Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 168

Search results for: skew π-Armendariz rings

168 Jacobson Semisimple Skew Inverse Laurent Series Rings

Authors: Ahmad Moussavi


In this paper, we are concerned with the Jacobson semisimple skew inverse Laurent series rings R((x−1; α, δ)) and the skew Laurent power series rings R[[x, x−1; α]], where R is an associative ring equipped with an automorphism α and an α-derivation δ. Examples to illustrate and delimit the theory are provided.

Keywords: skew polynomial rings, Laurent series, skew inverse Laurent series rings

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167 Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem

Authors: Areej M. Abduldaim, Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi


Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.

Keywords: cryptosystem, identification, skew π-Armendariz rings, skew polynomial rings, zero knowledge protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
166 A Characterization of Skew Cyclic Code with Complementary Dual

Authors: Eusebio Jr. Lina, Ederlina Nocon


Cyclic codes are a fundamental subclass of linear codes that enjoy a very interesting algebraic structure. The class of skew cyclic codes (or θ-cyclic codes) is a generalization of the notion of cyclic codes. This a very large class of linear codes which can be used to systematically search for codes with good properties. A linear code with complementary dual (LCD code) is a linear code C satisfying C ∩ C^⊥ = {0}. This subclass of linear codes provides an optimum linear coding solution for a two-user binary adder channel and plays an important role in countermeasures to passive and active side-channel analyses on embedded cryptosystems. This paper aims to identify LCD codes from the class of skew cyclic codes. Let F_q be a finite field of order q, and θ be an automorphism of F_q. Some conditions for a skew cyclic code to be LCD were given. To this end, the properties of a noncommutative skew polynomial ring F_q[x, θ] of automorphism type were revisited, and the algebraic structure of skew cyclic code using its skew polynomial representation was examined. Using the result that skew cyclic codes are left ideals of the ring F_q[x, θ]/〈x^n-1〉, a characterization of a skew cyclic LCD code of length n was derived. A necessary condition for a skew cyclic code to be LCD was also given.

Keywords: LCD cyclic codes, skew cyclic LCD codes, skew cyclic complementary dual codes, theta-cyclic codes with complementary duals

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165 Skew Cyclic Codes over Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq

Authors: Jing Li, Xiuli Li


This paper studies a special class of linear codes, called skew cyclic codes, over the ring R= Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq, where q is a prime power. A Gray map ɸ from R to Fq and a Gray map ɸ' from Rn to Fnq are defined, as well as an automorphism Θ over R. It is proved that the images of skew cyclic codes over R under map ɸ' and Θ are cyclic codes over Fq, and they still keep the dual relation.

Keywords: skew cyclic code, gray map, automorphism, cyclic code

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
164 Some Properties in Jordan Ideal on 3-Prime Near-Rings

Authors: Abdelkarim Boua, Abdelhakim Chillali


The study of non-associative structures in algebraic structures has become a separate entity; for, in the case of groups, their corresponding non-associative structure i.e. loops is dealt with separately. Similarly there is vast amount of research on the nonassociative structures of semigroups i.e. groupoids and that of rings i.e. nonassociative rings. However it is unfortunate that we do not have a parallel notions or study of non-associative near-rings. In this work we shall attempt to generalize a few known results and study the commutativity of Jordan ideal in 3-prime near-rings satisfying certain identities involving the Jordan ideal. We study the derivations satisfying certain differential identities on Jordan ideals of 3-prime near-rings. Moreover, we provide examples to show that hypothesis of our results are necessary. We give some new results and examples concerning the existence of Jordan ideal and derivations in near-rings. These near-rings can be used to build a new codes.

Keywords: 3-prime near-rings, near-rings, Jordan ideal, derivations

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163 The Modality of Multivariate Skew Normal Mixture

Authors: Bader Alruwaili, Surajit Ray


Finite mixtures are a flexible and powerful tool that can be used for univariate and multivariate distributions, and a wide range of research analysis has been conducted based on the multivariate normal mixture and multivariate of a t-mixture. Determining the number of modes is an important activity that, in turn, allows one to determine the number of homogeneous groups in a population. Our work currently being carried out relates to the study of the modality of the skew normal distribution in the univariate and multivariate cases. For the skew normal distribution, the aims are associated with studying the modality of the skew normal distribution and providing the ridgeline, the ridgeline elevation function, the $\Pi$ function, and the curvature function, and this will be conducive to an exploration of the number and location of mode when mixing the two components of skew normal distribution. The subsequent objective is to apply these results to the application of real world data sets, such as flow cytometry data.

Keywords: mode, modality, multivariate skew normal, finite mixture, number of mode

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162 A Study on Weddernburn – Artin Theorem for Rings

Authors: Fahad Suleiman, Sammani Abdullahi


The study depicts that a Wedderburn Artin – theorem for rings is considered to be a semisimple ring R which is isomorphic to a product of finitely many mi by mi matrix rings over division rings Di, for some integers n_i, both of which are uniquely determined up to permutation of the index i. It has been concluded that when R is simple the Wedderburn – Artin theorem is known as Wedderburn’s theorem.

Keywords: Commutativity, Wedderburn theorem, Semisimple ring, R module

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
161 Contribution of Intermediate Diaphragms on LDFs of Straight and Skew Concrete Multicell Box-Girder Bridges

Authors: Iman Mohseni


Current studies indicate that neglecting the effect of intermediate diaphragms might lead to highly conservative values for bending moment distribution factors and result in non-economic designs for skew bridges. This paper reports on a parametric study performed on 160 prototypes of straight and skew concrete multicell box-girder bridges. The obtained results were used to develop practical expressions to account for the diaphragm effects on American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials formulas for live load distribution factors. It was observed that decks with internal transverse diaphragms perpendicular to the longitudinal webs are the best arrangement for load distribution in skew bridges.

Keywords: box bridges, truck, distribution factor, diaphragm

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160 Modelling of Induction Motor Including Skew Effect Using MWFA for Performance Improvement

Authors: M. Harir, A. Bendiabdellah, A. Chaouch, N. Benouzza


This paper deals with the modelling and simulation of the squirrel cage induction motor by taking into account all space harmonic components, as well as the introduction of the bars skew, in the calculation of the linear evolution of the magnetomotive force (MMF) between the slots extremities. The model used is based on multiple coupled circuits and the modified winding function approach (MWFA). The effect of skewing is included in the calculation of motors inductances with an axial asymmetry in the rotor. The simulation results in both time and spectral domains show the effectiveness and merits of the model and the error that may be caused if the skew of the bars is neglected.

Keywords: modeling, MWFA, skew effect, squirrel cage induction motor, spectral domain

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159 Application of Soft Sets to Non-Associative Rings

Authors: Inayatur Rehman


Molodtstove developed the theory of soft sets which can be seen as an effective tool to deal with uncertainties. Since the introduction of this concept, the application of soft sets has been restricted to associative algebraic structures (groups, semi groups, associative rings, semi-rings etc.). Acceptably, though the study of soft sets, where the base set of parameters is a commutative structure, has attracted the attention of many researchers for more than one decade. But on the other hand there are many sets which are naturally endowed by two compatible binary operations forming a non-associative ring and we may dig out examples which investigate a non-associative structure in the context of soft sets. Thus it seems natural to apply the concept of soft sets to non-commutative and non-associative structures. In present paper, we make a new approach to apply Molodtsoves notion of soft sets to LA-ring (a class of non-associative ring). We extend the study of soft commutative rings from theoretical aspect.

Keywords: soft sets, LA-rings, soft LA-rings, soft ideals, soft prime ideals, idealistic soft LA-rings, LA-ring homomorphism

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158 Solution for Rider Ring Wear Problem in Boil off Gas Reciprocating Compressor: A Case Study

Authors: Hessam Mortezaei, Saeid Joudakian


In this paper, the wear problem on rider rings of boil off gas compressor has been studied. This kind of oil free double acting compressor has free floating piston (FFP) technology and as a result of that it should have the lowest possible wear on its rider rings. But a design problem had caused a complete wear of rider rings after one month of continuous operation. In this case study, the source of this problem was recognized and solved.

Keywords: piston rider, rings, gas distribution, pressure wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
157 On Modules over Dedekind Prime Rings

Authors: Elvira Kusniyanti, Hanni Garminia, Pudji Astuti


This research studies an interconnection between finitely generated uniform modules and Dedekind prime rings. The characterization of modules over Dedekind prime rings that will be investigated is an adoption of Noetherian and hereditary concept. Dedekind prime rings are Noetherian and hereditary rings. This property of Dedekind prime rings is a background of the idea of adopting arises. In Noetherian area, it was known that a ring R is Noetherian ring if and only if every finitely generated R-module is a Noetherian module. Similar to that result, a characterization of the hereditary ring is related to its projective modules. That is, a ring R is hereditary ring if and only if every projective R-module is a hereditary module. Due to the above two results, we suppose that characterization of a Dedekind prime ring can be analyzed from finitely generated modules over it. We propose a conjecture: a ring R is a Dedekind prime ring if and only if every finitely generated uniform R-module is a Dedekind module. In this article, we will generalize a concept of the Dedekind module for non-commutative ring case and present a part of the above conjecture.

Keywords: dedekind domains, dedekind prime rings, dedekind modules, uniform modules

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156 Adaptation of Hough Transform Algorithm for Text Document Skew Angle Detection

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Olabanji F. Omotoye, Adeola A. Ogunleye


The skew detection and correction form an important part of digital document analysis. This is because uncompensated skew can deteriorate document features and can complicate further document image processing steps. Efficient text document analysis and digitization can rarely be achieved when a document is skewed even at a small angle. Once the documents have been digitized through the scanning system and binarization also achieved, document skew correction is required before further image analysis. Research efforts have been put in this area with algorithms developed to eliminate document skew. Skew angle correction algorithms can be compared based on performance criteria. Most important performance criteria are accuracy of skew angle detection, range of skew angle for detection, speed of processing the image, computational complexity and consequently memory space used. The standard Hough Transform has successfully been implemented for text documentation skew angle estimation application. However, the standard Hough Transform algorithm level of accuracy depends largely on how much fine the step size for the angle used. This consequently consumes more time and memory space for increase accuracy and, especially where number of pixels is considerable large. Whenever the Hough transform is used, there is always a tradeoff between accuracy and speed. So a more efficient solution is needed that optimizes space as well as time. In this paper, an improved Hough transform (HT) technique that optimizes space as well as time to robustly detect document skew is presented. The modified algorithm of Hough Transform presents solution to the contradiction between the memory space, running time and accuracy. Our algorithm starts with the first step of angle estimation accurate up to zero decimal place using the standard Hough Transform algorithm achieving minimal running time and space but lacks relative accuracy. Then to increase accuracy, suppose estimated angle found using the basic Hough algorithm is x degree, we then run again basic algorithm from range between ±x degrees with accuracy of one decimal place. Same process is iterated till level of desired accuracy is achieved. The procedure of our skew estimation and correction algorithm of text images is implemented using MATLAB. The memory space estimation and process time are also tabulated with skew angle assumption of within 00 and 450. The simulation results which is demonstrated in Matlab show the high performance of our algorithms with less computational time and memory space used in detecting document skew for a variety of documents with different levels of complexity.

Keywords: hough-transform, skew-detection, skew-angle, skew-correction, text-document

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155 The Extended Skew Gaussian Process for Regression

Authors: M. T. Alodat


In this paper, we propose a generalization to the Gaussian process regression(GPR) model called the extended skew Gaussian process for regression(ESGPr) model. The ESGPR model works better than the GPR model when the errors are skewed. We derive the predictive distribution for the ESGPR model at a new input. Also we apply the ESGPR model to FOREX data and we find that it fits the Forex data better than the GPR model.

Keywords: extended skew normal distribution, Gaussian process for regression, predictive distribution, ESGPr model

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154 Interaction between Unsteady Supersonic Jet and Vortex Rings

Authors: Kazumasa Kitazono, Hiroshi Fukuoka, Nao Kuniyoshi, Minoru Yaga, Eri Ueno, Naoaki Fukuda, Toshio Takiya


The unsteady supersonic jet formed by a shock tube with a small high-pressure chamber was used as a simple alternative model for pulsed laser ablation. Understanding the vortex ring formed by the shock wave is crucial in clarifying the behavior of unsteady supersonic jet discharged from an elliptical cell. Therefore, this study investigated the behavior of vortex rings and a jet. The experiment and numerical calculation were conducted using the schlieren method and by solving the axisymmetric two-dimensional compressible Navier–Stokes equations, respectively. In both, the calculation and the experiment, laser ablation is conducted for a certain duration, followed by discharge through the exit. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to demonstrate the effect of pressure ratio on the interaction among vortex rings and the supersonic jet. The interaction between the supersonic jet and the vortex rings increased the velocity of the supersonic jet up to the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the vortex rings. The interaction between the vortex rings increased the velocity at the center of the vortex ring.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, shock-wave, unsteady jet, vortex ring

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153 Skew Planar Wheel Antenna for First Person View of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Raymond Yudhi Purba, Levy Olivia Nur, Radial Anwar


This research presents the design and measurement of a skew planar wheel antenna that is used to visualize the first person view perspective of unmanned aerial vehicles. The antenna has been designed using CST Studio Suite 2019 to have voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) ≤ 2, return loss ≤ -10 dB, bandwidth ≥ 100 MHz to covering outdoor access point band from 5.725 to 5.825 GHz, omnidirectional radiation pattern, and elliptical polarization. Dimensions of skew planar wheel antenna have been modified using parameter sweep technique to provide good performances. The simulation results provide VSWR 1.231, return loss -19.693 dB, bandwidth 828.8 MHz, gain 3.292 dB, and axial ratio 9.229 dB. Meanwhile, the measurement results provide VSWR 1.237, return loss -19.476 dB, bandwidth 790.5 MHz, gain 3.2034 dB, and axial ratio 4.12 dB.

Keywords: skew planar wheel, cloverleaf, first-person view, unmanned aerial vehicle, parameter sweep

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152 Powered Two-Wheeler Rider’s Comfort over Road Sections with Skew Superelevation

Authors: Panagiotis Lemonakis, Nikolaos Moisiadis, Andromachi Gkoutzini, George Kaliabetsos, Nikos Eliou


The proper surface water drainage not only affects vehicle movement dynamics but also increases the likelihood of an accident due to the fact that inadequate drainage is associated with potential hydroplaning and splash and spray driving conditions. Nine solutions have been proposed to address hydroplaning in sections with inadequate drainage, e.g., augmented superelevation and longitudinal rates, reduction of runoff length, and skew superelevation. The latter has been extensively implemented in highways recently, enhancing the safety level in the applied road segments in regards to the effective drainage of the rainwater. However, the concept of the skew superelevation has raised concerns regarding the driver’s comfort when traveling over skew superelevation sections, particularly at high speeds. These concerns alleviated through the concept of the round-up skew superelevation, which reduces both the lateral and the vertical acceleration imposed to the drivers and hence, improves comfort and traffic safety. Various research studies aimed at investigating driving comfort by evaluating the lateral and vertical accelerations sustained by the road users and vehicles. These studies focused on the influence of the skew superelevation to passenger cars, buses and trucks, and the drivers themselves, traveling at a certain range of speeds either below or above the design speed. The outcome of these investigations which based on the use of simulations, revealed that the imposed accelerations did not exceed the statutory thresholds even when the travelling speed was significantly greater than the design speed. Nevertheless, the effect of the skew superelevation to other vehicle types for instance, motorcycles, has not been investigated so far. The present research study aims to bridge this gap by investigating the impact of skew superelevation on the motorcycle rider’s comfort. Power two-wheeler riders are susceptible to any changes on the pavement surface and therefore a comparison between the traditional superelevation practice and the skew superelevation concept is of paramount importance. The methodology based on the utilization of sophisticated software in order to design the model of the road for several values of the longitudinal slope. Based on the values of the slopes and the use of a mathematical equation, the accelerations imposed on the wheel of the motorcycle were calculated. Due to the fact that the final aim of the study is the influence of the skew superelevation to the rider, it was deemed necessary to convey the calculated accelerations from the wheel to the rider. That was accomplished by implementing the quarter car suspension model adjusted to the features of two-wheeler vehicles. Finally, the accelerations derived from this process evaluated according to specific thresholds originated from the International Organization for Standardization, which correspond to certain levels of comfort. The most important conclusion drawn is that the comfort of the riders is not dependent on the form of road gradient to a great extent due to the fact that the vertical acceleration imposed to the riders took similar values regardless of the value of the longitudinal slope.

Keywords: acceleration, comfort, motorcycle, safety, skew superelevation

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151 Effect of Fabrication Errors on High Frequency Filter Circuits

Authors: Wesam Ali


This paper provides useful guidelines to the circuit designers on the magnitude of fabrication errors in multilayer millimeter-wave components that are acceptable and presents data not previously reported in the literature. A particularly significant error that was quantified was that of skew between conductors on different layers, where it was found that a skew angle of only 0.1° resulted in very significant changes in bandwidth and insertion loss. The work was supported by a detailed investigation on a 35GHz, multilayer edge-coupled band-pass filter, which was fabricated on alumina substrates using photoimageable thick film process.

Keywords: fabrication errors, multilayer, high frequency band, photoimagable technology

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150 Substrate Coupling in Millimeter Wave Frequencies

Authors: Vasileios Gerakis, Fontounasios Christos, Alkis Hatzopoulos


A study of the impact of metal guard rings on the coupling between two square metal pads is presented. The structure is designed over a bulk silicon substrate with epitaxial layer, so the coupling through the substrate is also involved. A lightly doped profile is adopted and is simulated by means of an electromagnetic simulator for various pad distances and different metal layers, assuming a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology. The impact of various guard ring design (geometrical) parameters is examined. Furthermore, the increase of isolation (resulting in reduction of the noise coupling) between the pads by cutting the ring, or by using multiple rings, is also analyzed. S parameters are used to compare the various structures.

Keywords: guard rings, metal pad coupling, millimeter wave frequencies, substrate noise,

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149 Modelling Operational Risk Using Extreme Value Theory and Skew t-Copulas via Bayesian Inference

Authors: Betty Johanna Garzon Rozo, Jonathan Crook, Fernando Moreira


Operational risk losses are heavy tailed and are likely to be asymmetric and extremely dependent among business lines/event types. We propose a new methodology to assess, in a multivariate way, the asymmetry and extreme dependence between severity distributions, and to calculate the capital for Operational Risk. This methodology simultaneously uses (i) several parametric distributions and an alternative mix distribution (the Lognormal for the body of losses and the Generalized Pareto Distribution for the tail) via extreme value theory using SAS®, (ii) the multivariate skew t-copula applied for the first time for operational losses and (iii) Bayesian theory to estimate new n-dimensional skew t-copula models via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. This paper analyses a newly operational loss data set, SAS Global Operational Risk Data [SAS OpRisk], to model operational risk at international financial institutions. All the severity models are constructed in SAS® 9.2. We implement the procedure PROC SEVERITY and PROC NLMIXED. This paper focuses in describing this implementation.

Keywords: operational risk, loss distribution approach, extreme value theory, copulas

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148 Linkage between Trace Element Distribution and Growth Ring Formation in Japanese Red Coral (Paracorallium japonicum)

Authors: Luan Trong Nguyen, M. Azizur Rahman, Yusuke Tamenori, Toshihiro Yoshimura, Nozomu Iwasaki, Hiroshi Hasegawa


This study investigated the distribution of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and strontium (Sr) using micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) along the annual growth rings in the skeleton of Japanese red coral Paracorallium japonicum. The Mg, P and S distribution in µ-XRF mapping images correspond to the dark and light bands along the annual growth rings observed in microscopic images of the coral skeleton. The µ-XRF mapping data showed a positive correlation (r = 0.6) between P and S distribution in the coral skeleton. A contrasting distribution pattern of S and Mg along the axial skeleton of P. japonicum indicates a weak negative correlation (r = -0.2) between these two trace elements. The distribution pattern of S, P and Mg reveals linkage between their distributions and the formation of dark/light bands along the annual growth rings in the axial skeleton of P. japonicum. Sulfur and P were distributed in the organic matrix rich dark bands, while Mg was distributed in the light bands of the annual growth rings.

Keywords: µ-XRF, trace element, precious coral, Paracorallium japonicum

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147 Tribological Behavior of PTFE Composites Used for Guide Rings of Hydraulic Actuating Cylinders under Oil-Lubricated Condition

Authors: Trabelsi Mohamed, Kharrat Mohamed, Dammak Maher


Guide rings play an important role in the performance and durability of hydraulic actuating cylinders. In service, guide rings surfaces are subjected to friction and wear against steel counterface. A good mastery of these phenomena is required for the improvement of the energy safeguard and the durability of the actuating cylinder. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer is extensively used in guide rings thanks to its low coefficient of friction, its good resistance to solvents as well as its high temperature stability. In this study, friction and wear behavior of two PTFE composites filled with bronze and bronze plus MoS2 were evaluated under oil-lubricated condition, aiming as guide rings for hydraulic actuating cylinder. Wear tests of the PTFE composite specimen sliding against steel ball were conducted using reciprocating linear tribometer. The wear mechanisms of the composites under the same sliding condition were discussed, based on Scanning Electron Microscopy examination of the worn composite surface and the optical micrographs of the steel counter surface. As for the results, comparative friction behaviors of the PTFE composites and lower friction coefficients were recorded under oil lubricated condition. The wear behavior was considerably improved to compare with this in dry sliding, while the oil adsorbed layer limited the transfer of the PTFE to the steel counter face during the sliding test.

Keywords: PTFE, composite, bronze, MoS2, friction, wear, oil-lubrication

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146 Transverse Behavior of Frictional Flat Belt Driven by Tapered Pulley -Change of Transverse Force Under Driving State–

Authors: Satoko Fujiwara, Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo


A skew is one of important problems for designing the conveyor and transmission with frictional flat belt, in which running belt is deviated in width direction due to the transverse force applied to the belt. The skew often not only degrades the stability of the path of belt but also causes some damages of the belt and auxiliary machines. However, the transverse behavior such as the skew has not been discussed quantitatively in detail for frictional belts. The objective of this study is to clarify the transverse behavior of frictional flat belt driven by tapered pulley. Commercially available rubber flat belt reinforced by polyamide film was prepared as the test belt where the thickness and length were 1.25 mm and 630 mm, respectively. Test belt was driven between two pulleys made of aluminum alloy, where diameter and inter-axial length were 50 mm and 150 mm, respectively. Some tapered pulleys were applied where tapered angles were 0 deg (for comparison), 2 deg, 4 deg, and 6 deg. In order to alternatively investigate the transverse behavior, the transverse force applied to the belt was measured when the skew was constrained at the string under driving state. The transverse force was measured by a load cell having free rollers contacting on the side surface of the belt when the displacement in the belt width direction was constrained. The conditions of observed bending stiffness in-plane of the belt were changed by preparing three types of belts (the width of the belt was 20, 30, and 40 mm) where their observed stiffnesses were changed. The contributions of the bending stiffness in-plane of belt and initial inter-axial force to the transverse were discussed in experiments. The inter-axial force was also changed by setting a distance (about 240 mm) between the two pulleys. Influence of observed bending stiffness in-plane of the belt and initial inter-axial force on the transverse force were investigated. The experimental results showed that the transverse force was increased with an increase of observed bending stiffness in-plane of the belt and initial inter-axial force. The transverse force acting on the belt running on the tapered pulley was classified into multiple components. Those were components of forces applied with the deflection of the inter-axial force according to the change of taper angle, the resultant force by the bending moment applied on the belt winding around the tapered pulley, and the reaction force applied due to the shearing deformation. The calculation result of the transverse force was almost agreed with experimental data when those components were formulated. It was also shown that the most contribution was specified to be the shearing deformation, regardless of the test conditions. This study found that transverse behavior of frictional flat belt driven by tapered pulley was explained by the summation of those components of forces.

Keywords: skew, frictional flat belt, transverse force, tapered pulley

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145 Analysis and Control of Camera Type Weft Straightener

Authors: Jae-Yong Lee, Gyu-Hyun Bae, Yun-Soo Chung, Dae-Sub Kim, Jae-Sung Bae


In general, fabric is heat-treated using a stenter machine in order to dry and fix its shape. It is important to shape before the heat treatment because it is difficult to revert back once the fabric is formed. To produce the product of right shape, camera type weft straightener has been applied recently to capture and process fabric images quickly. It is more powerful in determining the final textile quality rather than photo-sensor. Positioning in front of a stenter machine, weft straightener helps to spread fabric evenly and control the angle between warp and weft constantly as right angle by handling skew and bow rollers. To process this tricky procedure, the structural analysis should be carried out in advance, based on which, its control technology can be drawn. A structural analysis is to figure out the specific contact/slippage characteristics between fabric and roller. We already examined the applicability of camera type weft straightener to plain weave fabric and found its possibility and the specific working condition of machine and rollers. In this research, we aimed to explore another applicability of camera type weft straightener. Namely, we tried to figure out camera type weft straightener can be used for fabrics. To find out the optimum condition, we increased the number of rollers. The analysis is done by ANSYS software using Finite Element Analysis method. The control function is demonstrated by experiment. In conclusion, the structural analysis of weft straightener is done to identify a specific characteristic between roller and fabrics. The control of skew and bow roller is done to decrease the error of the angle between warp and weft. Finally, it is proved that camera type straightener can also be used for the special fabrics.

Keywords: camera type weft straightener, structure analysis, control, skew and bow roller

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144 Analytical Downlink Effective SINR Evaluation in LTE Networks

Authors: Marwane Ben Hcine, Ridha Bouallegue


The aim of this work is to provide an original analytical framework for downlink effective SINR evaluation in LTE networks. The classical single carrier SINR performance evaluation is extended to multi-carrier systems operating over frequency selective channels. Extension is achieved by expressing the link outage probability in terms of the statistics of the effective SINR. For effective SINR computation, the exponential effective SINR mapping (EESM) method is used on this work. Closed-form expression for the link outage probability is achieved assuming a log skew normal approximation for single carrier case. Then we rely on the lognormal approximation to express the exponential effective SINR distribution as a function of the mean and standard deviation of the SINR of a generic subcarrier. Achieved formulas is easily computable and can be obtained for a user equipment (UE) located at any distance from its serving eNodeB. Simulations show that the proposed framework provides results with accuracy within 0.5 dB.

Keywords: LTE, OFDMA, effective SINR, log skew normal approximation

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143 Search for APN Permutations in Rings ℤ_2×ℤ_2^k

Authors: Daniel Panario, Daniel Santana de Freitas, Brett Stevens


Almost Perfect Nonlinear (APN) permutations with optimal resistance against differential cryptanalysis can be found in several domains. The permutation used in the standard for symmetric cryptography (the AES), for example, is based on a special kind of inversion in GF(28). Although very close to APN (2-uniform), this permutation still contains one number 4 in its differential spectrum, which means that, rigorously, it must be classified as 4-uniform. This fact motivates the search for fully APN permutations in other domains of definition. The extremely high complexity associated to this kind of problem precludes an exhaustive search for an APN permutation with 256 elements to be performed without the support of a suitable mathematical structure. On the other hand, in principle, there is nothing to indicate which mathematically structured domains can effectively help the search, and it is necessary to test several domains. In this work, the search for APN permutations in rings ℤ2×ℤ2k is investigated. After a full, exhaustive search with k=2 and k=3, all possible APN permutations in those rings were recorded, together with their differential profiles. Some very promising heuristics in these cases were collected so that, when used as a basis to prune backtracking for the same search in ℤ2×ℤ8 (search space with size 16! ≅244), just a few tenths of a second were enough to produce an APN permutation in a single CPU. Those heuristics were empirically extrapolated so that they could be applied to a backtracking search for APNs over ℤ2×ℤ16 (search space with size 32! ≅2117). The best permutations found in this search were further refined through Simulated Annealing, with a definition of neighbors suitable to this domain. The best result produced with this scheme was a 3-uniform permutation over ℤ2×ℤ16 with only 24 values equal to 3 in the differential spectrum (all the other 968 values were less than or equal 2, as it should be the case for an APN permutation). Although far from being fully APN, this result is technically better than a 4-uniform permutation and demanded only a few seconds in a single CPU. This is a strong indication that the use of mathematically structured domains, like the rings described in this work, together with heuristics based on smaller cases, can lead to dramatic cuts in the computational resources involved in the complexity of the search for APN permutations in extremely large domains.

Keywords: APN permutations, heuristic searches, symmetric cryptography, S-box design

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142 Analytical Slope Stability Analysis Based on the Statistical Characterization of Soil Shear Strength

Authors: Bernardo C. P. Albuquerque, Darym J. F. Campos


Increasing our ability to solve complex engineering problems is directly related to the processing capacity of computers. By means of such equipments, one is able to fast and accurately run numerical algorithms. Besides the increasing interest in numerical simulations, probabilistic approaches are also of great importance. This way, statistical tools have shown their relevance to the modelling of practical engineering problems. In general, statistical approaches to such problems consider that the random variables involved follow a normal distribution. This assumption tends to provide incorrect results when skew data is present since normal distributions are symmetric about their means. Thus, in order to visualize and quantify this aspect, 9 statistical distributions (symmetric and skew) have been considered to model a hypothetical slope stability problem. The data modeled is the friction angle of a superficial soil in Brasilia, Brazil. Despite the apparent universality, the normal distribution did not qualify as the best fit. In the present effort, data obtained in consolidated-drained triaxial tests and saturated direct shear tests have been modeled and used to analytically derive the probability density function (PDF) of the safety factor of a hypothetical slope based on Mohr-Coulomb rupture criterion. Therefore, based on this analysis, it is possible to explicitly derive the failure probability considering the friction angle as a random variable. Furthermore, it is possible to compare the stability analysis when the friction angle is modelled as a Dagum distribution (distribution that presented the best fit to the histogram) and as a Normal distribution. This comparison leads to relevant differences when analyzed in light of the risk management.

Keywords: statistical slope stability analysis, skew distributions, probability of failure, functions of random variables

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141 Rings Characterized by Classes of Rad-plus-Supplemented Modules

Authors: Manoj Kumar Patel


In this paper, we introduce and give various properties of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented and cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented modules over some special kinds of rings, in particular, artinian serial ring and semiperfect ring. Also prove that ring R is artinian serial if and only if every right and left R-module is weak* Rad-plus-supplemented. We provide the counter example which proves that weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module is the generalization of plus-supplemented and Rad-plus-supplemented modules. Furthermore, as an application of above finding results of this research article, our main focus is to characterized the semisimple ring, artinian principal ideal ring, semilocal ring, semiperfect ring, perfect ring, commutative noetherian ring and Dedekind domain in terms of weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module.

Keywords: cofinitely weak* Rad-plus-supplemented module , Dedekind domain, Rad-plus-supplemented module, semiperfect ring

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140 Mathematical modeling of the calculation of the absorbed dose in uranium production workers with the genetic effects.

Authors: P. Kazymbet, G. Abildinova, K.Makhambetov, M. Bakhtin, D. Rybalkina, K. Zhumadilov


Conducted cytogenetic research in workers Stepnogorsk Mining-Chemical Combine (Akmola region) with the study of 26341 chromosomal metaphase. Using a regression analysis with program DataFit, version 5.0, dependence between exposure dose and the following cytogenetic exponents has been studied: frequency of aberrant cells, frequency of chromosomal aberrations, frequency of the amounts of dicentric chromosomes, and centric rings. Experimental data on calibration curves "dose-effect" enabled the development of a mathematical model, allowing on data of the frequency of aberrant cells, chromosome aberrations, the amounts of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings calculate the absorbed dose at the time of the study. In the dose range of 0.1 Gy to 5.0 Gy dependence cytogenetic parameters on the dose had the following equation: Y = 0,0067е^0,3307х (R2 = 0,8206) – for frequency of chromosomal aberrations; Y = 0,0057е^0,3161х (R2 = 0,8832) –for frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations; Y =5 Е-0,5е^0,6383 (R2 = 0,6321) – or frequency of the amounts of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings on cells. On the basis of cytogenetic parameters and regression equations calculated absorbed dose in workers of uranium production at the time of the study did not exceed 0.3 Gy.

Keywords: Stepnogorsk, mathematical modeling, cytogenetic, dicentric chromosomes

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139 Study of Complex (CO) 3Ti (PHND) and CpV (PHND) (PHND = Phénanthridine)

Authors: Akila Tayeb-Benmachiche, Saber-Mustapha Zendaoui, Salah-Eddine Bouaoud, Bachir Zouchoune


The variation of the metal coordination site in π-coordinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) corresponds to the haptotropic rearrangement or haptotropic migration in which the metal fragment MLn is considered as the moveable moiety that is shifted between two rings of polycyclic or heteropolycyclic ligands. These structural characteristics and dynamical properties give to this category of transition metal complexes a considerable interest. We have investigated the coordination and the haptotropic shifts of (CO)3Ti and CpV moieties over the phenanthridine aromatic system and according to the metal atom nature. The optimization of (CO)3Ti(PHND) and CpV(PHND), using the Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) program, without a symmetrical restriction of geometry gives an η6 coordination mode of the C6 and C5N rings, which in turn give rise to a six low-lying deficient 16-MVE of each (CO)3Ti(PHND) and CpV(PHND) structure (three singlet and three triplet state structures for Ti complexes and three triplet and three quintet state structures for V complexes). Thus, the η6–η6 haptotropic migration of the metal fragment MLn from the terminal C6 ring to the central C5N ring has been achieved by a loss of energy. However, its η6–η6 haptotropic migration from central C5N ring to the terminal C6 rings has been accomplished by a gain of energy. These results show the capability of the phenanthridine ligand to adapt itself to the electronic demand of the metal in agreement with the nature of the metal–ligand bonding and demonstrate that this theoretical study can also be applied to large fused π-systems.

Keywords: electronic structure, bonding analysis, density functional theory, coordination chemistry haptotropic migration

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