Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1822

Search results for: fish spoilage bacteria

1822 Ammonia and Biogenic Amine Production of Fish Spoilage Bacteria: Affected by Olive Leaf, Olive Cake and Black Water

Authors: E. Kuley, M. Durmuş, E. Balikci, G. Ozyurt, Y. Uçar, F. Kuley, F. Ozogul, Y. Ozogul

Abstract:

Ammonia and biogenic amine production of fish spoilage bacteria in sardine infusion decarboxylase broth and antimicrobial effect of olive by products (olive leaf extract:OL, olive cake: OC and black water:BW) was monitored using HPLC method. Fish spoilage bacteria produced all biogenic amine tested, mainly histamine and serotonin. Ammonia was accumulated more than 13.60 mg/L. Histamine production was in range 37.50 mg/L by Ser. liquefaciens and 86.71 mg/L by Ent. cloacae. The highest putrescine and cadaverine production was observed by Ent. cloacae (17.80 vs. 17.69 mg/L). The presence of OL, OC and BW in the broth significantly affected biogenic amine accumulation by bacteria. The antibacterial effect of olive by products depended on bacterial strains. OL and OC resulted in significant inhibition effect on HIS accumulation by bacteria apart from Ser. liquefaciens and Prot. mirabilis. The study result revealed that usefulness of OL and OC to prevent the accumulation of this amine which may affect human health.

Keywords: Antimicrobials, biogenic amine, fish spoilage bacteria, olive-by products

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1821 Properties and Antimicrobial Activity of Fish Protein Isolate/Fish Skin Gelatin Film Containing Basil Leaf Essential Oil and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Yasir Ali Arfat

Abstract:

Composite films based on fish protein isolate (FPI) and fish skin gelatin (FSG) blend incorporated with 50 and 100% (w/w, protein) basil leaf essential oil (BEO) in the absence and presence of 3% (w/w, protein) ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONP) were prepared and characterised. Tensile strength (TS) decreased, whilst elongation at break (EAB) increased as BEO level increased (p < 0.05). However, ZnONP addition resulted in higher TS but lower EAB (p < 0.05). The lowest water vapour permeability (WVP) was observed for the film incorporated with 100% BEO and 3% ZnONP (p < 0.05). BEO and ZnONP incorporation decreased transparency of FPI/FSG films (p < 0.05). FTIR spectra indicated that films added with BEO exhibited higher hydrophobicity. Both BEO and ZnONP had a marked impact on thermal stability of the films. Microstructural study revealed that presence of ZnONP prevented bilayer formation of film containing 100% BEO. FPI/FSG films incorporated with 100% BEO, especially in combination with ZnONP, exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and thus could be used as an active food packaging material to ensure safety and to extend the shelf-life of packaged foods.

Keywords: bionanocomposite, fish protein isolate, fish skin gelatin, basil essential oil, ZnO nanoparticles, antimicrobial packaging

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1820 Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) Detection of Bacteria and Archaea in Fecal Samples

Authors: Maria Nejjari, Michel Cloutier, Guylaine Talbot, Martin Lanthier

Abstract:

The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a staining technique that allows the identification, detection and quantification of microorganisms without prior cultivation by means of epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Oligonucleotide probes have been used to detect bacteria and archaea that colonize the cattle and swine digestive systems. These bacterial strains have been obtained from fecal samples issued from cattle manure and swine slurry. The collection of these samples has been done at 3 different pit’s levels A, B and C with same height. Two collection depth levels have been taken in consideration, one collection level just under the pit’s surface and the second one at the bottom of the pit. Cells were fixed and FISH was performed using oligonucleotides of 15 to 25 nucleotides of length associated with a fluorescent molecule Cy3 or Cy5. The double hybridization using Cy3 probe targeting bacteria (Cy3-EUB338-I) along with a Cy5 probe targeting Archaea (Gy5-ARCH915) gave a better signal. The CLSM images show that there are more bacteria than archaea in swine slurry. However, the choice of fluorescent probes is critical for getting the double hybridization and a unique signature for each microorganism. FISH technique is an easy way to detect pathogens like E. coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella that easily contaminate water streams, agricultural soils and, consequently, food products and endanger human health.

Keywords: archaea, bacteria, detection, FISH, fluorescence

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1819 Quality Analysis of Lake Malawi's Diplotaxodon Fish Species Processed in Solar Tent Dryer versus Open Sun Drying

Authors: James Banda, Jupiter Simbeye, Essau Chisale, Geoffrey Kanyerere, Kings Kamtambe

Abstract:

Improved solar tent dryers for processing small fish species were designed to reduce post-harvest fish losses and improve supply of quality fish products in the southern part of Lake Malawi under CultiAF project. A comparative analysis of the quality of Diplotaxodon (Ndunduma) from Lake Malawi processed in solar tent dryer and open sun drying was conducted using proximate analysis, microbial analysis and sensory evaluation. Proximates for solar tent dried fish and open sun dried fish in terms of proteins, fats, moisture and ash were 63.3±0.15% and 63.3±0.34%, 19.6±0.09% and 19.9±0.25%, 8.3±0.12% and 17.0±0.01%, and 15.6±0.61% and 21.9±0.91% respectively. Crude protein and crude fat showed non-significant differences (p = 0.05), while moisture and ash content were significantly different (p = 001). Open sun dried fish had significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria counts (5.2×10⁶ CFU) than solar tent dried fish (3.9×10² CFU). Most isolated bacteria from solar tent dried and open sun dried fish were 1.0×10¹ and 7.2×10³ for Total coliform, 0 and 4.5 × 10³ for Escherishia coli, 0 and 7.5 × 10³ for Salmonella, 0 and 5.7×10² for shigella, 4.0×10¹ and 6.1×10³ for Staphylococcus, 1.0×10¹ and 7.0×10² for vibrio. Qualitative evaluation of sensory properties showed higher acceptability of 3.8 for solar tent dried fish than 1.7 for open sun dried fish. It is concluded that promotion of solar tent drying in processing small fish species in Malawi would support small-scale fish processors to produce quality fish in terms of nutritive value, reduced microbial contamination, sensory acceptability and reduced moisture content.

Keywords: diplotaxodon, Malawi, open sun drying, solar tent drying

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1818 The Production of B-Group Vitamin by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Importance in Food Industry

Authors: Goksen Arik, Mihriban Korukluoglu

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been used commonly in the food industry. They can be used as natural preservatives because acidifying carried out in the medium can protect the last product against microbial spoilage. Besides, other metabolites produced by LAB during fermentation period have also an antimicrobial effect on pathogen and spoilage microorganisms in the food industry. LAB are responsible for the desirable and distinctive aroma and flavour which are observed in fermented food products such as pickle, kefir, yogurt, and cheese. Various LAB strains are able to produce B-group vitamins such as folate (B11), riboflavin (B2) and cobalamin (B12). Especially wild-type strains of LAB can produce B-group vitamins in high concentrations. These cultures may be used in food industry as a starter culture and also the microbial strains can be used in encapsulation technology for new and functional food product development. This review is based on the current applications of B-group vitamin producing LAB. Furthermore, the new technologies and innovative researches about B vitamin production in LAB have been demonstrated and discussed for determining their usage availability in various area in the food industry.

Keywords: B vitamin, food industry, lactic acid bacteria, starter culture, technology

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1817 The Resistance of Fish Outside of Water Medium

Authors: Febri Ramadhan

Abstract:

Water medium is a vital necessity for the survival of fish. Fish can survive inside/outside of water medium within a certain time. By knowing the level of survival fish at outside of water medium, a person can transport the fish to a place with more efficiently. Transport of live fish from one place to another can be done with wet and dry media system. In this experiment the treatment-given the observed differences in fish species. This experiment aimed to test the degree of resilience of fish out of water media. Based on the ANOVA table is obtained, it can be concluded that the type of fish affects the level of resilience of fish outside the water (Fhit> Ftab).

Keywords: fish, transport, retention rate, fish resiliance

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1816 Control of Spoilage Fungi by Lactobacilli

Authors: Laref Nora, Guessas Bettache

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a major potential to be used in biopreservation methods because they are safe to consume (GRAS: generally regarded as safe) and they naturally occurring microflora of many foods. The preservative action of LAB is due to several antimicrobial metabolites, including lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins, carbon dioxide, diacetyl, and reuterin. Several studies have focused on the antifungal activity compounds from natural sources for biopreservation in alternatives to chemical use. LAB has an antifungal activity which may inhibit food spoilage fungi. Lactobacillus strains isolated from silage prepared in our laboratory by fermentation of grass in anaerobic condition were screened for antifungal activity with overlay assay against Aspergillus spp. The antifungal compounds were originated from organic acids; inhibitory activity did not change after treatment with proteolytic enzymes. Lactobacillus strains were able also to inhibit Trichoderma spp, Penicillium spp, Fusarium roseum, and Stemphylim spp by confrontation assay. The inhibitory activity could be detected against the mould Aspergillus spp in the apricot juice but not in a bakery product. These antifungal compounds have the potential to be used as food biopreservation to inhibit conidia germination, and mycelia growth of spoilage fungi depending on food type, pH of food especially in heat, and cold processed foods.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, antifungal activity

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1815 Analysis of Histamine Content in Selected Food Products from the Serbian Market

Authors: Brizita Djordjevic, Bojana Vidovic, Milica Zrnic, Uros Cakar, Ivan Stankovic, Davor Korcok, Sladjana Sobajic

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Histamine is a biogenic amine, which is formed by enzymatic decarboxylation from the amino acid histidine. It can be found in foods such as fish and fish products, meat and fermented meat products, cheese, wine and beer. The presence of histamine in these foods can indicate microbiological spoilage or poor manufacturing processes. The consumption of food containing large amounts of histamine can have toxicological consequences. In 62 food products (31 canned fish products, 19 wines and 12 cheeses) from the market of Serbia the content of histamine was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (Immunolab GmbH, Kassel, Germany). The detection limits of this assay were 20 µg/kg for fish and cheese and 4 µg/L for wine. The concentration of histamine varied between 0.16-207 mg/kg in canned fish products, 0.03-1.47 mg/kg in cheeses and 0.01- 0.18 mg/L in wines. In all analyzed canned fish products the results obtained for the histamine were below the limits set by European and national legislation, so they can be considered acceptable and safe for the health consumers. The levels of histamine in analyzed cheeses and wines were very low and did not pose safety concerns.

Keywords: cheese, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, histamine, fish products, wine

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1814 Genetic Diversity of Tiger Groupers (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) Challenged with Vibrio Parahaemolyticus and Exposed to Extreme Low Salinities

Authors: Hidayah Triana, Mahir S. Gani, Asmi Citra Malina, Hamka

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity of tiger groupers that are resistant to V. parahaemolyticus and tolerant to low extreme salinities. This research is useful to obtain superior broodstock of fish. Tiger grouper used were 6 to 8 cm obtained from Brackish Water Aquaculture Research Center Gondol (Bali). This study consists of four stages: preliminary stage was adaptation of fish exposed to several concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus (103, 104, 105, 106, and 107 CFU / ml); second stage was test of Lethal Concentration (LC50) of bacteria to fish; third stage was salinity tolerance test (low salinity 12, 14 and 16 ppt) and fourth stage was analysis of DNA profiles. For DNA profiles analysis, genomic DNA of fish were extracted for PCR using primers YNZ-22 and UBC-122 and visualized by electrophoresis method. The results showed that Lethal concentration of bacteria (LC50) to fish was 1,56x106 CFU/ml. Furthermore, survival rate of groupers exposed with low salinities (12, 14, 16 ppt) survival rates were found to be 54,17 %, 66,67 % and 79,16 % respectively. Average of DNA fragment (5 fragments) generated from primer UBC-122 in the group of fish resistant to V.parahaemolyticus and tolerant to low salinities was similar to group of susceptible to low salinities. Primer YNZ-22 generated more diverse of DNA fragments (8,0 and 5,8 fragments) both in the group of fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities compared to primer UBC-122 (5,0 fragments). Size of DNA 1.5 kb resulted from primer YNZ-22. Primer YNZ-22 generated 4 (50 %) and 3 (42,8 %) polymorfic fragments in the group of fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities, respectively. Four (4) monomorfic fragments were found both in the group of fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities. Primer UBC-122 generated 6 (85,7 %) and 9 (90,0 %) polymorfic fragments in the fish tolerant and susceptible to low salinities, respectively.

Keywords: genetic diversity, epinephelus fuscoguttatus, V. parahaemolyticus, PCR-RAPD, low extreme salinity

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1813 Antifungal Lactobacilli Affect Mycelium Morphology and Protect Apricot Juice against Mold Spoilage

Authors: Nora Laref, Bettache Guessas

Abstract:

Preservation of foods mainly depends on delaying or inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria is one of the technological properties researched. The antifungal activity was screened with overlay method of six strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LB54, LB52, LB51, LB20, LB24 Lactobacillus farciminis LB53) isolated from silage, camel milk and carrot against Aspergillus sp. Lactobacillus plantarum and farciminis inhibit spore germination and mycelia growth of Aspergillus sp., the production of antifungal compounds by these strains was detectable after 4h of incubation at 30°C and show total inhibition after 24h in liquid media, but in solid media showed a good inhibition after 96h of incubation, these compounds cause malformations in the thalle, conidiophore and conidia. These strains could be used as agents of biopreservation since have the ability to retard Aspergillus sp., growth in apricot juice with and without sugar conserved in refrigerator but not in bread.

Keywords: lactobacillus, antifungal substances, aspergillus, biopreservation

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1812 Dietary Effect of Probiotic Bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 Isolate from Jeju Island`s Traditional Fermented Food, on Innate Immune Response of Oplegnathus fasciatus Challenged with Vibrio anguillarum

Authors: Dong Hwi Kim, Dharaneedharan Subramanian, So Hyun Park, Ha-Ri Choi, Ji-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hoon Lee, Moon Soo Heo

Abstract:

The present study was performed to evaluate the use of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 isolated from a traditional fermented sea food, as probiotic bacteria in the diets for Rock-bream, Oplegnathus faciatus. A total of 180 fish (187.4 ± 2.7 g) were divided into two groups, control (C) and probiotic (P) group (90 fish per group) in triplicate. C group was fed with basal diet without probiotic, while P group was fed with B. amyloliquefaciens spores at concentration of 1.4 x 106 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of feed. After two months of feeding experiments, P group fish showed significant improvements in body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) compared with C group. Also, bi-weekly assessment of serum protein, glucose, fatty acid profile showed a significant increase in probiotic fed fish than that of control fish group. Similar increase in serum antioxidant and lysozyme activity was found in probiotic fed fish group. Twenty days challenge experiment shows decrease mortality in probiotic fed fish group when compared with that of control group. Hence, these results indicate that the use of B. amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 as a feed supplement, is beneficial to improve the health status of Oplegnathus fasciatus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Oplegnathus fasciatus, probiotic feed, rock bream

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1811 Exploratory Tests of Crude Bacteriocins from Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria

Authors: M. Naimi, M. B. Khaled

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to test in vitro inhibition of food pathogens and spoilage bacteria by crude bacteriocins from autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. Thirty autochthonous lactic acid bacteria isolated previously, belonging to the genera: Lactobacillus, Carnobacterium, Lactococcus, Vagococcus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus, have been screened by an agar spot test and a well diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative harmful bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa under conditions means to reduce lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide effect to select bacteria with high bacteriocinogenic potential. Furthermore, crude bacteriocins semiquantification and heat sensitivity to different temperatures (80, 95, 110°C, and 121°C) were performed. Another exploratory test concerning the response of St. aureus ATCC 6538 to the presence of crude bacteriocins was realized. It has been observed by the agar spot test that fifteen candidates were active toward Gram-positive targets strains. The secondary screening demonstrated an antagonistic activity oriented only against St. aureus ATCC 6538, leading to the selection of five isolates: Lm14, Lm21, Lm23, Lm24, and Lm25 with a larger inhibition zone compared to the others. The ANOVA statistical analysis reveals a small variation of repeatability: Lm21: 0.56%, Lm23: 0%, Lm25: 1.67%, Lm14: 1.88%, Lm24: 2.14%. Conversely, slight variation was reported in terms of inhibition diameters: 9.58± 0.40, 9.83± 0.46, and 10.16± 0.24 8.5 ± 0.40 10 mm for, Lm21, Lm23, Lm25, Lm14and Lm24, indicating that the observed potential showed a heterogeneous distribution (BMS = 0.383, WMS = 0.117). The repeatability coefficient calculated displayed 7.35%. As for the bacteriocins semiquantification, the five samples exhibited production amounts about 4.16 for Lm21, Lm23, Lm25 and 2.08 AU/ml for Lm14, Lm24. Concerning the sensitivity the crude bacteriocins were fully insensitive to heat inactivation, until 121°C, they preserved the same inhibition diameter. As to, kinetic of growth , the µmax showed reductions in pathogens load for Lm21, Lm23, Lm25, Lm14, Lm24 of about 42.92%, 84.12%, 88.55%, 54.95%, 29.97% in the second trails. Inversely, this pathogen growth after five hours displayed differences of 79.45%, 12.64%, 11.82%, 87.88%, 85.66% in the second trails, compared to the control. This study showed potential inhibition to the growth of this food pathogen, suggesting the possibility to improve the hygienic food quality.

Keywords: exploratory test, lactic acid bacteria, crude bacteriocins, spoilage, pathogens

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1810 Kinetic Modeling of Colour and Textural Properties of Stored Rohu (Labeo rohita) Fish

Authors: Pramod K. Prabhakar, Prem P. Srivastav

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Rohu (Labeo rohita) is an Indian major carp and highly relished freshwater food for its unique flavor, texture, and culinary properties. It is highly perishable and, spoilage occurs as a result of series of complicated biochemical changes brought about by enzymes which are the function of time and storage temperature also. The influence of storage temperature (5, 0, and -5 °C) on colour and texture of fish were studied during 14 days storage period in order to analyze kinetics of colour and textural changes. The rate of total colour change was most noticeable at the highest storage temperature (5°C), and these changes were well described by the first order reaction. Texture is an important variable of quality of the fish and is increasing concern to aquaculture industries. Textural parameters such as hardness, toughness and stiffness were evaluated on a texture analyzer for the different day of stored fish. The significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) in hardness was observed after 2nd, 4th and 8th day for the fish stored at 5, 0, and -5 °C respectively. The textural changes of fish during storage followed a first order kinetic model and fitted well with this model (R2 > 0.95). However, the textural data with respect to time was also fitted to modified Maxwell model and found to be good fit with R2 value ranges from 0.96 to 0.98. Temperature dependence of colour and texture change was adequately modelled with the Arrhenius type equation. This fitted model may be used for the determination of shelf life of Rohu Rohu (Labeo rohita) Fish.

Keywords: first order kinetics, biochemical changes, Maxwell model, colour, texture, Arrhenius type equation

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1809 Improving Traditional Methods of Handling Fish from Integrated Pond Culture Systems in Monai Village, New Bussa, Nigeria

Authors: Olokor O. Julius, Ngwu E. Onyebuchi, Ajani K. Emmanuel, Omitoyin O. Bamidele, Olokor O. Linda, Akomas Stella

Abstract:

The study assessed the quality changes of Clarias gariepenus obtained from integrated culture systems (rice, poultry and fish) which were displayed at 31-33oC average daily temperature on the traditional market table used by local fish farmers to sell fish harvested from their ponds and those on an improved table designed for this study. Unlike the conventional table, the improved table was screened against flies and indiscriminate touch by customers. The fishes were displayed on both tables for 9 hours and quality attributes were monitored hourly by trained panelists. For C. gariepinus, the gills, and intestine recorded faster deterioration starting from the fourth and fifth hours while those on the improved table were prolonged by one hour. Scores for skin brightness and texture did not indicate quality deterioration throughout the display period. However, at the end of the storage time, samples on the improved table recorded 1.5 x 104 cfu/g while samples in unscreened table recorded 3.7 x 10 7 cfu/g. The study shows how simple modifications of a traditional practice can help extend keeping qualities of farmed fish, reduce health hazards in local communities where there is no electricity to preserve fish in whatever form despite a boom in aquaculture. Monai community has a fish farm estate of over 200 small holder farmers with annual output capacity of over $10 million dollars. The simple improvement made to farmers practice in this study is to ensure Community hygiene and boost income of peasant fish farmers by improving the market quality of their products.

Keywords: fish spoilage, improved handling, income generation, retail table

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1808 Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Fresh Fish and Fish Products

Authors: Beata Lachtara, Renata Szewczyk, Katarzyna Bielinska, Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek

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Listeria monocytogenes is an important human and animal pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks. The bacteria may be present in different types of food: cheese, raw vegetables, sliced meat products and vacuum-packed sausages, poultry, meat, fish. The most common method, which has been used for the investigation of genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes, is PFGE. This technique is reliable and reproducible and established as gold standard for typing of L. monocytogenes. The aim of the study was characterization by molecular serotyping and PFGE analysis of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from fresh fish and fish products in Poland. A total of 301 samples, including fresh fish (n = 129) and fish products (n = 172) were, collected between January 2014 and March 2016. The bacteria were detected using the ISO 11290-1 standard method. Molecular serotyping was performed with PCR. The isolates were tested with the PFGE method according to the protocol developed by the European Union Reference Laboratory for L. monocytogenes with some modifications. Based on the PFGE profiles, two dendrograms were generated for strains digested separately with two restriction enzymes: AscI and ApaI. Analysis of the fingerprint profiles was performed using Bionumerics software version 6.6 (Applied Maths, Belgium). The 95% of similarity was applied to differentiate the PFGE pulsotypes. The study revealed that 57 of 301 (18.9%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The bacteria were identified in 29 (50.9%) ready-to-eat fish products and in 28 (49.1%) fresh fish. It was found that 40 (70.2%) strains were of serotype 1/2a, 14 (24.6%) 1/2b, two (4.3%) 4b and one (1.8%) 1/2c. Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were presented with the same frequency in both categories of food, whereas serotype 1/2c was detected only in fresh fish. The PFGE analysis with AscI demonstrated 43 different pulsotypes; among them 33 (76.7%) were represented by only one strain. The remaining 10 profiles contained more than one isolate. Among them 8 pulsotypes comprised of two L. monocytogenes isolates, one profile of three isolates and one restriction type of 5 strains. In case of ApaI typing, the PFGE analysis showed 27 different pulsotypes including 17 (63.0%) types represented by only one strain. Ten (37.0%) clusters contained more than one strain among which four profiles covered two strains; three had three isolates, one with five strains, one with eight strains and one with ten isolates. It was observed that the isolates assigned to the same PFGE type were usually of the same serotype (1/2a or 1/2b). The majority of the clusters had strains of both sources (fresh fish and fish products) isolated at different time. Most of the strains grouped in one cluster of the AscI restriction was assigned to the same groups in ApaI investigation. In conclusion, PFGE used in the study showed a high genetic diversity among L. monocytogenes. The strains were grouped into varied clonal clusters, which may suggest different sources of contamination. The results demonstrated that 1/2a serotype was the most common among isolates from fresh fish and fish products in Poland.

Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, molecular characteristic, PFGE, serotyping

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1807 Nanopack: A Nanotechnology-Based Antimicrobial Packaging Solution for Extension of Shelf Life and Food Safety

Authors: Andy Sand, Naama Massad – Ivanir, Nadav Nitzan, Elisa Valderrama, Alfred Wegenberger, Koranit Shlosman, Rotem Shemesh, Ester Segal

Abstract:

Microbial spoilage of food products is of great concern in the food industry due to the direct impact on the shelf life of foods and the risk of foodborne illness. Therefore, food packaging may serve as a crucial contribution to keep the food fresh and suitable for consumption. Active packaging solutions that have the ability to inhibit the development of microorganism in food products attract a lot of interest, and many efforts have been made to engineer and assimilate such solutions on various food products. NanoPack is an EU-funded international project aiming to develop state-of-the-art antimicrobial packaging systems for perishable foods. The project is based on natural essential oils which possess significant antimicrobial activity against many bacteria, yeasts and molds. The essential oils are encapsulated in natural aluminosilicate clays, halloysite nanotubes (HNT's), that serves as a carrier for the volatile essential oils and enable their incorporation into polymer films. During the course of the project, several polyethylene films with diverse essential oils combinations were designed based on the characteristics of their target food products. The antimicrobial activity of the produced films was examined in vitro on a broad spectrum of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds. The films that showed promising in vitro results were successfully assimilated on in vivo active packaging of several food products such as cheese, bread, fruits and raw meat. The results of the in vivo analyses showed significant inhibition of the microbial spoilage, indicating the strong contribution of the NanoPack packaging solutions on the extension of shelf life and reduction of food waste caused by early spoilage throughout the supply chain.

Keywords: food safety, food packaging, essential oils, nanotechnology

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1806 Antimicrobial Potential of Calendula officinalis Extracts on Flavobacterium columnare of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

Authors: Nelson Rotimi Osungbemiro, Sanni Rafiu Olugbenga, Abayomi Olufemi Olajuyigbe

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Ninety Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were exposed to the pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare a Gram Negative bacteria responsible for high mortality in fish pond raised young fish (fries and fingerlings) of Clarias sp. in Southwestern Nigeria. After feeding with 40% crude protein pelletized fish feed for 5 days, the fishes were divided into two groups, one group was treated with extracts from Calendula officinalis flowers, while the second group was not treated (control). The results indicated that, at day 5, colony formation had been manifesting and at day 7, skin lesion occurred and at the 8th day, first mortality of fish occurred, and this continued steadily on the 9th-12th day when all the fishes were dead. Whereas, in the group that was treated with Calendula sp., no single mortality was recorded. This research shows that plant extract from Calendula flowers is an effective antimicrobial agent against the virulent pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare disease.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Flavobacterium columnare, Clarias gariepinus, fish

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1805 Extract and Naphthoquinone Derivatives from in vitro Culture of an Ascomycetous Marine Fungus with Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Uftah Ali M. Shushni, Viola Stuppec, Ulrike Lindequist

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Because of the evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for new antibiotics not only in human but also in veterinary medicine. As part of our ongoing work on the secondary metabolites produced by marine fungi, the organic extract of the culture filtrate of an Ascomycetous fungus, which was found on driftwood collected from the coast of the Greifswalder Bodden, Baltic Sea, Germany displayed antimicrobial activity against some fish and human pathogenic bacteria. Bioactivity-guided column chromatographic separation led to the isolation of 6-Deoxybostrycoidin. The structure was determined from the interpretation of spectroscopic data (UV, MS, and NMR). 6-Deoxybostrycoidin exhibited in vitro activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Flexibacter maritimus with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 25, 12.5 and 12.5 μg/ml respectively.

Keywords: marine fungi, fish pathogenic bacteria, microorganism, medicine

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1804 Enzyme Producing Psyhrophilic Pseudomonas app. Isolated from Poultry Meats

Authors: Ali Aydin, Mert Sudagidan, Aysen Coban, Alparslan Kadir Devrim

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Pseudomonas spp. (specifically, P. fluorescens and P. fragi) are considered the principal spoilage microorganisms of refrigerated poultry meats. The higher the level psychrophilic spoilage Pseudomonas spp. on carcasses at the end of processing lead to decrease the shelf life of the refrigerated product. The aim of the study was the identification of psychrophilic Pseudomonas spp. having proteolytic and lipolytic activities from poultry meats by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, investigation of protease and lipase related genes and determination of proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. In the of isolation procedure, collected chicken meat samples from local markets and slaughterhouses were homogenized and the lysates were incubated on Standard method agar and Skim Milk agar for selection of proteolytic bacteria and tributyrin agar for selection of lipolytic bacteria at +4 °C for 7 days. After detection of proteolytic and lipolytic colonies, the isolates were firstly analyzed by biochemical tests such as Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests. DNA gene sequencing analysis and comparison with GenBank revealed that 126 strong enzyme Pseudomonas spp. were identified as predominantly P. fluorescens (n=55), P. fragi (n=42), Pseudomonas spp. (n=24), P. cedrina (n=2), P. poae (n=1), P. koreensis (n=1), and P. gessardi (n=1). Additionally, protease related aprX gene was screened in the strains and it was detected in 69/126 strains, whereas, lipase related lipA gene was found in 9 Pseudomonas strains. Protease activity was determined using commercially available protease assay kit and 5 strains showed high protease activity. The results showed that psychrophilic Pseudomonas strains were present in chicken meat samples and they can produce important levels of proteases and lipases for food spoilage to decrease food quality and safety.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, chicken meat, protease, lipase

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1803 Effect of High Pressure Treatment on the Microbial Contamination and on Some Chemical and Physical Properties of Minced Chicken

Authors: Siddig H. Hamad, Salah M. Al-Eid, Fahad M. Al-Jassas

Abstract:

Composite samples of minced chicken were vacuum-packaged and pressure treated at 300, 400, 450 and 500 MPa in a Stansted 'FOOD-LAB' model S-FL-850-9-W high hydrostatic pressure research apparatus (Stansted Fluid Power Ltd., Stansted, UK). Treated and untreated samples were then stored at 3°C, and microbial content as well as some chemical and physical properties monitored. The microbial load of the untreated samples reached the spoilage level of 107 cfu/g in about one week, resulting in bad smell and dark brown color. The pressure treatments reduced total bacterial counts by about 1.8 to 3.2 log10 cycles and reduced counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella to non-detectable levels. The color of meat was slightly affected, but pH, moisture content and the oxidation products of lipids were not substantially changed. The treatment killed mainly gram negative bacteria but also caused sub-lethal injury to part of the population resulting in prolonged lag phase. The population not killed by the 350 to 450 MPa treatments grew relatively slowly during storage, and its loads reached spoilage level in 4 to 6 weeks, while the load of the population treated at 500 MPa did not reach this level till the end of a storage period of 9 weeks.

Keywords: chicken, cold storage, microbial spoilage, high hydrostatic pressure

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1802 Microbiological Assessment of Fish Sausages Coated with Smoked-Edible Film, and Stored in Room and Refrigerator Temperatures

Authors: Henny A. Dien, Roike I. Montolalu, Feny Mentang, Jupni Keno, Reynerd S. Burdam, Siegfried Berhimpon

Abstract:

Fish Sausages became popular nowadays, because of high nutritious and low in cholesterol. However, this food is also highly perishable and often contaminated by pathogen bacteria. Edible film was made from myofibril of Black Marlin (Makaira indica) waste, with addition of liquid smoke 0.8%. The aim of this study were to determine the TPC, total coliform and Escherichia coli in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film, and stored in room temperature (26-29oC), and refrigerator (5-10oC). Results shown that TPC in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film were lower than that of without coated, both for storage in room temperature and in refrigerator. Total coliform in coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 7-120 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged between 7-93 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without liquid smoke were 7-240 MPN/g (1-4 days) in room temperature, and 7-150 MPN/g in refrigerator. Total E. coli of fish sausages coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 3-4 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged were 3 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without smoked both stored in room temperature and in refrigerator, shown total E. coli 3 MPN/g during 4 days in room temperature, and 6 days in refrigerator. Total E. coli of sausages without coated stored in room temperature ranged between 7-24 MPN/g, and that of stored in refrigerator ranged between 3-4 MPN/g.

Keywords: smoke liquid, edible film, coating, sausages

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1801 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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1800 Comparative Analysis of Integrated and Non-Integrated Fish Farming in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: B. G. Abiona

Abstract:

This study compared profitability analysis of integrated and non-integrated fish farming in Ogun State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using interview guide. Random sampling techniques was used to select 133 non-integrated fish farmers (NIFF) and 216 integrated fish farmers (IFF) (n = 349) from the study area. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, T-test and Pearson Product moment correlation. Results showed that 92.5% of NIFF was male compared to IFF (90.7%). Also, 96.8% of IFF and 79.7% of NIFF were married. The mean ages of sampled farmers were 44 years (NIFF) and 46 years (IFF) while the mean fish farming experiences were 4 years (NIFF) and 5 years (IFF). Also, the average net profit per year of integrated fish farmers was ₦162,550 compared to NIFF (₦61,638). The chi-square analyses showed that knowledge of fish farming had significant relationship with respondents sex (χ2 = 9.44, df = 2, p < 0.05), age (r = 0.20, p< 0.05) and farming experience (r = p = 0.05). Significant differences exist between integrated and non-integrated fish farming, considering their knowledge of fish farming (t = 21.5, χ = 43.01, p < 0.05). The study concluded that IFF are more profitable compared to NIFF. It was recommended that private investors and NGOs should sponsor short training and courses which will enhance efficiency of fish farming to boost productivity among fish farmers.

Keywords: profitability analysis, farms, integration

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1799 Clove Essential Oil Improves Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity in Tilapia Fish Fillet Cooked by Grilling and Microwaving

Authors: E. Oskoueian, E. Maroufyan, Y. M. Goh, E. Ramezani-Fard, M. Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The fish meat plays an important role in the human health as it contains high quality protein. The tilapia fish considered as the third largest group of farmed fish. The oxidative deterioration of fish meat may occur during the cooking process. The proper cooking process and using natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation and enhance the quality of the tilapia fish fillet is necessary. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of clove essential oil to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of tilapia fish fillet cooked using microwave and griller. The results showed that cooking using microwave significantly (p < 0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased the DPPH and ferric reducing activity power of the fish fillet as compared to grilling. The fortification of fish fillet using clove essential oil prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the fish fillet significantly (p < 0.05). Consequently, fortification of tilapia fish fillet using clove essential oil followed by cooking using griller to have high quality cooked fish meat is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, fillet, fish, fortification, lipid peroxidation

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1798 Higher Freshwater Fish and Sea Fish Intake Is Inversely Associated with Liver Cancer in Patients with Hepatitis B

Authors: Maomao Cao

Abstract:

Background and aims While the association between higher consumption of fish and lower liver cancer risk has been confirmed, however, the association between specific fish intake and liver cancer risk remains unknown. We aimed to identify the association between specific fish consumption and the risk of liver cancer. Methods: Based on a community-based seropositive hepatitis B cohort involving 18404 individuals, face to face interview was conducted by a standardized questionnaire to acquire baseline information. Three common fish types in this study were analyzed, including freshwater fish, sea fish, and small fish (shrimp, crab, conch, and shell). All participants received liver cancer screening, and possible cases were identified by CT or MRI. Multivariable logistic models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multivariate multiple imputations were utilized to impute observations with missing values. Results: 179 liver cancer cases were identified. Consumption of freshwater fish and sea fish at least once a week had a strong inverse association with liver cancer risk compared with the lowest intake level, with an adjusted OR of 0.53 (95% CI, 0.38-0.75) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.19-0.73), respectively. This inverse association was also observed after the imputation. There was no statistically significant association between intake of small fish and liver cancer risk (OR=0.58, 95%, CI 0.32-1.08). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that consumption of freshwater fish and sea fish at least once a week could reduce liver cancer risk.

Keywords: cross-sectional study, fish intake, liver cancer, risk factor

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1797 Determination of Cr Content in Canned Fish Marketed in Iran

Authors: Soheil Sobhanardakani, Seyed Vali Hosseini, Lima Tayebi

Abstract:

The presence of heavy metals in the environment could constitute a hazard to food security and public health. These can be accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish. Samples of four popular brands of canned fish in the Iranian market (yellowfin tuna, common Kilka, Kawakawa, and longtail tuna) were analyzed for level of Cr after wet digestion with acids using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations for Cr in the different brands were: 2.57, 3.24, 3.16, and 1.65 μg/g for brands A, B, C, and D respectively. Significant differences were observed in the Cr levels between all of the different brands of canned fish evaluated in this study. The Cr concentrations for the varieties of canned fishes were generally within the FAO/WHO, U.S. FDA, and U.S. EPA recommended limits for fish.

Keywords: heavy metals, essential metals, canned fish, food security

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1796 Seasonal Variability of the Price and Quality of Fresh Red Porgy Fish Sold in the Local Market of Igoumenitsa, NW Greece

Authors: C. Nathanailides, P. Logothetis, G. Kanlis S. Anastasiou, L. Kokokiris, P. Mpeza

Abstract:

Farmed Red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) is one of the “new candidate fish species” for the diversification of Mediterranean aquaculture which is predomintly based on the cultivation of the European sea bass, (Dicenfrarchus labrax), and the gilthead sea bream, (Sparus aurata). The quality of farmed red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) was investigated with samples obtained from the local fish market in the region of Igoumenitsa, NW Greece. Sample of the fish (ungutted and with scales) were purchased from three local fish mongers and transported to the laboratory within few minutes in foamed polystyrene boxes in ice. The average weight of whole fish ranged between 271-289g. A sample of the fish flesh taken from the upper epaxial region was transferred aseptically to a stomacher bag containing sterile Buffered Peptone Water solution (0.1%) and homogenized. After serial dilutions in 0.1% peptone water, the homogenates were spread on the surface of agar plates. Total viable counts (TVC) were determined using plate count agar after incubation at 30 oC for 3 days. The quality attributes monitored during the present work included bacterial load (total mesophilic) and the pH of the flesh. There was a marginal increase in the price of fresh red porgy sold during the summer time, with prices ranging, over a period of four seasons, from 5.85 to 7.5 per kilo. The results of the microbiological analysis indicate that with the exception of summer samples (which exhibited 5.23 (±0.13) log cfu/g), the bacterial load remained well below the legal limits and was around 3.1 log cfu/g. The pH values varied between 6.54 and 6.69. The results indicate a possible influence of season on the bacterial load of fish sold in the market. Nevertheless, the parameters investigated in the present work indicate that the bacteria load was well below the legal limit and that fish were sold within few days after harvesting. The peak of bacterial load in the summer samples may be a result of a post-harvesting contamination of the farmed fish and temperature fluctuations during handling and transportation.

Keywords: fish quality, marketing, aquaculture, Pagrus pagrus

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1795 Innovative Technologies for Aeration and Feeding of Fish in Aquaculture with Minimal Impact on the Environment

Authors: Vasile Caunii, Andreea D. Serban, Mihaela Ivancia

Abstract:

The paper presents a new approach in terms of the circular economy of technologies for feeding and aeration of accumulations and water basins for fish farming and aquaculture. Because fish is and will be one of the main foods on the planet, the use of bio-eco-technologies is a priority for all producers. The technologies proposed in the paper want to reduce by a substantial percentage the costs of operation of ponds and water accumulation, using non-polluting technologies with minimal impact on the environment. The paper proposes two innovative, intelligent systems, fully automated that use a common platform, completely eco-friendly. One system is intended to aerate the water of the fish pond, and the second is intended to feed the fish by dispersing an optimal amount of fodder, depending on population size, age and habits. Both systems use a floating platform, regenerative energy sources, are equipped with intelligent and innovative systems, and in addition to fully automated operation, significantly reduce the costs of aerating water accumulations (natural or artificial) and feeding fish. The intelligent system used for feeding, in addition, to reduce operating costs, optimizes the amount of food, thus preventing water pollution and the development of bacteria, microorganisms. The advantages of the systems are: increasing the yield of fish production, these are green installations, with zero pollutant emissions, can be arranged anywhere on the water surface, depending on the user's needs, can operate autonomously or remotely controlled, if there is a component failure, the system provides the operator with accurate data on the issue, significantly reducing maintenance costs, transmit data about the water physical and chemical parameters.

Keywords: bio-eco-technologies, economy, environment, fish

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1794 Analysis of Taxonomic Compositions, Metabolic Pathways and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Fish Gut Microbiome by Shotgun Metagenomics

Authors: Anuj Tyagi, Balwinder Singh, Naveen Kumar B. T., Niraj K. Singh

Abstract:

Characterization of diverse microbial communities in specific environment plays a crucial role in the better understanding of their functional relationship with the ecosystem. It is now well established that gut microbiome of fish is not the simple replication of microbiota of surrounding local habitat, and extensive species, dietary, physiological and metabolic variations in fishes may have a significant impact on its composition. Moreover, overuse of antibiotics in human, veterinary and aquaculture medicine has led to rapid emergence and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the aquatic environment. Microbial communities harboring specific ARGs not only get a preferential edge during selective antibiotic exposure but also possess the significant risk of ARGs transfer to other non-resistance bacteria within the confined environments. This phenomenon may lead to the emergence of habitat-specific microbial resistomes and subsequent emergence of virulent antibiotic-resistant pathogens with severe fish and consumer health consequences. In this study, gut microbiota of freshwater carp (Labeo rohita) was investigated by shotgun metagenomics to understand its taxonomic composition and functional capabilities. Metagenomic DNA, extracted from the fish gut, was subjected to sequencing on Illumina NextSeq to generate paired-end (PE) 2 x 150 bp sequencing reads. After the QC of raw sequencing data by Trimmomatic, taxonomic analysis by Kraken2 taxonomic sequence classification system revealed the presence of 36 phyla, 326 families and 985 genera in the fish gut microbiome. At phylum level, Proteobacteria accounted for more than three-fourths of total bacterial populations followed by Actinobacteria (14%) and Cyanobacteria (3%). Commonly used probiotic bacteria (Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Lactococcus) were found to be very less prevalent in fish gut. After sequencing data assembly by MEGAHIT v1.1.2 assembler and PROKKA automated analysis pipeline, pathway analysis revealed the presence of 1,608 Metacyc pathways in the fish gut microbiome. Biosynthesis pathways were found to be the most dominant (51%) followed by degradation (39%), energy-metabolism (4%) and fermentation (2%). Almost one-third (33%) of biosynthesis pathways were involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of 35 antibiotic types were also present, and these accounted for 5% of overall metabolic pathways in the fish gut microbiome. Fifty-one different types of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) belonging to 15 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene families and conferring resistance against 24 antibiotic types were detected in fish gut. More than 90% ARGs in fish gut microbiome were against beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, penems, and monobactams). Resistance against tetracycline, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and phenicols ranged from 0.7% to 1.3%. Some of the ARGs for multi-drug resistance were also found to be located on sequences of plasmid origin. The presence of pathogenic bacteria and ARGs on plasmid sequences suggested the potential risk due to horizontal gene transfer in the confined gut environment.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, fish gut, metabolic pathways, microbial diversity

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1793 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N.Khairudin , P.Jamal, M.Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

Abstract:

In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst

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