seasons at all sites. The maximum isoprene concentration was found to be 13.95 ppbv at Biodiversity Park during afternoon time in post monsoon season while the lower concentration was observed as low as 0.07 ppbv at the same location during morning hours in winter season. OFP of isoprene at vegetation sites is very high during post-monsoon because of high concentrations. However, OFP for other traffic tracers were high during winter seasons & at traffic locations. Furthermore, high correlation between isoprene emissions with traffic volume at traffic sites revealed that a noteworthy share of its emission also originates from road traffic.

Keywords: biogenic VOCs, isoprene emission, anthropogenic isoprene, urban vegetation

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200 Babouchite Siliceous Rocks: Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization

Authors: Ben Yahia Nouha, Sebei Abdelaziz, Boussen Slim, Chaabani Fredj


The present work aims to determine mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of siliceous rock levels and to clarify the origin through geochemical arguments. This study was performed on the deposit of Tabarka-Babouch, which belongs to the northwestern of Tunisia; they spread out the later Miocene. Investigations were carried out to study mineralogical structure by XRD and chemical analysis by ICP-AES. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the powdered natural rocks show that the Babouchite is composed mainly of quartz and clay minerals (smectite, illite, and kaolinite). Siliceous rocks contain quartz as a major silica mineral, which is characterized by two broad reflections at the vicinity of 4.26Å and 3.34 Å, respectively, with a total lack of opal-CT. That confirms that these siliceous rocks are quartz-rich (can reach 90%). Indeed, the amounts of all clay minerals (ACM), constituted essentially by smectite marked by a close association with illite and kaolinite, are relatively high, where their percentages vary from 7 to 46%. Chemical analyses show that the major oxide contents are consistent with mineralogical observations. It reveals that the siliceous rocks of the Babouchite formation are rich in SiO₂. The data of whole-rock chemical analyses indicate that the SiO₂ content is generally in the range 73-91 wt.%; (average: 80.43 wt.%). The concentration of Al₂O₃, which represent the detrital fractions in the studied samples, varies from 3.99 to 10.55 wt. % and Fe₂O₃ from 0.73 to 4.41wt. %. The low levels recorded in CaO (%) show that the carbonate is considered impurities. However, these rocks contain a low amount of some others oxides, such as the following: Na₂O, MgO, K₂O, and TiO₂. The trace elemental distributions also vary with high Sr (up to 84.55 ppm), Cu (5–127 ppm), and Zn (up to 124 ppm), with a relatively lower concentration of Co (2.43-25.54 ppm), Cr (10–61 ppm) and Pb (8-22ppm). The Babouchite siliceous rocks of northwestern of Tunisia have generally high Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn) values (0.63-0.83). The majority of Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn) values are nearly of 0.6, which is the biogenic end-member. Thus, Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn) values revealed the biogenic origin of silica.

Keywords: siliceous rocks, Babouchite formation, XRD, chemical analysis, biogenic silica, Northwestern of Tunisia

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199 Keto-Enol Tautomerism of Salicylideneaniline Substituted

Authors: Rihana Hadjeb, Djamel Barkat


Schiff bases derived from o-hydroxybenzaldehyde has attracted a great interest not only for its promising applications towards linear and non-linear optical properties, biological activity and technological applications but also used as model compounds for the theory of hydrogen bonding. Due to its intramolecular hydrogen bonding, depending on the position of proton in the hydrogen bond o-hydroxy salicylidene Schiff bases exhibit two tautomeric forms, enol-imine (E-form) and keto-enamine (K-form) both in solution and in crystalline state. A zwitterionic structure also appears due to a proton transfer in enol – imine and keto – amine tautomer. These classes of compounds also exhibit thermochromic and photochromic behavior. We undertook in this study the synthesis of ten compounds of hydroxy Schiff bases from the condensation of salicylic aldehyde and aniline substituted in the ortho, meta and para by the methyl, chloro and nitro groups. To study the keto-enol equilibrium of the compounds; UV-VIS spectra were studied in different polarity solvents. The compounds were in tautomeric equilibrium (enol imine O–H•••N, keto-amine O•••H–N forms). For some derivatives of salicylideneanilines the keto-amine form was observed in both ethanol and dioxane. IR results showed that all Schiff bases studied favor the enol-imine form over the keto form.

Keywords: salicylideneaniline, tautomerism, keto-enol equilibrium, UV-VIS spectroscopy, solvent effect

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198 Selective Extraction Separation of Vanadium and Chromium in the Leaching/Aqueous Solution with Trioctylamine

Authors: Xiaohua Jing


Efficient extraction for separation of V and Cr in the leaching/aqueous solution is essential to the reuse of V and Cr in the V-Cr slag. Trioctylamine, a common tertiary amine extractant, with some good characters (e.g., weak base, insoluble in water and good stability) different from N1923, was investigated in this paper. The separation factor of Cr and V can be reached to 230.71 when initial pH of the aqueous solution is 0.5, so trioctylamine can be used for extracting Cr from the leaching/aqueous solution contained V and Cr. The highest extraction percentages of Cr and V were 98.73% and 90.22% when the initial pH values were 0.5 and 1.5, respectively. Via FT-IR spectra of loaded organic phase and trioctylamine, the hydrogen bond association mechanism of extracting V and Cr was investigated, which was the same with the way of extracting the two metals with primary amine N1923.

Keywords: selective extraction, trioctylamine, V and Cr, separation factor, hydrogen bond association

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