Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1368

Search results for: electronic nose

1368 Performance Comparison of a Low Cost Air Quality Sensor with a Commercial Electronic Nose

Authors: Ünal Kızıl, Levent Genç, Sefa Aksu, Ahmet Tapınç

Abstract:

The Figaro AM-1 sensor module which employs TGS 2600 model gas sensor in air quality assessment was used. The system was coupled with a microprocessor that enables sensor module to create warning message via telephone. This low cot sensor system’s performance was compared with a Diagnose II commercial electronic nose system. Both air quality sensor and electronic nose system employ metal oxide chemical gas sensors. In the study experimental setup, data acquisition methods for electronic nose system, and performance of the low cost air quality system were evaluated and explained.

Keywords: air quality, electronic nose, environmental quality, gas sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1367 Electronic Nose Based on Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensors as an Alternative Technique for the Spoilage Classification of Oat Milk

Authors: A. Deswal, N. S. Deora, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid method for electronic nose for online quality control of oat milk. Analysis by electronic nose and bacteriological measurements were performed to analyse spoilage kinetics of oat milk samples stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions for up to 15 days. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and soft independent modelling by class analogy (SIMCA) classification techniques were used to differentiate the samples of oat milk at different days. The total plate count (bacteriological method) was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system. The e-nose was able to differentiate between the oat milk samples of varying microbial load. The results obtained by the bacteria total viable counts showed that the shelf-life of oat milk stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions were 20 hours and 13 days, respectively. The models built classified oat milk samples based on the total microbial population into “unspoiled” and “spoiled”.

Keywords: electronic-nose, bacteriological, shelf-life, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
1366 Electronic Nose for Monitoring Fungal Deterioration of Stored Rapeseed

Authors: Robert Rusinek, Marek Gancarz, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Marzena Gawrysiak-Witulska, Dariusz Wiącek, Agnieszka Nawrocka

Abstract:

Investigations were performed to examine the possibility of using an electronic nose to monitor the development of fungal microflora during the first eighteen days of rapeseed storage. The Cyranose 320 device with polymer-composite sensors was used. Each sample of infected material was divided into three parts, and the degree of spoilage was measured in three ways: analysis of colony forming units (CFU), determination of ergosterol content (ERG), and measurement with the eNose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the generated patterns of signals, and six groups of different spoilage levels were isolated. The electronic nose with polymer-composite sensors under laboratory conditions distinguished between species of spoiled and unspoiled seeds with 100% accuracy. Despite some minor differences in the CFU and ergosterol content, the electronic nose provided responses correctly corresponding to the level of spoilage with 85% accuracy. Therefore, the main conclusion from the study is that the electronic nose is a promising tool for quick and non-destructive detection of the level of oil seed spoilage. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: colony forming units, electronic nose, ergosterol, rapeseed

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1365 Application of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and Electronic Nose in On-line Monitoring of Dough Proofing

Authors: Madhuresh Dwivedi, Navneet Singh Deora, Aastha Deswal, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

FT-NIR spectroscopy and electronic nose was used to study the kinetics of dough proofing. Spectroscopy was conducted with an optic probe in the diffuse reflectance mode. The dough leavening was carried out at different temperatures (25 and 35°C) and constant RH (80%). Spectra were collected in the range of wave numbers from 12,000 to 4,000 cm-1 directly on the samples, every 5 min during proofing, up to 2 hours. NIR spectra were corrected for scatter effect and second order derivatization was done to transform the spectra. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the leavening process and process kinetics was calculated. PCA was performed on data set and loadings were calculated. For leavening, four absorption zones (8,950-8,850, 7,200-6,800, 5,250-5,150 and 4,700-4,250 cm-1) were involved in describing the process. Simultaneously electronic nose was also used for understanding the development of odour compounds during fermentation. The electronic nose was able to differential the sample on the basis of aroma generation at different time during fermentation. In order to rapidly differentiate samples based on odor, a Principal component analysis is performed and successfully demonstrated in this study. The result suggests that electronic nose and FT-NIR spectroscopy can be utilized for the online quality control of the fermentation process during leavening of bread dough.

Keywords: FT-NIR, dough, e-nose, proofing, principal component analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1364 Application of Electronic Nose Systems in Medical and Food Industries

Authors: Khaldon Lweesy, Feryal Alskafi, Rabaa Hammad, Shaker Khanfar, Yara Alsukhni

Abstract:

Electronic noses are devices designed to emulate the humane sense of smell by characterizing and differentiating odor profiles. In this study, we build a low-cost e-nose using an array module containing four different types of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors. We used this system to create a profile for a meat specimen over three days. Then using a pattern recognition software, we correlated the odor of the specimen to its age. It is a simple, fast detection method that is both non-expensive and non-destructive. The results support the usage of this technology in food control management.

Keywords: e-nose, low cost, odor detection, food safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
1363 Roasting Degree of Cocoa Beans by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Based Electronic Nose System and Gas Chromatography (GC)

Authors: Juzhong Tan, William Kerr

Abstract:

Roasting is one critical procedure in chocolate processing, where special favors are developed, moisture content is decreased, and better processing properties are developed. Therefore, determination of roasting degree of cocoa bean is important for chocolate manufacturers to ensure the quality of chocolate products, and it also decides the commercial value of cocoa beans collected from cocoa farmers. The roasting degree of cocoa beans currently relies on human specialists, who sometimes are biased, and chemical analysis, which take long time and are inaccessible to many manufacturers and farmers. In this study, a self-made electronic nose system consists of gas sensors (TGS 800 and 2000 series) was used to detecting the gas generated by cocoa beans with a different roasting degree (0min, 20min, 30min, and 40min) and the signals collected by gas sensors were used to train a three-layers ANN. Chemical analysis of the graded beans was operated by traditional GC-MS system and the contents of volatile chemical compounds were used to train another ANN as a reference to electronic nosed signals trained ANN. Both trained ANN were used to predict cocoa beans with a different roasting degree for validation. The best accuracy of grading achieved by electronic nose signals trained ANN (using signals from TGS 813 826 820 880 830 2620 2602 2610) turned out to be 96.7%, however, the GC trained ANN got the accuracy of 83.8%.

Keywords: artificial neutron network, cocoa bean, electronic nose, roasting

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1362 Aerodynamic Optimum Nose Shape Change of High-Speed Train by Design Variable Variation

Authors: Minho Kwak, Suhwan Yun, Choonsoo Park

Abstract:

Nose shape optimizations of high-speed train are performed for the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the commercial train, KTX-Sancheon, multi-objective optimizations are conducted for the improvement of the side wind stability and the micro-pressure wave following the optimization for the reduction of aerodynamic drag. 3D nose shapes are modelled by the Vehicle Modeling Function. Aerodynamic drag and side wind stability are calculated by three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and micro pressure wave is done by axi-symmetric compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The Maxi-min Latin Hypercube Sampling method is used to extract sampling points to construct the approximation model. The kriging model is constructed for the approximation model and the NSGA-II algorithm was used as the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Nose length, nose tip height, and lower surface curvature are design variables. Because nose length is a dominant variable for aerodynamic characteristics of train nose, two optimization processes are progressed respectively with and without the design variable, nose length. Each pareto set was obtained and each optimized nose shape is selected respectively considering Honam high-speed rail line infrastructure in South Korea. Through the optimization process with the nose length, when compared to KTX Sancheon, aerodynamic drag was reduced by 9.0%, side wind stability was improved by 4.5%, micro-pressure wave was reduced by 5.4% whereas aerodynamic drag by 7.3%, side wind stability by 3.9%, micro-pressure wave by 3.9%, without the nose length. As a result of comparison between two optimized shapes, similar shapes are extracted other than the effect of nose length.

Keywords: aerodynamic characteristics, design variable, multi-objective optimization, train nose shape

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
1361 Modeling of Particle Reduction and Volatile Compounds Profile during Chocolate Conching by Electronic Nose and Genetic Programming (GP) Based System

Authors: Juzhong Tan, William Kerr

Abstract:

Conching is one critical procedure in chocolate processing, where special flavors are developed, and smooth mouse feel the texture of the chocolate is developed due to particle size reduction of cocoa mass and other additives. Therefore, determination of the particle size and volatile compounds profile of cocoa bean is important for chocolate manufacturers to ensure the quality of chocolate products. Currently, precise particle size measurement is usually done by laser scattering which is expensive and inaccessible to small/medium size chocolate manufacturers. Also, some other alternatives, such as micrometer and microscopy, can’t provide good measurements and provide little information. Volatile compounds analysis of cocoa during conching, has similar problems due to its high cost and limited accessibility. In this study, a self-made electronic nose system consists of gas sensors (TGS 800 and 2000 series) was inserted to a conching machine and was used to monitoring the volatile compound profile of chocolate during the conching. A model correlated volatile compounds profiles along with factors including the content of cocoa, sugar, and the temperature during the conching to particle size of chocolate particles by genetic programming was established. The model was used to predict the particle size reduction of chocolates with different cocoa mass to sugar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1) at 8 conching time (15min, 30min, 1h, 1.5h, 2h, 4h, 8h, and 24h). And the predictions were compared to laser scattering measurements of the same chocolate samples. 91.3% of the predictions were within the range of later scatting measurement ± 5% deviation. 99.3% were within the range of later scatting measurement ± 10% deviation.

Keywords: cocoa bean, conching, electronic nose, genetic programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1360 Response Evaluation of Electronic Nose with Polymer-Composite and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensor towards Microbiological Quality of Rapeseed

Authors: Marcin Tadla, Robert Rusinek, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Marzena Gawrysiak-Witulska, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Marek Gancarz

Abstract:

Rapeseeds were evaluated and classified by the static-headspace sampling method using electronic noses during the 25 days spoilage period. The Cyranose 320 comprising 32 polymer-composite sensors and VCA (Volatile Compound Analyzer - made in Institute of Agrophysics) built of 8 metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors were used to obtain sensor response (∆R/R). Each sample of spoiled material was divided into three parts and the degree of spoilage was measured four ways: determination of ergosterol content (ERG), colony forming units (CFU) and measurement with both e-noses. The study showed that both devices responsive to changes in the fungal microflora. Cyranose and VCA registered the change of domination microflora of fungi. After 7 days of storage, typical fungi for soil disappeared and appeared typical for storeroom was observed. In both cases, response ∆R/R decreased to the end of experiment, while ERG and JTK increased. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: electronic nose, fungal microflora, metal-oxide sensor, polymer-composite sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1359 Experimental Study and Neural Network Modeling in Prediction of Surface Roughness on Dry Turning Using Two Different Cutting Tool Nose Radii

Authors: Deba Kumar Sarma, Sanjib Kr. Rajbongshi

Abstract:

Surface finish is an important product quality in machining. At first, experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the cutting tool nose radius (considering 1mm and 0.65mm) in prediction of surface finish with process parameters of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. For all possible cutting conditions, full factorial design was considered as two levels four parameters. Commercial Mild Steel bar and High Speed Steel (HSS) material were considered as work-piece and cutting tool material respectively. In order to obtain functional relationship between process parameters and surface roughness, neural network was used which was found to be capable for the prediction of surface roughness within a reasonable degree of accuracy. It was observed that tool nose radius of 1mm provides better surface finish in comparison to 0.65 mm. Also, it was observed that feed rate has a significant influence on surface finish.

Keywords: full factorial design, neural network, nose radius, surface finish

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
1358 Electronic Mentoring: How Can It Be Used with Teachers?

Authors: Roberta Gentry

Abstract:

Electronic mentoring is defined as a relationship between a mentor and a mentee using computer mediated communication (CMC) that is intended to develop and improve mentee’s skills, confidence, and cultural understanding. This session will increase knowledge about electronic mentoring, its uses, and outcomes. The research behind electronic mentoring and descriptions of existing programs will also be shared.

Keywords: electronic mentoring, mentoring, beginning special educators, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
1357 Aerodynamic Heating Analysis of Hypersonic Flow over Blunt-Nosed Bodies Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Aakash Chhunchha, Assma Begum

Abstract:

The qualitative aspects of hypersonic flow over a range of blunt bodies have been extensively analyzed in the past. It is well known that the curvature of a body’s geometry in the sonic region predominantly dictates the bow shock shape and its standoff distance from the body, while the surface pressure distribution depends on both the sonic region and on the local body shape. The present study is an extension to analyze the hypersonic flow characteristics over several blunt-nosed bodies using modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools to determine the shock shape and its effect on the heat flux around the body. 4 blunt-nosed models with cylindrical afterbodies were analyzed for a flow at a Mach number of 10 corresponding to the standard atmospheric conditions at an altitude of 50 km. The nose radii of curvature of the models range from a hemispherical nose to a flat nose. Appropriate numerical models and the supplementary convergence techniques that were implemented for the CFD analysis are thoroughly described. The flow contours are presented highlighting the key characteristics of shock wave shape, shock standoff distance and the sonic point shift on the shock. The variation of heat flux, due to different shock detachments for various models is comprehensively discussed. It is observed that the more the bluntness of the nose radii, the farther the shock stands from the body; and consequently, the less the surface heating at the nose. The results obtained from the CFD analyses are compared with approximated theoretical engineering correlations. Overall, a satisfactory agreement is observed between the two.

Keywords: aero-thermodynamics, blunt-nosed bodies, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), hypersonic flow

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1356 Gross Anatomical and Ultra Structural Microscopic Studies on the Nose of the Dromedary Camel (Camelus Dromederius)

Authors: Mahmoud S Gewaily, Atif Hasan, Mohamed Kassab, Ali A. Mansour

Abstract:

The current study was carried out on the nose of seventeenth healthy adult camels. Specimens were collected from slaughter houses then fixed, dissected and photographed. For ultra structural studies, fresh samples were fixed in different fixatives and prepared for examination by light, scanning and electron microscopes. Grossly, nose of the camel had narrow nostrils, slit like in outline. In the nasal cavity, the nasal vestibule was narrow and has scanty dorsal and lateral cartilaginous support. The Nasal conchae (dorsal, middle and ventral) enclosed the dorsal, middle conchal sinuses and no ventral conchal sinus; instead there was recess and bull a. The ethmoidal conchae (8 in number) were noticeably fewer than in the other domestic animals like ox and horse. The olfactory mucosa was restricted to a small area covering the caudal parts of the ethmoidal conchae. The lining epithelium of the nasal cavity changes gradually from stratified squamous epithelium in the nasal vestibule to pseudo stratified columnar ciliated in the respiratory region and finally, olfactory epithelium covering the caudal parts of the ethmoidal conchae. In the dromedary camel, a special feature was the presence of dense and relatively long hair covering the nostrils and the rostral part of the nasal vestibule. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the nose of the dromedary camel, especially in its rostral parts enable this animal to breathe properly in the sandy dry weather.

Keywords: camel nose, anatomy, dromedary camel, nasal vestibule

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1355 Polymer in Electronic Waste: An Analysis

Authors: Anis A. Ansari, Aftab A. Ansari

Abstract:

Electronic waste is inundating the traditional solid-waste-disposal facilities, which are inadequately designed to handle and manage such type of new wastes. Since electronic waste contains mostly hazardous and even toxic materials, the seriousness of its effects on human health and the environment cannot be ignored in present scenario. Waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. From the last 20 years, we are continuously generating huge quantities of e-waste such as obsolete computers and other discarded electronic components, mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this sector. Polymers, one of the major constituents in almost every electronic waste, such as computers, printers, electronic equipment, entertainment devices, mobile phones, television sets etc., are if properly recycled can create a new business opportunity. This would not only create potential market for polymers to improve economy but also the priceless land used as dumping sites of electronic waste, can be utilized for other productive purposes.

Keywords: polymer recycling, electronic waste, hazardous materials, electronic components

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
1354 Design and Implementation of Generative Models for Odor Classification Using Electronic Nose

Authors: Kumar Shashvat, Amol P. Bhondekar

Abstract:

In the midst of the five senses, odor is the most reminiscent and least understood. Odor testing has been mysterious and odor data fabled to most practitioners. The delinquent of recognition and classification of odor is important to achieve. The facility to smell and predict whether the artifact is of further use or it has become undesirable for consumption; the imitation of this problem hooked on a model is of consideration. The general industrial standard for this classification is color based anyhow; odor can be improved classifier than color based classification and if incorporated in machine will be awfully constructive. For cataloging of odor for peas, trees and cashews various discriminative approaches have been used Discriminative approaches offer good prognostic performance and have been widely used in many applications but are incapable to make effectual use of the unlabeled information. In such scenarios, generative approaches have better applicability, as they are able to knob glitches, such as in set-ups where variability in the series of possible input vectors is enormous. Generative models are integrated in machine learning for either modeling data directly or as a transitional step to form an indeterminate probability density function. The algorithms or models Linear Discriminant Analysis and Naive Bayes Classifier have been used for classification of the odor of cashews. Linear Discriminant Analysis is a method used in data classification, pattern recognition, and machine learning to discover a linear combination of features that typifies or divides two or more classes of objects or procedures. The Naive Bayes algorithm is a classification approach base on Bayes rule and a set of qualified independence theory. Naive Bayes classifiers are highly scalable, requiring a number of restraints linear in the number of variables (features/predictors) in a learning predicament. The main recompenses of using the generative models are generally a Generative Models make stronger assumptions about the data, specifically, about the distribution of predictors given the response variables. The Electronic instrument which is used for artificial odor sensing and classification is an electronic nose. This device is designed to imitate the anthropological sense of odor by providing an analysis of individual chemicals or chemical mixtures. The experimental results have been evaluated in the form of the performance measures i.e. are accuracy, precision and recall. The investigational results have proven that the overall performance of the Linear Discriminant Analysis was better in assessment to the Naive Bayes Classifier on cashew dataset.

Keywords: odor classification, generative models, naive bayes, linear discriminant analysis

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1353 A Study on the Performance of 2-PC-D Classification Model

Authors: Nurul Aini Abdul Wahab, Nor Syamim Halidin, Sayidatina Aisah Masnan, Nur Izzati Romli

Abstract:

There are many applications of principle component method for reducing the large set of variables in various fields. Fisher’s Discriminant function is also a popular tool for classification. In this research, the researcher focuses on studying the performance of Principle Component-Fisher’s Discriminant function in helping to classify rice kernels to their defined classes. The data were collected on the smells or odour of the rice kernel using odour-detection sensor, Cyranose. 32 variables were captured by this electronic nose (e-nose). The objective of this research is to measure how well a combination model, between principle component and linear discriminant, to be as a classification model. Principle component method was used to reduce all 32 variables to a smaller and manageable set of components. Then, the reduced components were used to develop the Fisher’s Discriminant function. In this research, there are 4 defined classes of rice kernel which are Aromatic, Brown, Ordinary and Others. Based on the output from principle component method, the 32 variables were reduced to only 2 components. Based on the output of classification table from the discriminant analysis, 40.76% from the total observations were correctly classified into their classes by the PC-Discriminant function. Indirectly, it gives an idea that the classification model developed has committed to more than 50% of misclassifying the observations. As a conclusion, the Fisher’s Discriminant function that was built on a 2-component from PCA (2-PC-D) is not satisfying to classify the rice kernels into its defined classes.

Keywords: classification model, discriminant function, principle component analysis, variable reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1352 Relationship between Response of the Resistive Sensors on the Chosen Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Their Concentration

Authors: Marek Gancarz, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Robert Rusinek, Marcin Tadla

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the fungi metabolites in the gaseous form produced during improper storage of agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, food). The spoilt commodities produce a wide range of VOCs including alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, furans, phenols etc. The characteristic VOCs and odours can be determined by using electronic nose (e-Nose) which contains a matrix of different kinds of sensors e.g. resistive sensors. The aim of the present studies was to determine relationship between response of the resistive sensors on the chosen volatiles and their concentration. According to the literature, it was chosen volatiles characteristic for the cereals: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and hexanal. Analysis of the sensor signals shows that a signal shape is different for the different substances. Moreover, each VOC signal gives information about a maximum of the normalized sensor response (R/Rmax), an impregnation time (tIM) and a cleaning time at half maximum of R/Rmax (tCL). These three parameters can be regarded as a ‘VOC fingerprint’. Seven resistive sensors (TGS2600-B00, TGS2602-B00, TGS2610-C00, TGS2611-C00, TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00, TGS2620-C00) produced by Figaro USA Inc., and one (AS-MLV-P2) produced by AMS AG, Austria were used. Two out of seven sensors (TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00) did not react to the chosen VOCs. The most responsive sensor was AS-MLV-P2. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: agricultural commodities, organic compounds, resistive sensors, volatile

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1351 Machines Hacking Humans: Performances Practices in Electronic Music during the 21st Century

Authors: Zimasa Siyasanga Gysman

Abstract:

This paper assesses the history of electronic music and its performance to illustrate that machines and technology have largely influenced how humans perform electronic music. The history of electronic music mainly focuses on the composition and production of electronic music with little to no attention paid to its performance by the majority of scholars in this field. Therefore, establishing a history of performance involves investigating what compositions of electronic music called for in the production of electronic music performance. This investigation into seminal works in the history of electronic music, therefore, illustrates the aesthetics of electronic music performance and the aesthetics established in the very beginnings of electronic music performance demonstrate the aesthetics of electronic music which are still prevalent today. The key aesthetics are the repurposing of technology and the hybridisation of technology. Performers take familiar technology (technology that society has become accustomed to using in daily life), not necessarily related to music or performance and use it as an instrument in their performances, such as a rotary dial telephone. Likewise, since the beginnings of electronic music, producers have always experimented with the latest technologies available to them in their compositions and performances. The spirit of performers of electronic music, therefore, revolves around repurposing familiar technologies and using them in new ways, whilst similarly experimenting with new technologies in their performances. This process of hybridisation plays a key role in the production and performance of electronic music in the twentieth century. Through various interviews with performers of electronic music, it is shown that these aesthetics are driving performance practices in the twenty-first century.

Keywords: body, hybridisation, performance, sound

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1350 Reaching a Mobile and Dynamic Nose after Rhinoplasty: A Pilot Study

Authors: Guncel Ozturk

Abstract:

Background: Rhinoplasty is the most commonly performed cosmetic operations in plastic surgery. Maneuvers used in rhinoplasty lead to a firm and stiff nasal tip in the early postoperative months. This unnatural stability of the nose may easily cause distortion in the reshaped nose after severe trauma. Moreover, a firm nasal tip may cause difficulties in performing activities such as touching, hugging, or kissing. Decreasing the stability and increasing the mobility of the nasal tip would help rhinoplasty patients to avoid these small but relatively important problems. Methods: We use delivery approach with closed rhinoplasty and changed positions of intranasal incisions to reach a dynamic and mobile nose. A total of 203 patients who had undergone primary closed rhinoplasty in private practice were inspected retrospectively. Posterior strut flap that was connected with connective tissues in the caudal of septum and the medial crurals were formed. Cartilage of the posterior strut graft was left 2 mm thick in the distal part of septum, it was cut vertically, and the connective tissue in the distal part was preserved. Results: The median patient age was 24 (range 17-42) years. The median follow-up period was15.2 (range12-26) months. Patient satisfaction was assessed with the 'Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation' (ROE) questionnaire. Twelve months after surgeries, 87.5% of patients reported excellent outcomes, according to ROE. Conclusion: The soft tissue connections between that segment and surrounding structures should be preserved to save the support of the tip while having a mobile tip at the same time with this method. These modifications would access to a mobile, non-stiff, and dynamic nasal tip in the early postoperative months. Further and prospective studies should be performed for supporting this method.

Keywords: closed rhinoplasty, dynamic, mobile, tip

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1349 Recovery of Polymers from Electronic Waste - An Analysis

Authors: Anis A. Ansari, Syed Javed Arif

Abstract:

From the last two-three decades, all countries are continuously generating huge quantities of electronic waste in the form of obsolete computers, gadgets and other discarded electronic instruments mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this area. This is the primary reason why waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. Thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, which are the major constituents in every electronic waste, may create a new business opportunity if these are recovered and recycled properly. This may reduce our directly dependency on petroleum and petro-products for polymer materials and also create a potential market for recycled polymers to improve economy. The main theme of this paper is to evolve the potential of recovery and recycling of polymers from the waste being generated globally in the form of discarded electronic products.

Keywords: polymer recovery, electronic waste, petroleum, thermoplastics

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1348 A Framework for Organizational Architecture of Electronic City and Electronic Municipality

Authors: Ali Zeynali Azim, Mostfa Basiry, Samira Kafshi, Elnaz Behnoud

Abstract:

This study provides a framework for enterprise architecture in electronic city is electronic municipality. Nowadays, information technology as an emerging phenomenon has a special place in the world. Development of information and communication technology causes many changes in various fields, including emerging e-cities, municipalities and citizens. However, e-city and e-municipality need essential enterprise architecture. In order to develop enterprise architecture of e-city and e-municipality, enterprise architecture maturity method should be applied. Therefore, one of the most important needs of organizations is to choose important activities according to limitations. The studies show that there is a close relationship between IT, enterprise architecture, e-city and e-municipality. This study aimed to clarify the concept of IT, enterprise architecture, electronic city and e-municipality and how they are related to each other. Is the existence of each of IT, enterprise architecture, electronic and electronic municipal requires each other?

Keywords: enterprise architecture, e-city, e-municipality, e-government, e-citizen, service-oriented architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
1347 Integrated Flavor Sensor Using Microbead Array

Authors: Ziba Omidi, Min-Ki Kim

Abstract:

This research presents the design, fabrication and application of a flavor sensor for an integrated electronic tongue and electronic nose that can allow rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in a solution. The odor gas and liquid are separated using hydrophobic porous membrane in micro fluidic channel. The sensor uses an array composed of microbeads in micromachined cavities localized on silicon wafer. Sensing occurs via colorimetric and fluorescence changes to receptors and indicator molecules that are attached to termination sites on the polymeric microbeads. As a result, the sensor array system enables simultaneous and near-real-time analyses using small samples and reagent volumes with the capacity to incorporate significant redundancies. One of the key parts of the system is a passive pump driven only by capillary force. The hydrophilic surface of the fluidic structure draws the sample into the sensor array without any moving mechanical parts. Since there is no moving mechanical component in the structure, the size of the fluidic structure can be compact and the fabrication becomes simple when compared to the device including active microfluidic components. These factors should make the proposed system inexpensive to mass-produce, portable and compatible with biomedical applications.

Keywords: optical sensor, semiconductor manufacturing, smell sensor, taste sensor

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1346 Electronic Transparency in Georgia as a Basis for Development of Electronic Governance

Authors: Lasha Mskhaladze, Guram Burchuladze, Khvicha Datunashvili

Abstract:

Technological changes have an impact not only on economic but also on social elements of society which in turn has created new challenges for states’ political systems and their regimes. As a result of unprecedented growth of information technologies and communications digital democracy and electronic governance have emerged. Nowadays effective state functioning cannot be imagined without electronic governance. In Georgia, special attention is paid to the development of such new systems and establishment of electronic governance. Therefore, in parallel to intensive development of information technologies an important priority for public sector in Georgia is the development of electronic governance. In spite of the fact that today Georgia with its economic indicators satisfies the standards of western informational society, and major part of its gross domestic product comes from the service sector (59.6%), it still remains a backward country on the world map in terms of information technologies and electronic governance. E-transparency in Georgia should be based on such parameters as government accountability when the government provides citizens information about their activities; e-participation which involves government’s consideration of external expert assessments; cooperation between officials and citizens in order to solve national problems. In order to improve electronic systems the government should actively do the following: Fully develop electronic programs concerning HR and exchange of data between public organizations; develop all possible electronic services; improve existing electronic programs; make electronic services available on different mobile platforms (iPhone, Android, etc.).

Keywords: electronic transparency, electronic services, information technology, information society, electronic systems

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1345 Provision Electronic Management Requirements in Libyan Oil Companies

Authors: Hitham Yami

Abstract:

This study will focus primarily on assessing the availability requirements of the electronic management of oil companies in Libya, and the mean objectives of the research applying electronic management and make recommendations and steps to approach electronic management. There are limited research and statistical analysis to support electronic management in Libyan companies. The groundwork for the proposed approach is to develop independent variables and the dependent variables to be restructured after it Alntra side of the field and the side to get the data to achieve the desired results and solving the problem faced by the Libyan Oil Corporation. All these strategies are proposed to achieve the goal, and solving Libyan oil installations.

Keywords: oil company’s revenue, independent variables, electronic management, Libyan oil corporation

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1344 Traditional Phytotherapy among Tribes of Madhya Pradesh, India Used in the Treatment of Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders

Authors: Sumeet Dwivedi, Shweta Shriwas, Raghvendra Dubey

Abstract:

Madhya Pradesh, a Central State of India is rich in natural heritage due to tribal impact. Herbal harmony present either cultivated or by naturally being used by the tribes of the state in the treatment of several human and animal disorders. Diseases of ear, nose and throat (ENT) often have serious consequences including hearing impairment, and emotional strain that lower the quality of life of patients. Traditional phytotherapy have now been found to be instrumental in improving chances of discovering plants with antimicrobial activity in new drug development. The present paper enumerates the uses of ten herbs viz., garlic, eucalyptus, marigold, tulsi, euphorbia, lemon grass, haldi, bhringraj, ginger and ajwain. An attempt has also been made to reveal the method of preparation, dose, duration possible MOA of these herbs used for ENT disorders.

Keywords: ENT, traditional phytotherapy, herbs, Madhya Pradesh

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1343 Effect of Baffles on the Cooling of Electronic Components

Authors: O. Bendermel, C. Seladji, M. Khaouani

Abstract:

In this work, we made a numerical study of the thermal and dynamic behaviour of air in a horizontal channel with electronic components. The influence to use baffles on the profiles of velocity and temperature is discussed. The finite volume method and the algorithm Simple are used for solving the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The results found show that baffles improve heat transfer between the cooling air and electronic components. The velocity will increase from 3 times per rapport of the initial velocity.

Keywords: electronic components, baffles, cooling, fluids engineering

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1342 Examining Effects of Electronic Market Functions on Decrease in Product Unit Cost and Response Time to Customer

Authors: Maziyar Nouraee

Abstract:

Electronic markets in recent decades contribute remarkably in business transactions. Many organizations consider traditional ways of trade non-economical and therefore they do trade only through electronic markets. There are different categorizations of electronic markets functions. In one classification, functions of electronic markets are categorized into classes as information, transactions, and value added. In the present paper, effects of the three classes on the two major elements of the supply chain management are measured. The two elements are decrease in the product unit cost and reduction in response time to the customer. The results of the current research show that among nine minor elements related to the three classes of electronic markets functions, six factors and three factors influence on reduction of the product unit cost and reduction of response time to the customer, respectively.

Keywords: electronic commerce, electronic market, B2B trade, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1341 Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of a Nose Landing Gear

Authors: Kamal Haider

Abstract:

Numerical simulations over landing gear of simplified and partially-dressed configurations with closed cavity have been performed to compute aerodynamically and aeroacoustics parameters using commercial engineering software. The objective of numerical computations is two folds. Firstly, to validate experimental data of newly built nose landing gear and secondly perform high-fidelity calculations using CFD/FW-H hybrid approach, as future engineering challenges need more advanced aircraft configurations such as performance noise and efficiency. Both geometries are used for multi-block structured, and unstructured/hybrid meshed to develop some understanding of physics in terms of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach is employed to compute surface pressure. Also far-field noise calculations have been generated by Ffowcs-William and Hawking solver. Both results of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics are compared with experimental data.

Keywords: landing gear, computational aeroacoustics, computational aerodynamics, detached eddy simulation

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1340 Feasibility Study of Implementing Electronic Commerce in Food Industries with a Case Study

Authors: Maryam Safarirad

Abstract:

Fast and increasing growth of electronic commerce (e-commerce) in developed countries and its resulting competitive advantages mean that those countries should revise dramatically their trade and commercial strategies and policies. Regarding the importance of food industry in Iran, the current paper studies the feasibility of implementing the e-commerce system in Shiraz’s petrochemical unit. The statistical population of the study includes 29 senior managers and experts of the food industries. In the present Feasibility study of implementing electronic commerce 249 research, senior managers and experts’ opinions on feasibility have been examined and some feedbacks have resulted in from the opinions. The current research concludes that the organization under study does not have favorable state either in software or in hardware. Implementation of the e-commerce system in food industries would reduce the average value of the transaction costs.

Keywords: electronic trading, electronic commerce, electronic exchange of information, feasibility study, information technology, virtual shopping, computer networks, electronic commerce laws, food industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
1339 An Explorative Research on the Electric and Electronic Officers Employment: Turkish Flagged Ship's Perspective

Authors: Mehmet Yahsi, Ozkan Ugurlu, Ercan Yuksekyildiz

Abstract:

Assistant department among the electric and electronic officers on ships, has an important place for the maintenance of electric and electronic devices. From this perspective, ships must be employed with a sufficient number of assistant department. In this study, in order to research on the Turkish-flagged ships electric and electronic officers employment; Our national manning regulation compared with international regulations. The data used in this study were collected via visiting of the ships. 3000 gross tonnage and above engaged in international voyages 181 Turkish-flagged ship’s crew lists were compared with Minimum Safety Manning Certificates. According to the findings; employment rate, %54 electric and electronic officers. According to the results of the study; Turkish-flagged ships, although it is not obliged to electric and electronic officers, were employed on ships.

Keywords: manning, electric officer, electronic officer, minimum safety manning certificate

Procedia PDF Downloads 333