Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 164

Search results for: precious coral

164 Linkage between Trace Element Distribution and Growth Ring Formation in Japanese Red Coral (Paracorallium japonicum)

Authors: Luan Trong Nguyen, M. Azizur Rahman, Yusuke Tamenori, Toshihiro Yoshimura, Nozomu Iwasaki, Hiroshi Hasegawa


This study investigated the distribution of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and strontium (Sr) using micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) along the annual growth rings in the skeleton of Japanese red coral Paracorallium japonicum. The Mg, P and S distribution in µ-XRF mapping images correspond to the dark and light bands along the annual growth rings observed in microscopic images of the coral skeleton. The µ-XRF mapping data showed a positive correlation (r = 0.6) between P and S distribution in the coral skeleton. A contrasting distribution pattern of S and Mg along the axial skeleton of P. japonicum indicates a weak negative correlation (r = -0.2) between these two trace elements. The distribution pattern of S, P and Mg reveals linkage between their distributions and the formation of dark/light bands along the annual growth rings in the axial skeleton of P. japonicum. Sulfur and P were distributed in the organic matrix rich dark bands, while Mg was distributed in the light bands of the annual growth rings.

Keywords: µ-XRF, trace element, precious coral, Paracorallium japonicum

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163 Coral Lifeform Structure in Selected Marine Protected Areas in Southern Cebu, Philippines

Authors: Gloria G. Delan, Alfonso S. Piquero, Rachel Luz V. Rica, Christine M. Corrales


The selected marine protected areas (MPAs) of southern Cebu, Philippines were assessed after these have been established between the years 2000 to 2007. These include Casay of Argao, Cawayan of Dalaguete, Guiwang-Daang Lungsod of Alcoy, North Granada of Boljoon and Sta. Cruz of Ronda. These MPAs were assessed to gather baseline information on its coral life-form structure. Point-intercept transect (PIT) method was used in the observation. Benthic life form and reef substrate at each 0.25 m point interval were identified and recorded along 50 meters transect line both inside and outside of these MPAs. It has been observed that massive, branching and digitate form of corals dominated among the five sanctuaries. Percentage of Live Hard Corals was much higher inside than outside in all sanctuaries. Common to all sanctuaries were noticeable presence of dead corals with algae and coral rubbles indicating an over-exploited habitat. Casay, Cawayan and Daan-Lungsod MPAs had some Crown of Thorn Starfish (COTS) which may pose threat to its coral community. It has been recommended that there should be strict law enforcement and a long term monitoring to continuously conserve and protect coral reef which is an important habitat for fishes for its sustainability as food for human.

Keywords: coral rubbles, coral reef, live hard coral, point-intercept transect

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162 A Review Investigating the Potential Of Zooxanthellae to Be Genetically Engineered to Combat Coral Bleaching

Authors: Anuschka Curran, Sandra Barnard


Coral reefs are of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but due to the impact of climate change, these infrastructures are dying off primarily through coral bleaching. Coral bleaching can be described as the process by which zooxanthellae (algal endosymbionts) are expelled from the gastrodermal cavity of the respective coral host, causing increased coral whitening. The general consensus is that mass coral bleaching is due to the dysfunction of photosynthetic processes in the zooxanthellae as a result of the combined action of elevated temperature and light-stress. The question then is, do zooxanthellae have the potential to play a key role in the future of coral reef restoration through genetic engineering? The aim of this study is firstly to review the different zooxanthellae taxa and their traits with respect to environmental stress, and secondly, to review the information available on the protective mechanisms present in zooxanthellae cells when experiencing temperature fluctuations, specifically concentrating on heat shock proteins and the antioxidant stress response of zooxanthellae. The eight clades (A-H) previously recognized were redefined into seven genera. Different zooxanthellae taxa exhibit different traits, such as their photosynthetic stress responses to light and temperature. Zooxanthellae have the ability to determine the amount and type of heat shock proteins (hsps) present during a heat response. The zooxanthellae can regulate both the host’s respective hsps as well as their own. Hsps, generally found in genotype C3 zooxanthellae, such as Hsp70 and Hsp90, contribute to the thermal stress response of the respective coral host. Antioxidant activity found both within exposed coral tissue, and the zooxanthellae cells can prevent coral hosts from expelling their endosymbionts. The up-regulation of gene expression, which may mitigate thermal stress induction of any of the physiological aspects discussed, can ensure stable coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis in the future. It presents a viable alternative strategy to preserve reefs amidst climate change. In conclusion, despite their unusual molecular design, genetic engineering poses as a useful tool in understanding and manipulating variables and systems within zooxanthellae and therefore presents a solution that can ensure stable coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis in the future.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, genetic engineering, heat-shock proteins, Symbiodinium

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161 Gene Expression Analysis for Corals / Zooxanthellae under High Seawater Temperature Stress

Authors: Haruka Ito, Toru Maruyama, Michihiro Ito, Chuya Shinzato, Hiroyuki Fujimura, Yoshikatsu Nakano, Shoichiro Suda, Sachiyo Aburatani, Haruko Takeyama


Clarifying symbiotic relationships is one of the most important theme for understanding the marine eco-system. Coral reef has been regarded as an important environmental resource. Coral holobiont composed by coral, symbiotic microalgae zooxanthellae, and bacteria have complexed relationship. Zooxanthellae mainly supply organic matter to the host corals through their photosynthetic activity. The symbiotic relationship is indispensable for corals but may easily collapses due to the rise of seawater temperature. However, the molecular mechanism how seawater temperature influences their relationships still remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis has applied to elucidate the coral-zooxanthellae relationships under high seawater temperature stress. To observe reactions of corals and zooxanthellae against the rise of seawater temperature, meta-gene expression in coral have been analyzed. The branches from six different colonies of a stony coral, Acropora tenuis, were sampled at nine times by 2016 at two locations, Ishikawabaru and South of Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan. The mRNAs extracted from the branches including zooxanthellae were sequenced by illumina HiSeq. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) based on hyper geometric distribution was performed. The seawater temperature at 2016 summer was unusually high, which was caused by El Niño event, and the number of zooxanthellae in coral was decreased in August. GSEA derived the several specific genes expressed in A. tenuis under heat stress conditions. The upregulated genes under heat stress highly related with infection immunity. The downregulated genes significantly contained cell cycle related genes. Thu, it is considered that heat stress cause disorder in cell metabolism of A. tenuis, resulting in serious influence to coral holobiont.

Keywords: coral, symbiosis, thermal stress response, transcriptome analysis

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160 Evaluation of Re-mineralization Ability of Nanohydroxyapatite and Coral Calcium with Different Concentrations on Initial Enamel Carious Lesions

Authors: Ali Abdelnabi, Nermeen Hamza


Coral calcium is a boasting natural product and dietary supplement which is considered a source of alkaline calcium carbonate, this study is a comparative study, comparing the remineralization effect of the new product of coral calcium with that of nano-hydroxyapatite. Methodology: a total of 35 extracted molars were collected, examined and sectioned to obtain 70 sound enamel discs, all discs were numbered and examined by scanning electron microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays(EDAX) for mineral content, subjected to artificial caries, and mineral content was re-measured, discs were divided into seven groups according to the remineralizing agent used, where groups 1 to 3 used 10%, 20%, 30% nanohydroxyapatite gel respectively, groups 4 to 6 used 10%, 20%, 30% coral calcium gel and group 7 with no remineralizing agent (control group). All groups were re-examined by EDAX after remineralization; data were calculated and tabulated. Results: All groups showed a statistically significant drop in calcium level after artificial caries; all groups showed a statistically significant rise in calcium content after remineralization except for the control group; groups 1 and 5 showed the highest increase in calcium level after remineralization. Conclusion: coral calcium can be considered a comparative product to nano-hydroxyapatite regarding the remineralization of enamel initial carious lesions.

Keywords: artificial caries, coral calcium, nanohydroxyapatite, re-mineralization

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159 Pharmacological Active Compounds of Sponges and a Gorgonian Coral from the Andaman Sea, Thailand

Authors: Patchara Pedpradab, Kietisak Yoksang, Kosin Pattanamanee


In our ongoing search for pharmacological significant of compounds from marine organisms, we investigated the active constituents of two sponges (Xestospongia sp., Halichondria sp.) and a gorgonian coral (Juncella sp.) from the Andaman Sea, Thailand. Several compounds were isolated from those of marine organisms. A marine sponge, Xestospongia sp. contained an isoqinoline compound namely aureol and cytotoxic thiophenen sesterterpene while Halichondria sp. produced C-28 sterols. The white gorgonian coral, Juncella sp. contained anti-tuberculosis diterpenes namely, junceellin and praelolide. All of the isolated compounds were analyzed by spectroscopic methods, extensively.

Keywords: Xestospongia sp., Halichondria sp., gorgonian, Juncella sp. biological activity

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158 Progression Rate, Prevalence, Incidence of Black Band Disease on Stony (Scleractinia) in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

Authors: Baso Hamdani, Arniati Massinai, Jamaluddin Jompa


Coral diseases are one of the factors affect reef degradation. This research had analysed the progression rate, incidence, and prevalence of Black Band Disease (BBD) on stony coral (Pachyseris sp.) in relation to the environmental parameters (pH, nitrate, phospate, Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM), and turbidity). The incidence of coral disease was measured weekly for 6 weeks using Belt Transect Method. The progression rate of BBD was measured manually. Furthermore, the prevalence and incidence of BBD were calculated each colonies infected. The relationship between environmental parameters and the progression rate, prevalence and incidence of BBD was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed the average of progression rate is 0,07 ± 0,02 cm/ hari. The prevalence of BBD increased from 0,92% - 19,73% in 7 weeks observation with the average incidence of new infected colonies coral 0,2 - 0,65 colony/day The environment factors which important were pH, Nitrate, Phospate, DOM, and Turbidity.

Keywords: progression rate, incidence, prevalence, Black Band Disease, Barranglompo

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157 Network Analysis to Reveal Microbial Community Dynamics in the Coral Reef Ocean

Authors: Keigo Ide, Toru Maruyama, Michihiro Ito, Hiroyuki Fujimura, Yoshikatu Nakano, Shoichiro Suda, Sachiyo Aburatani, Haruko Takeyama


Understanding environmental system is one of the important tasks. In recent years, conservation of coral environments has been focused for biodiversity issues. The damage of coral reef under environmental impacts has been observed worldwide. However, the casual relationship between damage of coral and environmental impacts has not been clearly understood. On the other hand, structure/diversity of marine bacterial community may be relatively robust under the certain strength of environmental impact. To evaluate the coral environment conditions, it is necessary to investigate relationship between marine bacterial composition in coral reef and environmental factors. In this study, the Time Scale Network Analysis was developed and applied to analyze the marine environmental data for investigating the relationship among coral, bacterial community compositions and environmental factors. Seawater samples were collected fifteen times from November 2014 to May 2016 at two locations, Ishikawabaru and South of Sesoko in Sesoko Island, Okinawa. The physicochemical factors such as temperature, photosynthetic active radiation, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, pH, salinity, chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter and depth were measured at the coral reef area. Metagenome and metatranscriptome in seawater of coral reef were analyzed as the biological factors. Metagenome data was used to clarify marine bacterial community composition. In addition, functional gene composition was estimated from metatranscriptome. For speculating the relationships between physicochemical and biological factors, cross-correlation analysis was applied to time scale data. Even though cross-correlation coefficients usually include the time precedence information, it also included indirect interactions between the variables. To elucidate the direct regulations between both factors, partial correlation coefficients were combined with cross correlation. This analysis was performed against all parameters such as the bacterial composition, the functional gene composition and the physicochemical factors. As the results, time scale network analysis revealed the direct regulation of seawater temperature by photosynthetic active radiation. In addition, concentration of dissolved oxygen regulated the value of chlorophyll. Some reasonable regulatory relationships between environmental factors indicate some part of mechanisms in coral reef area.

Keywords: coral environment, marine microbiology, network analysis, omics data analysis

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156 Investigation and Identification of a Number of Precious and Semi-precious Stones Related to Bam Historical Citadel Using Micro Raman Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDX)

Authors: Nazli Darkhal


The use of gems and ornaments has been common in Iran since the beginning of history. The prosperity of the country, the wealth, and the interest of the people of this land in a luxurious and glorious life, combined with beauty, have always attracted the attention of the gems and ornaments of the Iranian people. Iranians are famous in the world for having a long history in collecting and recognizing precious stones. In this case, we can use the unique treasure of national jewelry. Raman spectroscopy method is one of the oscillating spectroscopy methods that is classified in the group of non-destructive study methods, and like other methods, in addition to several advantages, it also has disadvantages and problems. Microraman spectroscopy is one of the different types of Raman spectroscopy in which an optical microscope is combined with a Raman device to provide more capabilities and advantages than its original method. In this way, with the help of Raman spectroscopy and a light microscope, while observing more details from different parts of the historical sample, natural or artificial pigments can be identified in a small part of it. The EDX electron microscope also functions as the basis for the interaction of the electron beam with the matter. The beams emitted from this interaction can be used to examine samples. In this article, in addition to introducing the micro Raman spectroscopy method, studies have been conducted on the structure of three samples of existing stones in the historic citadel of Bam. Using this method of study on precious and semi-precious stones, in addition to requiring a short time, can provide us with complete information about the structure and theme of these samples. The results of experiments and gemology of the stones showed that the selected beads are agate and jasper, and they can be placed in the chalcedony group.

Keywords: bam citadel, precious and semi-precious stones, raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope

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155 Preliminary Design, Production and Characterization of a Coral and Alginate Composite for Bone Engineering

Authors: Sthephanie A. Colmenares, Fabio A. Rojas, Pablo A. Arbeláez, Johann F. Osma, Diana Narvaez


The loss of functional tissue is a ubiquitous and expensive health care problem, with very limited treatment options for these patients. The golden standard for large bone damage is a cadaveric bone as an allograft with stainless steel support; however, this solution only applies to bones with simple morphologies (long bones), has a limited material supply and presents long term problems regarding mechanical strength, integration, differentiation and induction of native bone tissue. Therefore, the fabrication of a scaffold with biological, physical and chemical properties similar to the human bone with a fabrication method for morphology manipulation is the focus of this investigation. Towards this goal, an alginate and coral matrix was created using two production techniques; the coral was chosen because of its chemical composition and the alginate due to its compatibility and mechanical properties. In order to construct the coral alginate scaffold the following methodology was employed; cleaning of the coral, its pulverization, scaffold fabrication and finally the mechanical and biological characterization. The experimental design had: mill method and proportion of alginate and coral, as the two factors, with two and three levels each, using 5 replicates. The coral was cleaned with sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in an ultrasonic bath. Then, it was milled with both a horizontal and a ball mill in order to evaluate the morphology of the particles obtained. After this, using a combination of alginate and coral powder and water as a binder, scaffolds of 1cm3 were printed with a SpectrumTM Z510 3D printer. This resulted in solid cubes that were resistant to small compression stress. Then, using a ESQUIM DP-143 silicon mold, constructs used for the mechanical and biological assays were made. An INSTRON 2267® was implemented for the compression tests; the density and porosity were calculated with an analytical balance and the biological tests were performed using cell cultures with VERO fibroblast, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as visualization tool. The Young’s moduli were dependent of the pulverization method, the proportion of coral and alginate and the interaction between these factors. The maximum value was 5,4MPa for the 50/50 proportion of alginate and horizontally milled coral. The biological assay showed more extracellular matrix in the scaffolds consisting of more alginate and less coral. The density and porosity were proportional to the amount of coral in the powder mix. These results showed that this composite has potential as a biomaterial, but its behavior is elastic with a small Young’s Modulus, which leads to the conclusion that the application may not be for long bones but for tissues similar to cartilage.

Keywords: alginate, biomaterial, bone engineering, coral, Porites asteroids, SEM

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154 Feasibilities for Recovering of Precious Metals from Printed Circuit Board Waste

Authors: Simona Ziukaite, Remigijus Ivanauskas, Gintaras Denafas


Market development of electrical and electronic equipment and a short life cycle is driven by the increasing waste streams. Gold Au, copper Cu, silver Ag and palladium Pd can be found on printed circuit board. These metals make up the largest value of printed circuit board. Therefore, the printed circuit boards scrap is valuable as potential raw material for precious metals recovery. A comparison of Cu, Au, Ag, Pd recovery from waste printed circuit techniques was selected metals leaching of chemical reagents. The study was conducted using the selected multistage technique for Au, Cu, Ag, Pd recovery of printed circuit board. In the first and second metals leaching stages, as the elution reagent, 2M H2SO4 and H2O2 (35%) was used. In the third stage, leaching of precious metals used solution of 20 g/l of thiourea and 6 g/l of Fe2 (SO4)3. Verify the efficiency of the method was carried out the metals leaching test with aqua regia. Based on the experimental study, the leaching efficiency, using the preferred methodology, 60 % of Au and 85,5 % of Cu dissolution was achieved. Metals leaching efficiency after waste mechanical crushing and thermal treatment have been increased by 1,7 times (40 %) for copper, 1,6 times (37 %) for gold and 1,8 times (44 %) for silver. It was noticed that, the Au amount in old (> 20 years) waste is 17 times more, Cu amount - 4 times more, and Ag - 2 times more than in the new (< 1 years) waste. Palladium in the new printed circuit board waste has not been found, however, it was established that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Pd (leaching with aqua regia). It was found that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Ag. Precious metals recovery in Lithuania was estimated in this study. Given the amounts of generated printed circuit board waste, the limits for recovery of precious metals were identified.

Keywords: leaching efficiency, limits for recovery, precious metals recovery, printed circuit board waste

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153 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpou, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri, Rastin Afkhami


Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, hard corals, Persian Gulf

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152 Mechanical Properties, Vibrational Response and Flow-Field Analysis of Staghorn Coral Skeleton, Acropora cervicornis

Authors: Alejandro Carrasco-Pena, Mahmoud Omer, Nina Orlovskaya


The results of studies of microstructure, mechanical behavior, vibrational response, and flow field analysis of critically endangered staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) skeletons are reported. The CaCO₃ aragonite structure of a chemically-cleaned coral skeleton of A. cervicornis was studied by optical microscopy and computer tomography. The mechanical behavior was studied using uniaxial compression and Vickers hardness technique. The average maximum stress measured during skeleton uniaxial compression was 10.7 ± 2.24 MPa and Vickers hardness was 3.56 ± 0.31 GPa. The vibrational response of the aragonite structure was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which showed a substantial dependence of the structure on applied compressive stress. The flow-field around a single coral skeleton forming vortices in the wake of the moving skeleton was measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results are important for further analysis of time-dependent mechanical fatigue behavior and predicting the lifetime of staghorn corals.

Keywords: failure, mechanical properties, microstructure, Raman spectroscopy

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151 Novel Verticillane-Type Diterpenoid from the Formosan Soft Coral Cespitularia taeniata

Authors: Yu-Chi Lin, Yun-Sheng Lin, Chia-Ching Liaw, Ching-Yu Chen, Chien-Liang Chao, Chang-Hung Chou, Ya-Ching Shen


A novel diterpenoid, cespitulactam peroxide (1), was isolated from the Formosan Soft Coral Cespitularia taeniata. Compound 1 possesses a verticillene skeleton having a γ-lactam fused with 1,2-dioxetane ring system. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, especially HRMS and 2D NMR experiments.

Keywords: Cespitularia hypotentaculata, diterpenoid, cespitulactam peroxide, γ-lactam

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150 Late Pleistocene Raised Coral Reefs in Rabigh Area, Red Sea: Microfacies and Environmental Interpretation

Authors: Ammar Manaa


The late Pleistocene raised coral reef terraces, 1 to 5 m above present sea level, are distinguished in Rabigh area into two marine terraces at elevations 0.5 m and 3.20 m, in addition to back-reef facies. The lower and upper terraces consist mainly of corals that increased in abundance and distribution in the upper terrace, with a minor occurrence of detrital quartz and feldspar. The back-reef facies consist mainly of coralline algae with a minor occurrence of corals. The upper terrace was interpreted as a reef crest or algal ridge due to the dominance of bindstone facies. The lower terrace indicates an outer reef flat with the occurrence of grainstone and rudstone facies. The coral framework in the upper terrace indicates a low energy environment. Within the back-reef terrace, calcareous mud was dominant, which indicates low energy, lagoon environment. The XRD results for the studied terraces revealed a variable abundance of aragonite, high-Mg calcite, and low-Mg calcite, with a slight increase in calcite and high-Mg calcite in the upper terrace. The dominant diagenetic processes in the terraces are cementation by fibrous and blocky calcite and dissolution that varied slightly between the lower and upper terraces. This study provides a coral reef model relevant to a low energy system in a dry and hot environment.

Keywords: late Pleistocene, Rabigh, reef terraces, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

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149 Local Directional Encoded Derivative Binary Pattern Based Coral Image Classification Using Weighted Distance Gray Wolf Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Annalakshmi G., Sakthivel Murugan S.


This paper presents a local directional encoded derivative binary pattern (LDEDBP) feature extraction method that can be applied for the classification of submarine coral reef images. The classification of coral reef images using texture features is difficult due to the dissimilarities in class samples. In coral reef image classification, texture features are extracted using the proposed method called local directional encoded derivative binary pattern (LDEDBP). The proposed approach extracts the complete structural arrangement of the local region using local binary batten (LBP) and also extracts the edge information using local directional pattern (LDP) from the edge response available in a particular region, thereby achieving extra discriminative feature value. Typically the LDP extracts the edge details in all eight directions. The process of integrating edge responses along with the local binary pattern achieves a more robust texture descriptor than the other descriptors used in texture feature extraction methods. Finally, the proposed technique is applied to an extreme learning machine (ELM) method with a meta-heuristic algorithm known as weighted distance grey wolf optimizer (GWO) to optimize the input weight and biases of single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural networks (SLFN). In the empirical results, ELM-WDGWO demonstrated their better performance in terms of accuracy on all coral datasets, namely RSMAS, EILAT, EILAT2, and MLC, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. The proposed method achieves the highest overall classification accuracy of 94% compared to the other state of art methods.

Keywords: feature extraction, local directional pattern, ELM classifier, GWO optimization

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148 Prey Selection of the Corallivorous Gastropod Drupella cornus in Jeddah Coast, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Gaafar Omer BaOmer, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani, Hassan A. Ramadan


Drupella is found on coral reefs throughout the tropical and subtropical shallow waters of the Indo-Pacific region. Drupella is muricid gastropod, obligate corallivorous and their population outbreak can cause significant coral mortality. Belt transect surveys were conducted at two sites (Bohairat and Baydah) in Jeddah coast, Saudi Arabia to assess prey preferences for D. cornus with respect to prey availability through resource selection ratios. Results revealed that there are different levels of prey preferences at the different age stages and at the different sites. Acropora species with a caespitose, corymbose and digitate growth forms were preferred prey for recruits and juveniles of Drupella cornus, whereas Acropora variolosa was avoided by D. cornus because of its arborescent colony growth form. Pocillopora, Stylophora, and Millipora were occupied by Drupella cornus less than expected, whereas massive corals genus Porites were avoided. High densities of D. cornus were observed on two fragments of Pocillopora damicornis which may because of the absence of coral guard crabs genus Trapezia. Mean densities of D. cornus per colony for each species showed significant differentiation between the two study sites. Low availability of Acropora colonies in Bayadah patch reef caused high mean density of D. cornus per colony to compare to that in Bohairat, whereas higher mean density of D. cornus per colony of Pocillopora in Bohairat than that in Bayadah may because of most of occupied Pocillopora colonies by D. cornus were physical broken by anchoring compare to those colonies in Bayadah. The results indicated that prey preferences seem to depend on both coral genus and colony shape, while mean densities of D. cornus depend on availability and status of coral colonies.

Keywords: prey availability, resource selection, Drupella cornus, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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147 Determination of Mercury in Gold Ores by CVAAS Method

Authors: Ratna Siti Khodijah, Mirzam Abdurrachman


Gold is recovered from gold ores. Within the ores, there are not only gold but also several types of precious metals. Copper, silver, and platinum group elements (ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, rhenium, osmium, and iridium) are metals commonly found in the ores. These metals combine to form an ore because they have the same properties. It is due to their position in periodic-system-of-elements are near to gold. However, the presence of mercury in every gold ore has not been mentioned, even though it is located right next to gold in the periodic-system-of-elements and they are located in the same block, d-block. Thus, it is possible that mercury is contained in the ores. Moreover, the elements of the same group with mercury—zinc and cadmium—sometimes can be found in the ores. It is suspected that mercury can not be detected because the processing of gold ores usually using fire assay method. Before the ores melting, mercury would evaporate because it has the lowest boiling point of all precious metal in the ores. Therefore, it suggested doing research on the presence of mercury in gold ores by CVAAS method. The results of this study would obtain the amount of mercury in gold ores that should be purified. So it can be produced economically if possible.

Keywords: boiling point, d-block, fire assay, precious metal

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146 Precious and Rare Metals in Overburden Carbonaceous Rocks: Methods of Extraction

Authors: Tatyana Alexandrova, Alexandr Alexandrov, Nadezhda Nikolaeva


A problem of complex mineral resources development is urgent and priority, it is aimed at realization of the processes of their ecologically safe development, one of its components is revealing the influence of the forms of element compounds in raw materials and in the processing products. In view of depletion of the precious metal reserves at the traditional deposits in the XXI century the large-size open cast deposits, localized in black shale strata begin to play the leading role. Carbonaceous (black) shales carry a heightened metallogenic potential. Black shales with high content of carbon are widely distributed within the scope of Bureinsky massif. According to academician Hanchuk`s data black shales of Sutirskaya series contain generally PGEs native form. The presence of high absorptive towards carbonaceous matter gold and PGEs compounds in crude ore results in decrease of valuable components extraction because of their sorption into dissipated carbonaceous matter.

Keywords: сarbonaceous rocks, bitumens, precious metals, concentration, extraction

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145 The Response of Adaptive Mechanism of Fluorescent Proteins from Coral Species and Target Cell Properties on Signalling Capacity as Biosensor

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan


Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have become very popular since green fluorescent protein discovered from crystal jellyfish. It is known that Anthozoa species have a wide range of chromophore organisms, and the initial crystal structure for non-fluorescent chromophores obtained from the reef-building coral has been determined. There are also differently coloured pigments in non-bioluminescent Anthozoa zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate which are frequently members of the GFP-like protein family. The development of fluorescent proteins (FPs) and their applications is an outstanding example of basic science leading to practical biotechnological and medical applications. Fluorescent proteins have several applications in science and are used as important indicators in molecular biology and cell-based research. With rising interest in cell biology, FPs have used as biosensor indicators and probes in pharmacology and cell biology. Using fluorescent proteins in genetically encoded metabolite sensors has many advantages than chemical probes for metabolites such as easily introduced into any cell or organism in any sub-cellular localization and giving chance to fixing to fluoresce of different colours or characteristics. There are different factors effects to signalling mechanism when they used as a biosensor. While there are wide ranges of research have been done on the significance and applications of fluorescent proteins, the cell signalling response of FPs and target cell are less well understood. In this study, it was aimed to clarify the response of adaptive mechanisms of coral species such as pH, temperature and symbiotic relationship and target cells properties on the signalling capacity. Corals are a rich natural source of fluorescent proteins that change with environmental conditions such as light, heat stress and injury. Adaptation mechanism of coral species to these types of environmental variations is important factor due to FPs properties have affected by this mechanism. Since fluorescent proteins obtained from nature, their own ecological property like the symbiotic relationship is observed very commonly in coral species and living conditions have the impact on FPs efficiency. Target cell properties also have an effect on signalling and visualization. The dynamicity of detector that used for reading fluorescence and the level of background fluorescence are key parameters for the quality of the fluorescent signal. Among the factors, it can be concluded that coral species adaptive characteristics have the strongest effect on FPs signalling capacity.

Keywords: biosensor, cell biology, environmental conditions, fluorescent protein, sea anemone

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144 Application of XRF and Other Principal Component Analysis for Counterfeited Gold Coin Characterization in Forensic Science

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Hamideh Abolghasemi, Hadi Shirzad, Samaneh Nabavi


At world market can be currently encountered a wide range of gemological objects that are incorrectly declared, treated, or it concerns completely different materials that try to copy precious objects more or less successfully. Counterfeiting of precious commodities is a problem faced by governments in most countries. Police have seized many counterfeit coins that looked like the real coins and because the feeling to the touch and the weight were very similar to those of real coins. Most people were fooled and believed that the counterfeit coins were real ones. These counterfeit coins may have been made by big criminal organizations. To elucidate the manufacturing process, not only the quantitative analysis of the coins but also the comparison of their morphological characteristics was necessary. Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of coins. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique and the other analytical techniques for example SEM/EDX/WDX, FT-IR/ATR and Raman Spectroscopy. Using four elements (Cu, Ag, Au and Zn) and obtaining XRF for several samples, they could be discriminated. XRF technique and SEM/EDX/WDX are used for study of chemical composition. XRF analyzers provide a fast, accurate, nondestructive method to test the purity and chemistry of all precious metals. XRF is a very promising technique for rapid and non destructive counterfeit coins identification in forensic science.

Keywords: counterfeit coins, X-ray fluorescence, forensic, FT-IR

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143 Understanding Patterns of Hard Coral Demographics in Kenyan Reefs to Inform Restoration

Authors: Swaleh Aboud, Mishal Gudka, David Obura


Background: Coral reefs are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to several threats ranging from climate change to overfishing. This has resulted in increased management and conservation efforts to protect reefs from degradation and facilitate recovery. Recruitmentof new individuals are isimportant in the recovery process and critical for the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. Local coral community structure can be influenced by successful recruit settlement, survival, and growth Understanding coral recruitment patterns can help quantify reef resilience and connectivity, establish baselines and track changes and evaluate the effectiveness of reef restoration and conservation efforts. This study will examine the abundance and spatial pattern of coral recruits and how this relates to adult community structure, including the distribution of thermal resistance and sensitive genera and their distribution in different management regimes. Methods: Coral recruit and demography surveys were conducted from 2020 to 2022, covering 35 sites in 19coral reef locations along the Kenyan coast. These included marine parks, reserves, community conservation areas (CMAs), and open access areas from the north (Marereni) to the south (Kisite) coast of Kenya and across different reef habitats. The data was collected through the underwater visual census (UVC) technique. We counted adult corals (>10 cm diameter)of23 selected genera using belt transects (25 by 1 m) and sampling of 1 m2 quadrat (at an interval of 5m) for all coloniesless than 10 cm diameter. The benthic cover was collected using photo quadrats. The surveys were only done during the northeast monsoon season. The data wereanalyzed using the R program to see the distribution patterns and the Kruskal Wallis test to see whether there was a significant difference. Spearman correlation was also applied to assess the relationship between the distribution of coral genera in recruits and adults. Results: A total of 44 different coral genera were recorded for recruits, ranging from 3at Marereni to 30at Watamu Marine Reserve. Recruit densities ranged from 1.2±1.5recruit m-2 (mean±SD) at Likoni to 10.3± 8.4 recruit m-2 at Kisite Marine Park. The overall densityof recruitssignificantly differed between reef locations, with Kisite Marine Park and Reserve and Likonihaving significantly large differences from all the other locations, while Vuma, Watamu, Malindi, and Kilifi had significantly lower differences from all the other locations. The recruit generadensity along the Kenya coastwas divided into two clusters, one of which only included sites inKisite Marine Park. Adult colonies were dominated by Porites massive, Acropora, Platygyra, and Favites, whereas recruits were dominated by Porites branching, Porites massive, Galaxea, and Acropora. However, correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant positive correlation (r=0.81, p<0.05) between recruit and adult coral densities across the 23 coral genera. Marereni, which had the lowest densityof recruits, has only thermallyresistant coral genera, while Kisite Marine Park, with the highest recruit densities, has over 90% thermal sensitive coral genera. A weak positive correlation was found between recruit density and coralline algae, dead standing corals, and turf algae, whereas a weak negative correlation was found between recruit density and bare substrate and macroalgae. Between management regimes, marine reserves were found to have more recruits than no-take zones (marine parks and CMAs) and open access areas, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant difference in the density of recruits between different reef locations along the Kenyan coast. Although the dominating genera of adults and recruits were different, there was a strong positive correlation between their coral communities, which could indicate self-recruitment processes or consistent distance seedings (of the same recruit genera). Sites such as Kisite Marine Park, with high recruit densities but dominated by thermally sensitive genera, will, on the other hand, be adversely affected by future thermal stress. This could imply that reducing the threats to coral reefs such as overfishingcould allow for their natural regeneration and recovery.

Keywords: coral recruits, coral adult size-class, cora demography, resilience

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142 Investment Casting Conditions with Tourmaline In-Situ

Authors: Kageeporn Wongpreedee, Bongkot Phichaikamjornwut, Duangkhae Bootkul


The technique of stone in place casting had been established in jewelry production for two decades. However, the process were not widely used since it was limited to precious stones with high hardness and high stabililty at high temperature. This experiment were tested on tourmaline which is semi-precious gemstone having less hardness and less stability comparing to precious stones. The experiment were designed into two parts. The first part is to understand the phenomena of tourmaline under the heating conditions. Natural tourmaline stones were investigated and compared inclusions inside stones tested at temperature of 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C. The second part is to cast the treated tourmaline with ion-implanation under the stones in place casting conditions. The results showed that stones were able to tolerate as much as at 700 °C showing the growths of inclusions inside the stones. The second part of this experiment were compared tourmaline with ion-implantation and natural tourmaline using on stones in place casting process at different stone setting types. The results showed that the cracks and inclustions of both treat and natural tourmaline with stones in place casting were propagate due to high stress of metal contractions. The stones with ion-implatation were more likely tolerate to cracks and inclusion propagations inside the stones.

Keywords: stone in place casting, tourmaline, ion implantation, metal contraction

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141 Benthic Cover in Coral Reef Environments under Influence of Submarine Groundwater Discharges

Authors: Arlett A. Rosado-Torres, Ismael Marino-Tapia


Changes in benthic cover of coral dominated systems to macroalgae dominance are widely studied worldwide. Watershed pollutants are potentially as important as overfishing causing phase shift. In certain regions of the world most of the continental inputs are through submarine groundwater discharges (SGD), which can play a significant ecological role because the concentration of its nutrients is usually greater that the one found in surface seawater. These stressors have adversely affected coral reefs, particularly in the Caribbean. Measurements of benthic cover (with video tracing, through a Go Pro camera), reef roughness (acoustic estimates with an Acoustic Doppler Current Velocity profiler and a differential GPS), thermohaline conditions (conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument) and nutrient measurements were taken in different sites in the reef lagoon of Puerto Morelos, Q. Roo, Mexico including those with influence of SGD and without it. The results suggest a link between SGD, macroalgae cover and structural complexity. Punctual water samples and data series from a CTD Diver confirm the presence of the SGD. On the site where the SGD is, the macroalgae cover is larger than in the other sites. To establish a causal link between this phase shift and SGD, the DELFT 3D hydrodynamic model (FLOW and WAVE modules) was performed under different environmental conditions and discharge magnitudes. The model was validated using measurements of oceanographic instruments anchored in the lagoon and forereef. The SGD is consistently favoring macroalgae populations and affecting structural complexity of the reef.

Keywords: hydrodynamic model, macroalgae, nutrients, phase shift

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140 Coral Reef Fishes in the Marine Protected Areas in Southern Cebu, Philippines

Authors: Christine M. Corrales, Gloria G. Delan, Rachel Luz V. Rica, Alfonso S. Piquero


Marine protected areas (MPAs) in the study sites were established 8-13 years ago and are presently operational. This study was conducted to gather baseline information on the diversity, density and biomass of coral reef fishes inside and outside the four marine protected areas (MPAs) of Cawayan, Dalaguete; Daan-Lungsod Guiwang, Alcoy; North Granada, Boljoon and Sta. Cruz, Ronda. Coral reef fishes in the MPAs were identified using Fish Visual Census Method. Results of the t-test showed that the mean diversity (fish species/250m2) of target and non-target reef fish species found inside and outside the MPAs were significantly different. Density (ind./1,000m2) of target species inside and outside the MPAs showed no significant difference. Similarly, density of non-target species inside and outside the MPAs also showed no significant difference. This is an indication that fish density inside and outside the MPAs were more or less of the same condition. The mean biomass (kg/1,000m2) of target species inside and outside the MPAs showed a significant difference in contrast with non-target species inside and outside the MPAs which showed a no significant difference. Higher biomass of target fish species belonging to family Caesonidae (fusiliers) and Scaridae (parrotfishes) were commonly observed inside the MPAs. Results showed that fish species were more diverse with higher density and biomass inside the MPAs than the outside area. However, fish diversity and density were mostly contributed by non-target species. Hence, long term protection and management of MPAs is needed to effectively increase fish diversity, density and biomass specifically on target fish species.

Keywords: biomass, density, diversity, marine protected area, target fish species

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139 Occurrence of Aspidiscus cristatus (Lamarck) in the 'Marnes De Smail' from the Bellezma-Batna Range (Algeria): An Index Species for the Middle Cenomanian 

Authors: Salmi-Laouar Sihem, Aouissi Riadh


The Cenomanian formations of the Bellezma-Batna Range are yielding very diversified fossiliferous beds. Among the abundant and well-preserved fossils stands out Aspidiscus cristatus (Lamarck). This taxon is assigned to the Family Latomeandridae (Alloiteau) for the presence of six symmetry axes. The outer morphology of sampled specimens documents a low-energy environment with a high sedimentary rate and a mud-supported bottom. Its provincialism evidences some characteristic thermal gradients of the marked Tethysian climatic areas. Biometric measurements are given. Coral size increases from the North towards the southeastern Tethysian margin where waters are supposed warmer; this feature is also underlined by a frequent bio-erosion of sampled specimens. Its limited stratigraphic range makes it a good candidate for an index species for the Middle Cenomanian.

Keywords: Aspidiscus cristatus, coral, Middle Cenomanian, Batna, Bellezma, Algeria

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138 Environmental Threats and Great Barrier Reef: A Vulnerability Assessment of World’s Best Tropical Marine Ecosystems

Authors: Ravi Kant Anand, Nikkey Keshri


The Great Barrier Reef of Australia is known for its beautiful landscapes and seascapes with ecological importance. This site was selected as a World Heritage site in 1981 and popularized internationally for tourism, recreational activities and fishing. But the major environmental hazards such as climate change, pollution, overfishing and shipping are making worst the site of marine ecosystem. Climate change is directly hitting on Great Barrier Reef through increasing level of sea, acidification of ocean, increasing in temperature, uneven precipitation, changes in the El Nino and increasing level of cyclones and storms. Apart from that pollution is second biggest factor which vanishing the coral reef ecosystem. Pollution including over increasement of pesticides and chemicals, eutrophication, pollution through mining, sediment runoff, loss of coastal wetland and oil spills. Coral bleaching is the biggest problem because of the environmental threatening agents. Acidification of ocean water reduced the formation of calcium carbonate skeleton. The floral ecosystem (including sea grasses and mangroves) of ocean water is the key source of food for fishes and other faunal organisms but the powerful waves, extreme temperature, destructive storms and river run- off causing the threat for them. If one natural system is under threat, it means the whole marine food web is affected from algae to whale. Poisoning of marine water through different polluting agents have been affecting the production of corals, breeding of fishes, weakening of marine health and increased in death of fishes and corals. In lieu of World Heritage site, tourism sector is directly affected and causing increasement in unemployment. Fishing sector also affected. Fluctuation in the temperature of ocean water affects the production of corals because it needs desolate place, proper sunlight and temperature up to 21 degree centigrade. But storms, El Nino, rise in temperature and sea level are induced for continuous reduction of the coral production. If we do not restrict the environmental problems of Great Barrier Reef than the best known ecological beauty with coral reefs, pelagic environments, algal meadows, coasts and estuaries, mangroves forests and sea grasses, fish species, coral gardens and the one of the best tourist spots will lost in upcoming years. My research will focus on the different environmental threats, its socio-economic impacts and different conservative measures.

Keywords: climate change, overfishing, acidification, eutrophication

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137 The Potential of Kepulauan Seribu as Marine-Based Eco-Geotourism Site: The Study of Carbonate Platform as Geotourism Object in Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta

Authors: Barry Majeed, Eka Febriana, Seto Julianto


Kepulauan Seribu National Parks is a marine preservation region in Indonesia. It is located in 5°23' - 5°40' LS, 106°25' - 106°37' BT North of Jakarta City. Covered with area 107,489 ha, Kepulauan Seribu has a lot of tourism spots such as cluster islands, fringing reef and many more. Kepulauan Seribu is also nominated as Strategic Tourism Region In Indonesia (KSPN). So, these islands have a lot of potential sides more than preservation function as a national park, hence the development of sustainable geotourism. The aim of this study is for enhancing the development of eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu. This study concern for three main aspect of eco-geotourism such as tourism, form and process. Study for the tourism aspect includes attractions, accommodations, tours, activities, interpretation, and planning & management in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the form aspect focused on the carbonate platform situated between two islands. Primarily in carbonate reef such as head coral, branchy coral, platy coral that created the carbonate sequence in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the process aspect primarily discussed the process of forming of carbonate from carbonate factory later becomes Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the regional geology of Kepulauan Seribu has been conducted and suggested that Kepulauan Seribu lithologies are mainly quarternary limestone. In this study, primary data was taken from an observation of quarternary carbonate platform between two islands from Hati Island, Macan Island, Bulat Island, Ubi Island and Kelapa Island. From this observation, the best routes for tourist have been made from Island to Island. Qualitative methods such as depth interview to the local people in purposive sampling also have been made. Finally, this study also giving education about geological site – carbonate sequence - in Kepulauan Seribu for the local wisdom so that this study can support the development of sustainable eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu.

Keywords: carbonate factory, carbonate platform, geotourism, Kepulauan Seribu

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136 Recovery of Au and Other Metals from Old Electronic Components by Leaching and Liquid Extraction Process

Authors: Tomasz Smolinski, Irena Herdzik-Koniecko, Marta Pyszynska, M. Rogowski


Old electronic components can be easily found nowadays. Significant quantities of valuable metals such as gold, silver or copper are used for the production of advanced electronic devices. Old useless electronic device slowly became a new source of precious metals, very often more efficient than natural. For example, it is possible to recover more gold from 1-ton personal computers than seventeen tons of gold ore. It makes urban mining industry very profitable and necessary for sustainable development. For the recovery of metals from waste of electronic equipment, various treatment options based on conventional physical, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes are available. In this group hydrometallurgy processes with their relatively low capital cost, low environmental impact, potential for high metal recoveries and suitability for small scale applications, are very promising options. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology has great experience in hydrometallurgy processes especially focused on recovery metals from industrial and agricultural wastes. At the moment, urban mining project is carried out. The method of effective recovery of valuable metals from central processing units (CPU) components has been developed. The principal processes such as acidic leaching and solvent extraction were used for precious metals recovery from old processors and graphic cards. Electronic components were treated by acidic solution at various conditions. Optimal acid concentration, time of the process and temperature were selected. Precious metals have been extracted to the aqueous phase. At the next step, metals were selectively extracted by organic solvents such as oximes or tributyl phosphate (TBP) etc. Multistage mixer-settler equipment was used. The process was optimized.

Keywords: electronic waste, leaching, hydrometallurgy, metal recovery, solvent extraction

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135 The Reef as Multiple: Coral Reefs between Exploitation and Protection along the Mexican Riviera Maya

Authors: Laura Otto


Sargasso algae currently threatens both livelihoods and marine eco systems along the Riviera Maya in Mexico. While the area was previously known for its white beaches, pristine waters, and intact, colorful reefs, the algae has turned the beaches into ‘stinky stretches of sand,’ made the water brown, and has led to reef degradation causing coral colonies to die off in vast amounts. Drawing on ethnographic research in the area, this paper shows how the reef was exploited for tourism before the Sargasso algae landed, and reef protection played a minor role among hoteliers, tourists, and tour operators. However, since Sargasso began arriving in large quantities, the reef has taken on new significance. Both natural science research and the everyday handling of Sargasso along the coast show that an intact reef provides a natural barrier for the algae and keeps them from reaching the beaches. Clean beaches are important to various local actors–among them, hotel operators, tourists, environmentalists – and against the backdrop of beach commodification, reefs are now taking on new meaning. The paper consequently discusses the commodification of beaches as more-than-human entanglements and illuminates which new human-environment relationships are currently emerging in the Anthropocene.

Keywords: anthropocene, human-environment-relations, fieldwork, mexico

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